METHODS: Organic acid and antioxidant profiles of Xeniji fermented foods were evaluated. Moreover, oral acute (5 g/kg body weight) and subchronic toxicity (0.1, 1 and 2 g/kg body weight) of Xeniji were tested on mice for 14 days and 30 days, respectively. Mortality, changes of body weight, organ weight and serum liver enzyme level were measured. Liver and spleen of mice from subchronic toxicity study were subjected to antioxidant and immunomodulation quantification.
RESULTS: Xeniji was rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids. No mortality and significant changes of body weight and serum liver enzyme level were recorded for both oral acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Antioxidant level in the liver and immunity of Xeniji treated mice were significantly upregulated in dosage dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: Xeniji is a fermented functional food that rich in nutrients that enhanced antioxidant and immunity of mice. Xeniji that rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids promote antioxidant and immunity in mice without causing toxic effect.
Methods: In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet (HFD) and used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP. Mice were fed with HFD and challenged with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin for 1 month followed by 6 weeks of supplementation with 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg BW of FFP. Metformin was used as positive control treatment.
Results: Xeniji™-supplemented hyperglycemic mice were recorded with lower glucose level after 6 weeks of duration. This effect was contributed by the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the hyperglycemic mice indicated by the oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and end point insulin level. In addition, gene expression study has shown that the antihyperglycemic effect of FFP is related to the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in the mice. Furthermore, both 0.1 and 1 g/kg BW of FFP was able to reduce hyperglycemia-related inflammation indicated by the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB and iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide level.
Conclusion: FFP potentially demonstrated in vivo antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects on HFD and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Methods: Mice (n = 48) were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks to induce obesity, after which half were maintained on HFD and half switched to low-fat diet (LFD)while they were given normal water (H2O) or 0.1% (w/v) SCE in water at week 0-4 which was increased to 1% (w/v) at week 5-9. Effects of treatment with SCE were compared between HFDH2O, HFDSCE, LFDH2O and LFDSCE groups. Respiratory exchange ratios (RER) were measured at weeks 0, 5 and 10. Food, water intake and body weight were measured weekly. Plasma lipid profile and organ weights were determined at week 10.
Results: SCE had significantly reduced RER at week 9 (P = 0.011). Food intake, body weight, and abdominal adipose tissue weight were not altered by SCE at weeks 5 and 10. However, significant increase in plasma and liver cholesterol (P < 0.050) was observed.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that SCE induced lipolysis and body fat oxidation and increased energy expenditure. Further studies in other animal models should be done to confirm the consistency of these results.
METHODS: 4T1 cancer cells were treated with kefir water in vitro to assess its antimigration and anti-invasion effects. BALB/c mice were injected with 4T1 cancer cells and treated orally with kefir water for 28 days.
RESULTS: Kefir water was cytotoxic toward 4T1 cells at IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of 12.5 and 8.33 mg/mL for 48 and 72 hours, respectively. A significant reduction in tumor size and weight (0.9132 ± 0.219 g) and a substantial increase in helper T cells (5-fold) and cytotoxic T cells (7-fold) were observed in the kefir water-treated group. Proinflammatory and proangiogenic markers were significantly reduced in the kefir water-treated group.
CONCLUSIONS: Kefir water inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro and in vivo mainly through cancer cell apoptosis, immunomodulation by stimulating T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, and anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis effects. This study brought out the potential of the probiotic beverage kefir water in cancer treatment.