METHODS: Parents of children from birth to 17 years were recruited from two communities near Kuala Lumpur to participate in the government-run program called the Naungan Kasih Positive Parenting Program ("Protecting through Love" in Bahasa Melayu). Quantitative data from female caregivers (N = 74) and children ages 10-17 (N = 26) were collected along with qualitative interviews and focus groups with parents, children, and facilitators. The primary outcome was child maltreatment with secondary outcomes including neglect, positive parenting, acceptability of corporal punishment, harsh parenting, positive discipline, and child behavior problems. Multilevel Poisson regression and multilevel linear regression were conducted to compare baseline and post-test outcomes. Qualitative interviews and focus groups examined how participants experienced the program utilizing a thematic analysis approach.
RESULTS: Quantitative analyses found pre-post reductions in overall child maltreatment, physical abuse, emotional abuse, attitudes supporting corporal punishment, parent sense of inefficacy, and child behavior problems. There were no reported changes on positive and harsh parenting, parental mental health, and marital satisfaction, nor were there any other significant changes reported by children. Qualitative findings suggested that the program had tangible benefits for female caregivers involved in the program, with the benefits extending to their family members.
CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study is one of the few studies in Southeast Asia that examined the feasibility and initial program impact of a parenting program delivered by government staff to families with children across the developmental spectrum from birth to 17 years. Promising results suggest that the program may reduce child maltreatment across a range of child ages. Findings also indicate areas for program improvement prior to further delivery and testing, including additional training and content on sexual and reproductive health, parenting children with disabilities, and online child protection.
RESEARCH QUESTION: We aim to determine if clusters of Chinese patients with COPD exist and their association with clinical outcomes and inflammation.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Chinese patients with stable COPD were prospectively recruited into two cohorts (derivation and validation) from six hospitals across three Southeast Asian countries (Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong; n = 1,480). Each patient was followed more than 2 years. Clinical data (including co-morbidities) were employed in unsupervised hierarchical clustering (followed by validation) to determine the existence of patient clusters and their prognostic outcome. Accompanying systemic cytokine assessments were performed in a subset (n = 336) of patients with COPD to determine if inflammatory patterns and associated networks characterized the derived clusters.
RESULTS: Five patient clusters were identified including: (1) ex-TB, (2) diabetic, (3) low comorbidity: low-risk, (4) low comorbidity: high-risk, and (5) cardiovascular. The cardiovascular and ex-TB clusters demonstrate highest mortality (independent of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease assessment) and illustrate diverse cytokine patterns with complex inflammatory networks.
INTERPRETATION: We describe clusters of Chinese patients with COPD, two of which represent high-risk clusters. The cardiovascular and ex-TB patient clusters exhibit high mortality, significant inflammation, and complex cytokine networks. Clinical and inflammatory risk stratification of Chinese patients with COPD should be considered for targeted intervention to improve disease outcomes.