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  1. de Barjac H, Sebald M, Charles JF, Cheong WH, Lee HL
    C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie, 1990;310(9):383-7.
    PMID: 1972899
    A strain of Clostridium bifermentans individualized as serovar malaysia (C.b.m.) according to its specific H antigen is toxic to mosquito and blackfly larvae when given orally. The toxicity occurs in sporulated cells which contain, in addition to spores, proteinic parasporal inclusion bodies and feather-like appendages; the amino acid content of the inclusion bodies is similar to that of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B.t.i.) and B. sphaericus crystals. The toxicity to Anopheles stephensi is as high as that of B.t.i. and the best strains of B. sphaericus. Culex pipiens is somewhat less susceptible, and Aedes aegypti much less. Pure parasporal inclusion bodies, isolated by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients, are highly toxic to mosquito larvae. The larvicidal power is destroyed by heating at 80 degrees C or by treatment with 50 mM NaOH. It is preserved by freeze-drying. The innocuity to mice of the sporulated cells is shown by different routes of administration: force-feeding, percutaneous, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. The potential for the biological control of mosquito and blackfly larvae is suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  2. al-Khfaji, I.N., Fakhrildin, M.B., Al-Ani, I.M., Mangalo, H.H., Al-Obaidi, S.R.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of lead on concentration and motility of spermatozoa recovered from epididymis and testes in mature male offspring whose mothers were exposed to different doses and concentrations of lead acetate during gestation period. Materials and Methods: Seventy two healthy mature female mice were divided into three major groups according to the number of injections involving 1, 2 and 3 injections. Each major group was subdivided into four minor groups according to the concentration dose of (0, 25, 50 and 100) mg/Kg of lead acetate. Sperm concentration, percentage of motility and grade of activity were microscopically examined and statistically analyzed. Results: A significant reduction in the sperm functions were seen in relation to an increased in the number of injections and/or concentration of lead acetate dose as compared with the control groups. Conclusion: The toxic effects of lead acetate may interfere with spermatogenesis and metabolism of spermatozoa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Zulkipli AF, Zakaria NM, Abdikarim MH, Azlan M, Abdullah N, Nor NM, et al.
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2018 Jul;29(2):53-76.
    PMID: 30112141 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2018.29.2.5
    Macrophage apoptosis exerts an efficient mechanism in controlling intracellular infection during innate immune response against various pathogens including malaria parasites. This study was carried out to determine the apoptosis activity in mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 infected with a Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) clone and a recombinant BCG clone expressing the C-terminus of merozoite surface protein-1 (BCG-MSP1C) of Plasmodium falciparum for 48 h. In this study, a parent BCG cells was used as a control. The nuclear staining with Hoechst 33342 showed that the BCG-MSP1C cells was capable of increasing the nuclear condensation and morphological stages of apoptosis in the infected cells compared to the BCG-infected cells and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The flow cytometric analysis using Annexin-V and Propidium iodide (PI) staining confirmed that the BCG-MSP1C cells significantly increased the percentage of early apoptotic activity in the infected macrophage higher than the one stimulated by the parent BCG cells and LPS. This apoptotic response corresponded with the reduction of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression and higher p53 expression. The colorimetric assay demonstrated that the BCG cells capable of stimulating higher production of caspase-1, -3, -8 and -9 while the BCG-MSP1C cells stimulated the expression of caspase-1 and -9 in the infected macrophages, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated (intrinsic) pathway of apoptosis. In conclusion, both the BCG and BCG-MSP1C cells are capable of inducing macrophage apoptosis activity in the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1. This mechanism is important for the elimination of pathogens such as malaria parasite during the phagocytosis activity of macrophage. However, the BCG-MSP1C cells showed higher apoptosis activity than those produced by the parent BCG cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Zulkifli MM, Ibrahim R, Ali AM, Aini I, Jaafar H, Hilda SS, et al.
    Neurol. Res., 2009 Feb;31(1):3-10.
    PMID: 18937888 DOI: 10.1179/174313208X325218
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a virus of paramyxovirus family and lately has been studied for the treatment of cancer in human. In this study, we successfully determined the oncolysis potential of NDV vaccine, V4UPM tested on the human glioblastoma multiform cell line (DBTRG.05MG) and human glioblastoma astrocytoma cell line (U-87MG) in vitro and in vivo. The V4UPM strain is a modified V4 strain developed as thermostable feed pellet vaccine for poultry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Nude; Mice
  5. Zulkepli NA, Rou KV, Sulaiman WN, Salhin A, Saad B, Seeni A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):259-63.
    PMID: 21517268
    One of the main aims of cancer chemopreventive studies is to identify ideal apoptotic inducers, especially examples which can induce early apoptotic activity. The present investigation focused on chemopreventive effects of a hydrazone derivative using an in vitro model with tongue cancer cells. Alteration in cell morphology was ascertained, along with stage in the cell cycle and proliferation, while living-dead status of the cells was confirmed under a confocal microscope. In addition, cytotoxicity test was performed using normal mouse skin fibroblast cells. The results showed that the compound inhibited the growth of tongue cancer cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 0.01 mg/ml in a dose and time-dependent manner, with a two-fold increase in early apoptotic activity and G0G1 phase cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. Exposure to the compound also resulted in alterations of cell morphology including vacuolization and cellular shrinkage. Confocal microscope analysis using calcein and ethidium staining confirmed that the compound caused cell death, whereas no cytotoxic effects on normal mouse skin fibroblast cells were observed. In conclusion, the findings in this study suggested that the hydrazone derivative acts as an apoptotic inducer with anti-proliferative chemopreventive activity in tongue cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  6. Zulkawi N, Ng KH, Zamberi R, Yeap SK, Satharasinghe D, Jaganath IB, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 30;17(1):344.
    PMID: 28666436 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1845-6
    BACKGROUND: Xeniji, produced by fermenting various types of foods with lactic acid bacteria and yeast, has been commonly consumed as functional food. However, nutrition value, bioactivities and safety of different fermented products maybe varies.

    METHODS: Organic acid and antioxidant profiles of Xeniji fermented foods were evaluated. Moreover, oral acute (5 g/kg body weight) and subchronic toxicity (0.1, 1 and 2 g/kg body weight) of Xeniji were tested on mice for 14 days and 30 days, respectively. Mortality, changes of body weight, organ weight and serum liver enzyme level were measured. Liver and spleen of mice from subchronic toxicity study were subjected to antioxidant and immunomodulation quantification.

    RESULTS: Xeniji was rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids. No mortality and significant changes of body weight and serum liver enzyme level were recorded for both oral acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Antioxidant level in the liver and immunity of Xeniji treated mice were significantly upregulated in dosage dependent manner.

    CONCLUSION: Xeniji is a fermented functional food that rich in nutrients that enhanced antioxidant and immunity of mice. Xeniji that rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids promote antioxidant and immunity in mice without causing toxic effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  7. Zulkawi N, Ng KH, Zamberi NR, Yeap SK, Satharasinghe DA, Tan SW, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2018;12:1373-1383.
    PMID: 29872261 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S157803
    Background: Fermented food has been widely consumed as health food to ameliorate or prevent several chronic diseases including diabetes. Xeniji™, a fermented food paste (FFP), has been previously reported with various bioactivities, which may be caused by the presence of several metabolites including polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and vitamins. In this study, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP were assessed.

    Methods: In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet (HFD) and used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP. Mice were fed with HFD and challenged with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin for 1 month followed by 6 weeks of supplementation with 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg BW of FFP. Metformin was used as positive control treatment.

    Results: Xeniji™-supplemented hyperglycemic mice were recorded with lower glucose level after 6 weeks of duration. This effect was contributed by the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the hyperglycemic mice indicated by the oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and end point insulin level. In addition, gene expression study has shown that the antihyperglycemic effect of FFP is related to the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in the mice. Furthermore, both 0.1 and 1 g/kg BW of FFP was able to reduce hyperglycemia-related inflammation indicated by the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB and iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide level.

    Conclusion: FFP potentially demonstrated in vivo antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects on HFD and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  8. Zulfakar MH, Porter RM, Heard CM
    FEBS Open Bio, 2016 08;6(8):827-34.
    PMID: 27516961 DOI: 10.1002/2211-5463.12095
    Psoriasis is an incurable autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal red, itchy and scaly skin. This work examined the modulation of inflammation, hyperproliferation and immune cell markers following topical application of fish oil (FO) in comparison to the antipsoriatic agents, betamethasone dipropionate (BD) and salicylic acid (SA), to GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice, a hair loss mutant which also exhibits epidermal hyperproliferation akin to psoriasis. The mice were dosed with 100 mg of the test formulation and after 10 days, the mice were sacrificed, skin sections excised and subjected to immunohistochemical determination of COX-2, K17 and MAC-1; and immunofluorescence of Ki-67. Unchanged expression of the proinflammatory enzyme COX-2 was observed in all treatments, suggesting the noninvolvement of COX-2 in the aetiology of cutaneous aberration seen in GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice. Intense staining of K17 and MAC-1 in the FO-treated group mirrored the epidermal thickening seen observed in live mice by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The ratio of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 100 basal cells indicated that hyperproliferation of keratinocytes occurred in FO-treated mice and the opposite was true for BD-treated mice. There was a positive correlation (R (2) 0.995) between Ki-67 and the epidermal thickness data observed previously. In all immunochemical procedures, the combined BD, SA and FO formulation did not show any significant difference with the control group, reflecting observations seen previously. In conclusion, the epidermal changes observed following topical FO treatment on GsdmA3(Dfl)/+ mice involves an increase in cellular proliferation and macrophages, although COX-2 does not appear to play an important role.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  9. Zulfahmi S, Yazan LS, Ithnin H, Armania N
    Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 2013 Nov;65(7-8):1083-9.
    PMID: 23726752 DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2013.04.004
    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and one of the major causes of female cancer-related death worldwide particularly in developing countries. Thus far, there are a few in vivo models have been developed in investigating this type of cancer. In this study, we induced cervical cancer in Balb/c mice by exploiting the carcinogenic property of diestylstilbestrol (DES). The Balb/c pregnant mice were given subcutaneous (SC) injection of 67μg/kg body weight of DES on GD 13, and the mice gave birth approximately at gestation day 19-22. Female offspring were reared and the body weight was recorded once weekly. The female offspring were sacrificed at age of 5 months. Upon termination, blood was collected in a plain tube via cardiac puncture and the reproductive tracts were collected and weighed. The reproductive tract sections were stained using H&E for observation of pathological changes. The progression of disease state was monitored by measuring the level of serum interleukin (IL-6) using the Mouse IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit (BD OptEIA™, USA). All parameters were compared with Not-induced group. The outcome of this study demonstrated a significant difference in body weight gain, reproductive organ weight, diameter of cervix and the level of serum IL-6 in the Induced group as compared to the Not-induced group (P<0.05). Histopathological findings revealed the presence of adenosis only in the Induced group. It shows that DES could be employed as an agent to induce cervical carcinogenesis in animal model. In addition to that, new potential anti-cancer agents from various sources could be further evaluated using this technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  10. Zulazmi NA, Gopalsamy B, Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, Perimal EK
    Fitoterapia, 2015 Sep;105:215-21.
    PMID: 26205045 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.07.011
    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  11. Zulazmi NA, Gopalsamy B, Min JC, Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Mar 30;22(4).
    PMID: 28358309 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22040555
    The present study investigates the involvement of the l-arginine-Nitric Oxide-cGMP-K⁺ ATP pathways responsible for the action of anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic activities of zerumbone in chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathic pain in mice. The role of l-arginine-NO-cGMP-K⁺ was assessed by the von Frey and the Randall-Selitto tests. Both allodynia and hyperalgesia assessments were carried out on the 14th day post CCI, 30 min after treatments were given for each respective pathway. Anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone (10 mg/kg, i.p) were significantly reversed by the pre-treatment of l-arginine (10 mg/kg), 1H [1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanosyl cyclase blocker (2 mg/kg i.p.) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) (10 mg/kg i.p.) (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that systemic administration of zerumbone produces significant anti-allodynic and antihyperalgesic activities in neuropathic pain in mice possibly due to involvement of the l-arginine-NO-cGMP-PKG-K⁺ ATP channel pathways in CCI model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  12. Zin NM, Baba MS, Zainal-Abidin AH, Latip J, Mazlan NW, Edrada-Ebel R
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:351-363.
    PMID: 28223778 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S121283
    Endophytic Streptomyces strains are potential sources for novel bioactive molecules. In this study, the diketopiperazine gancidin W (GW) was isolated from the endophytic actinobacterial genus Streptomyces, SUK10, obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, and it was tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100. GW exhibited an inhibition rate of nearly 80% at 6.25 and 3.125 μg kg(-1) body weight on day four using the 4-day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice. Comparing GW at both concentrations with quinine hydrochloride and normal saline as positive and negative controls, respectively, 50% of the mice treated with 3.125 μg kg(-1) body weight managed to survive for more than 11 months after infection, which almost reached the life span of normal mice. Biochemical tests of selected enzymes and proteins in blood samples of mice treated with GW were also within normal levels; in addition, no abnormalities or injuries were found on internal vital organs. These findings indicated that this isolated bioactive compound from Streptomyces SUK10 exhibits very low toxicity and is a good candidate for potential use as an antimalarial agent in an animal model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  13. Zhuo F, Abourehab MAS, Hussain Z
    Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Oct 01;197:478-489.
    PMID: 30007638 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.023
    Nano-delivery systems have gained remarkable recognition for targeted delivery of therapeutic payload, reduced off-target effects, and improved biopharmaceutical profiles of drugs. Therefore, we aimed to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) to deliver tacrolimus (TCS) to deeper layers of the skin in order to alleviate its systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy against atopic dermatitis (AD). To further optimize the targeting efficiency, TCS-loaded NPs were coated with hyaluronic acid (HA). Following the various physicochemical optimizations, the prepared HA-TCS-CS-NPs were tested for in vitro drug release kinetics, drug permeation across the stratum corneum, percentage of drug retained in the epidermis and dermis, and anti-AD efficacy. Results revealed that HA-TCS-CS-NPs exhibit sustained release profile, promising drug permeation ability, improved skin retention, and pronounced anti-AD efficacy. Conclusively, we anticipated that HA-based modification of TCS-CS-NPs could be a promising therapeutic approach for rationalized management of AD, particularly in children as well as in adults having steroid phobia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  14. Zhou L, Wang P, Zhang J, Heng BC, Tong GQ
    Zygote, 2016 Feb;24(1):89-97.
    PMID: 25672483 DOI: 10.1017/S0967199414000768
    ING2 (inhibitor of growth protein-2) is a member of the ING-gene family and participates in diverse cellular processes involving tumor suppression, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and cellular senescence. As a subunit of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex co-repressor complex, ING2 binds to H3K4me3 to regulate chromatin modification and gene expression. Additionally, ING2 recruits histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity for gene repression, which is independent of the HDAC class I or II pathway. However, the physiological function of ING2 in mouse preimplantation embryo development has not yet been characterized previously. The expression, localization and function of ING2 during preimplantation development were investigated in this study. We showed increasing expression of ING2 within the nucleus from the 4-cell embryo stage onwards; and that down-regulation of ING2 expression by endoribonuclease-prepared small interfering RNA (esiRNA) microinjection results in developmental arrest during the morula to blastocyst transition. Embryonic cells microinjected with ING2-specific esiRNA exhibited decreased blastulation rate compared to the negative control. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism indicated that down-regulation of ING2 significantly increased expression of p21, whilst decreasing expression of HDAC1. These results suggest that ING2 may play a crucial role in the process of preimplantation embryo development through chromatin regulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  15. Zheng Y, Wang Q, Zhuang W, Lu X, Miron A, Chai TT, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Nov 02;21(11).
    PMID: 27827862
    Lotus is an edible and medicinal plant, and the extracts from its different parts exhibit various bioactivities. In the present study, the hot water-soluble polysaccharides from lotus seeds (LSPS) were evaluated for their cancer cell cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. LSPS showed significant inhibitory effects on the mouse gastric cancer MFC cells, human liver cancer HuH-7 cells and mouse hepatocarcinoma H22 cells. The animal studies showed that LSPS inhibited tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice with the highest inhibition rate of 45.36%, which is comparable to that induced by cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg) treatment (50.79%). The concentrations of white blood cells were significantly reduced in cyclophosphamide-treated groups (p < 0.01), while LSPS showed much fewer side effects according to the hematology analysis. LSPS improved the immune response in H22 tumor-bearing mice by enhancing the spleen and thymus indexes, and increasing the levels of serum cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Moreover, LSPS also showed in vivo antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase activity, thus reducing the malondialdehyde level in the liver tissue. These results suggested that LSPS can be used as an antitumor and immunomodulatory agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  16. Zhang Y, Yan W, Collins MA, Bednar F, Rakshit S, Zetter BR, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2013 Oct 15;73(20):6359-74.
    PMID: 24097820 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1558-T
    Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is almost invariably associated with the presence of an oncogenic form of Kras. Mice expressing oncogenic Kras in the pancreas recapitulate the stepwise progression of the human disease. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is often expressed by multiple cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that IL-6 is required for the maintenance and progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions. In fact, the lack of IL-6 completely ablates cancer progression even in presence of oncogenic Kras. Mechanistically, we show that IL-6 synergizes with oncogenic Kras to activate the reactive oxygen species detoxification program downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling cascade. In addition, IL-6 regulates the inflammatory microenvironment of pancreatic cancer throughout its progression, providing several signals that are essential for carcinogenesis. Thus, IL-6 emerges as a key player at all stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis and a potential therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  17. Zengin G, Rodrigues MJ, Abdallah HH, Custodio L, Stefanucci A, Aumeeruddy MZ, et al.
    Comput Biol Chem, 2018 Dec;77:178-186.
    PMID: 30336375 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2018.10.005
    The genus Silene is renowned in Turkey for its traditional use as food and medicine. Currently, there are 138 species of Silene in Turkey, amongst which have been several studies for possible pharmacological potential and application in food industry. However, there is currently a paucity of data on Silene salsuginea Hub.-Mor. This study endeavours to access its antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) was used to detect phenolic compounds, and molecular docking was performed to provide new insights for tested enzymes and phenolics. High amounts of apigenin (534 μg/g extract), ferulic acid (452 μg/g extract), p-coumaric acid (408 μg/g extract), and quercetin (336 μg/g extract) were detected in the methanol extract while rutin (506 μg/g extract) was most abundant in the aqueous extract. As for their biological properties, the methanol extract exhibited the best antioxidant effect in the DPPH and CUPRAC assays, and also the highest inhibition against tyrosinase. The aqueous extract was the least active enzyme inhibitor but showed the highest antioxidant efficacy in the ABTS, FRAP, and metal chelating assays. At a concentration of 15.6 μg/mL, the methanol extract resulted in a moderate decrease (25.1%) of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Among the phenolic compounds, epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and kaempferol showed the highest binding affinity towards the studied enzymes in silico. It can be concluded that extracts of S. salsuginea are a potential source of functional food ingredients but need further analytical experiments to explore its complexity of chemical compounds and pharmacological properties as well as using in vivo toxicity models to establish its maximum tolerated dose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  18. Zawawi N, Ismail M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):46-58.
    PMID: 30914878 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.5
    Background: Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) leaves were traditionally consumed for its body weight lowering effect. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of S. crispus leaves extract (SCE).

    Methods: Mice (n = 48) were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks to induce obesity, after which half were maintained on HFD and half switched to low-fat diet (LFD)while they were given normal water (H2O) or 0.1% (w/v) SCE in water at week 0-4 which was increased to 1% (w/v) at week 5-9. Effects of treatment with SCE were compared between HFDH2O, HFDSCE, LFDH2O and LFDSCE groups. Respiratory exchange ratios (RER) were measured at weeks 0, 5 and 10. Food, water intake and body weight were measured weekly. Plasma lipid profile and organ weights were determined at week 10.

    Results: SCE had significantly reduced RER at week 9 (P = 0.011). Food intake, body weight, and abdominal adipose tissue weight were not altered by SCE at weeks 5 and 10. However, significant increase in plasma and liver cholesterol (P < 0.050) was observed.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that SCE induced lipolysis and body fat oxidation and increased energy expenditure. Further studies in other animal models should be done to confirm the consistency of these results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  19. Zandi K, Bassit L, Amblard F, Cox BD, Hassandarvish P, Moghaddam E, et al.
    PMID: 31061163 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00397-19
    Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important arthropod-borne viruses from the Flaviviridae family. DENV is a global public health problem with significant social and economic impacts, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. JEV is a neurotropic arbovirus endemic to east and southeast Asia. There are no U.S. FDA-approved antiviral drugs available to treat or to prevent DENV and JEV infections, leaving nearly one-third of the world's population at risk for infection. Therefore, it is crucial to discover potent antiviral agents against these viruses. Nucleoside analogs, as a class, are widely used for the treatment of viral infections. In this study, we discovered nucleoside analogs that possess potent and selective anti-JEV and anti-DENV activities across all serotypes in cell-based assay systems. Both viruses were susceptible to sugar-substituted 2'-C-methyl analogs with either cytosine or 7-deaza-7-fluoro-adenine nucleobases. Mouse studies confirmed the anti-DENV activity of these nucleoside analogs. Molecular models were assembled for DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) and JEV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase replication complexes bound to nucleotide inhibitors. These models show similarities between JEV and DENV-2, which recognize the same nucleotide inhibitors. Collectively, our findings provide promising compounds and a structural rationale for the development of direct-acting antiviral agents with dual activity against JEV and DENV infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  20. Zamberi NR, Abu N, Mohamed NE, Nordin N, Keong YS, Beh BK, et al.
    Integr Cancer Ther, 2016 Dec;15(4):NP53-NP66.
    PMID: 27230756
    BACKGROUND: Kefir is a unique cultured product that contains beneficial probiotics. Kefir culture from other parts of the world exhibits numerous beneficial qualities such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and anticancer effects. Nevertheless, kefir cultures from different parts of the world exert different effects because of variation in culture conditions and media. Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women, and metastasis is the major cause of death associated with breast cancer. The antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects of kefir water made from kefir grains cultured in Malaysia were studied in 4T1 breast cancer cells.

    METHODS: 4T1 cancer cells were treated with kefir water in vitro to assess its antimigration and anti-invasion effects. BALB/c mice were injected with 4T1 cancer cells and treated orally with kefir water for 28 days.

    RESULTS: Kefir water was cytotoxic toward 4T1 cells at IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of 12.5 and 8.33 mg/mL for 48 and 72 hours, respectively. A significant reduction in tumor size and weight (0.9132 ± 0.219 g) and a substantial increase in helper T cells (5-fold) and cytotoxic T cells (7-fold) were observed in the kefir water-treated group. Proinflammatory and proangiogenic markers were significantly reduced in the kefir water-treated group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Kefir water inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro and in vivo mainly through cancer cell apoptosis, immunomodulation by stimulating T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, and anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis effects. This study brought out the potential of the probiotic beverage kefir water in cancer treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
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