Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1456 in total

  1. Toh YS, Yeoh SL, Yap IKS, Teh CSJ, Win TT, Thong KL, et al.
    Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 2019 Dec;208(6):793-809.
    PMID: 31263955 DOI: 10.1007/s00430-019-00628-3
    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The pathogen is known for its ability to form biofilm that confers protection against harsh environmental condition and as part of the colonisation process during infection. Coaggregation is a process that facilitates the formation of biofilm. In a preliminary in vitro study, high coaggregation index and biofilm production were found between V. cholerae with human commensals namely Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. Building upon these results, the effects of coaggregation were further evaluated using adult BALB/c mouse model. The animal study showed no significant differences in mortality and fluid accumulation ratio between treatment groups infected with V. cholerae alone and those infected with coaggregation partnership (V. cholerae with E. coli or V. cholerae with E. cloacae). However, mild inflammation was detected in both partnering pairs. Higher density of V. cholerae was recovered from faecal samples of mice co-infected with E. coli and V. cholerae in comparison with other groups at 24 h post-infection. This partnership also elicited slightly higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Nonetheless, the involvement of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) as the signalling molecules in quorum sensing system is not evident in this study. Since E. coli is one of the common commensals, our result may suggest the involvement of commensals in cholera development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  2. Kandasamy M, Mak KK, Devadoss T, Thanikachalam PV, Sakirolla R, Choudhury H, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):117.
    PMID: 31572984 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0633-4
    Background: The transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its principal repressive regulator, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), are perilous in the regulation of inflammation, as well as maintenance of homeostasis. Thus, NRF2 activation is involved in cytoprotection against many inflammatory disorders. N'-Nicotinoylquinoxaline-2-carbohdyrazide (NQC) was structurally designed by the combination of important pharmacophoric features of bioactive compounds reported in the literature.

    Methods: NQC was synthesised and characterised using spectroscopic techniques. The compound was tested for its anti-inflammatory effect using Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPSEc) induced inflammation in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). The effect of NQC on inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The Nrf2 activity of the compound NQC was determined using 'Keap1:Nrf2 Inhibitor Screening Assay Kit'. To obtain the insights on NQC's activity on Nrf2, molecular docking studies were performed using Schrödinger suite. The metabolic stability of NQC was determined using mouse, rat and human microsomes.

    Results: NQC was found to be non-toxic at the dose of 50 µM on RAW 264.7 cells. NQC showed potent anti-inflammatory effect in an in vitro model of LPSEc stimulated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with an IC50 value 26.13 ± 1.17 µM. NQC dose-dependently down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β (13.27 ± 2.37 μM), IL-6 (10.13 ± 0.58 μM) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] (14.41 ± 1.83 μM); and inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with IC50 values, 15.23 ± 0.91 µM. Molecular docking studies confirmed the favourable binding of NQC at Kelch domain of Keap-1. It disrupts the Nrf2 interaction with kelch domain of keap 1 and its IC50 value was 4.21 ± 0.89 µM. The metabolic stability studies of NQC in human, rat and mouse liver microsomes revealed that it is quite stable with half-life values; 63.30 ± 1.73, 52.23 ± 0.81, 24.55 ± 1.13 min; microsomal intrinsic clearance values; 1.14 ± 0.31, 1.39 ± 0.87 and 2.96 ± 0.34 µL/min/g liver; respectively. It is observed that rat has comparable metabolic profile with human, thus, rat could be used as an in vivo model for prediction of pharmacokinetics and metabolism profiles of NQC in human.

    Conclusion: NQC is a new class of NRF2 activator with potent in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and good metabolic stability.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Kumar S, Sharma D, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Shah SAA, Lim SM, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):96.
    PMID: 31355369 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0613-8
    Heterocyclic 1,3-diazine nucleus is a valuable pharmacophore in the field of medicinal chemistry and exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. PharmMapper, a robust online tool used for establishing the target proteins based on reverse pharmacophore mapping. PharmMapper study is carried out to explore the pharmacological activity of 1,3-diazine derivatives using reverse docking program. PharmMapper, an open web server was used to recognize for all the feasible target proteins for the developed compounds through reverse pharmacophore mapping. The results were analyzed via molecular docking with maestro v11.5 (Schrodinger 2018-1) using GTPase HRas as possible target. The molecular docking studies displayed the binding behavior of 1,3-diazine within GTP binding pocket. From the docking study compounds s3 and s14 showed better docked score with anticancer potency against cancer cell line (HCT116). Hence, the GTPase HRas may be the possible target of 1,3-diazine derivatives for their anticancer activity where the retrieved information may be quite useful for developing rational drug designing. Furthermore the selected 1,3-diazine compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against murine macrophages cell line. 1,3-Diazine compounds exhibited good selectivity of the compounds towards the human colorectal carcinoma cell line instead of the murine macrophages. The toxicity study of the most active compounds was also performed on non cancerous HEK-293 cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Vijeepallam K, Pandy V, Murugan DD, Naidu M
    Metab Brain Dis, 2019 12;34(6):1713-1722.
    PMID: 31396844 DOI: 10.1007/s11011-019-00477-2
    In the current study, the effect of methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa leaf (MMS) against the rewarding and reinforcing properties of ethanol using a mouse model of conditioned place preference (CPP) and runway model of drug self-administration was studied. Subsequently, the effect of MMS on dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the mouse brain was further investigated. From the data obtained, MMS (50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the ethanol-place preference in mice, which is similar to the effect observed in the reference drugs acamprosate (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and clozapine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment groups in CPP test. Likewise, the escalating doses of ethanol-conditioned mice reduced the runtime to reach goal box, infers the positive reinforcing effects of alcohol. Interestingly, MMS (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prolonged the runtime in ethanol-conditioned mice. Besides, MMS (50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o.) and reference drugs; acamprosate (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and clozapine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) treated mice significantly decreased the alcohol-induced elevated dopamine level in the NAc region of the brain. Overall, this study provides first evidence that MMS inhibits ethanol seeking behaviour in mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that Mitragyna speciosa may well be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  5. Leow CY, Willis C, Leow CH, Hofmann A, Jones M
    Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 2019 Dec;234:111231.
    PMID: 31628972 DOI: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2019.111231
    Schistosomes are parasitic blood flukes that infect approximately 250 million people worldwide. The disease known as schistosomiasis, is the second most significant tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Praziquantel is the only effective drug currently licensed for schistosomiasis and there are concerns about resistance to the drug. There has been much effort to develop vaccines against schistosomiasis to produce long-term protection in endemic regions. Surface-associated proteins, and in particular, those expressed in the body wall, or tegument, have been proposed as potential vaccine targets. Of these, annexins are thought to be of integral importance for the stability of this apical membrane system. Here, we present the structural and immunobiochemical characterization of four homologous annexins namely annexin B30, annexin B5a, annexin B7a and annexin B5b from S. mansoni. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there was no signal peptide predicted for any annexin in this study. Further analysis showed that each of all four annexin protein possesses a primary structure consisting of a short but variable N-terminal region and a long C-terminal core containing four homologous annexin repeats (I-IV), which contain five alpha-helices. The life cycle expression profile of each annexin was assessed using quantitative PCR. The results showed that the overall transcript levels of the each of four homologous annexins were relatively low in the egg stage, but increased gradually after the transition of cercariae (the invasive schistosome larvae) to schistosomula (the post-invasive larvae). Circular dichroism (CD) demonstrated that rAnnexin B30, rAnnexin B5a and rAnnexin 7a were folded, showing a secondary structure content rich in alpha-helices. The membrane binding affinity was enhanced when rAnnexin B30, rAnnexin B5a and rAnnexin 7a was incubated in the presence of Ca2+. All annexin members evaluated in this study were immunolocalized to the tegument, with immunoreactivity also occurring in cells and in muscle of adult parasites. All four recombinant annexins were immunoreactive and they were recognized by the sera of mice infected with S. mansoni. In conclusion, the overall results present the molecular characterization of annexin B30, annexin B5a, annexin B7a and annexin B5b from S. mansoni in host-parasite interactions and strongly suggest that the molecules could be useful candidates for vaccine or diagnostic development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  6. Fu TL, Ong KC, Tan SH, Wong KT
    J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 2019 Dec 01;78(12):1160-1170.
    PMID: 31675093 DOI: 10.1093/jnen/nlz103
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a known CNS viral infection that often involves the thalamus early. To investigate the possible role of sensory peripheral nervous system (PNS) in early neuroinvasion, we developed a left hindlimb footpad-inoculation mouse model to recapitulate human infection by a mosquito bite. A 1-5 days postinfection (dpi) study, demonstrated focal viral antigens/RNA in contralateral thalamic neurons at 3 dpi in 50% of the animals. From 4 to 5 dpi, gradual increase in viral antigens/RNA was observed in bilateral thalami, somatosensory, and piriform cortices, and then the entire CNS. Infection of neuronal bodies and adjacent nerves in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), trigeminal ganglia, and autonomic ganglia (intestine, etc.) was also observed from 5 dpi. Infection of explant organotypic whole brain slice cultures demonstrated no viral predilection for the thalamus, while DRG and intestinal ganglia organotypic cultures confirmed sensory and autonomic ganglia susceptibility to infection, respectively. Early thalamus and sensory-associated cortex involvement suggest an important role for sensory pathways in neuroinvasion. Our results suggest that JE virus neuronotropism is much more extensive than previously known, and that the sensory PNS and autonomic system are susceptible to infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Nik Abd Rahman NMA, Nurliyana MY, Afiqah MNFNN, Osman MA, Hamid M, Lila MAM
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Nov 29;19(1):340.
    PMID: 31783838 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2757-4
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (C. nutans) is a species of in Acanthaceae family and primarily used in South East Asian countries. C. nutans is well known as Sabah snake grass in Malaysia, and its leaves have diverse medicinal potential in conventional applications, including cancer treatments. On the basis of literature search, there is less conclusive evidence of the involvement of phytochemical constituents in breast cancer, in particular, animal tumor models. The current study aimed to determine the antitumor and antioxidant activities of C. nutans extract in 4 T1 tumor-bearing mice.

    METHODS: C. nutans leaves were subjected to methanol extraction and divided into two different concentrations, 200 mg/kg (low-dose) and 1000 mg/kg (high-dose). The antitumor effects of C. nutans extracts were assessed using bone marrow smearing, clonogenic, and splenocyte immunotype analyses. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin, tumor weight and tumor volume profiles also used to indicate apoptosis appearance. Serum cytokine levels were examined using ELISA assay. In addition, nitric oxide assay reflecting antioxidant activity was performed.

    RESULTS: From the results obtained, the methanol extract of C. nutans leaves at 200 mg/kg (P mice. Despite its promising results, the concentration of both C. nutans extracts have also reduced the number of colonies formed in the liver and lungs.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, C. nutans extracts exert antitumor and antioxidant activities against 4 T1 mouse breast model with no adverse effect and inflammatory response at high dose of 1000 mg/kg, indicating an effective and complementary approach for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  8. Liou AT, Liao CC, Chou SF, Chang YS, Chang CS, Shih C
    J. Biomed. Sci., 2019 Nov 11;26(1):93.
    PMID: 31711481 DOI: 10.1186/s12929-019-0585-y
    BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 or EV-A71) was first identified in California about half a century ago. In recent years, outbreaks of EV-A71 were prevalent worldwide, including Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, and China. Between 2008 and 2011, China alone reported 1894 deaths associated with EV-A71 infection. In mild cases, EV-A71 can cause herpangina and hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). However, in severe cases, it could cause neurological disorders, including meningitis and encephalitis. Cardiopulmonary failure is common among hospitalized children with EV-A71 infection. No effective FDA-approved therapeutics against EV-A71 are clinically available.

    METHODS: We report the establishment of an immunocompetent wild type strain 129 (wt-129) mouse model, which can be cross-species infected with human EV-A71 clinical isolates via an intraperitoneal route.

    RESULTS: One intriguing disease phenotype of this new model is the development of characteristic "White-Jade" patches in the muscle, which lost sporadically the normal pink color of uninfected muscle. Viral VP1 protein and massive leukocyte infiltration were detected in muscles with or without white-jades. We demonstrated further that hypoxia is a general phenomenon associated with white-jades in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse models. Therefore, hypoxia appears to be a feature intrinsic to EV-A71 infection, irrespective of its host's immunogenetic background. To date, no effective treatment for EV-A71 is available. Here, using this new wt-129 mouse model, we showed that timely treatment with compound R837 (a TLR7 immune modulator) via oral or intraperitoneal routes, rescued the hypoxia, limb paralysis, and death at a high therapeutic efficacy.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this new immunocompetent mouse 129 model, we observed an unexpected white-jade phenotype and its associated hypoxia. The successful treatment with TLR7 immune modulators via an oral route, provide us a new research direction for EV-A71 basic science and translational research. It remains an open issue whether R837 or its related compounds, will be a promising drug candidate in clinical trials in EV-A71 endemic or epidemic areas in the future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice; Mice, 129 Strain
  9. Nagapan TS, Lim WN, Basri DF, Ghazali AR
    Exp. Anim., 2019 Nov 06;68(4):541-548.
    PMID: 31243189 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.19-0017
    Dietary antioxidant supplements such as L-glutathione have gained considerable attention in dermatology and cosmeceutical fields. L-glutathione possesses antiaging, antimelanogenic, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of L-glutathione on melanogenesis activity and oxidative stress in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated BALB/c mice. Eighteen female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n=6), a group without UVB irradiation and L-glutathione administration; a UVB irradiated group (n=6), a group irradiated with a UVB dose of 250 mJ/cm2 for 3 min; and a treatment group (n=6), a group irradiated with UVB and treated with 100 mg/kg of L-glutathione by oral gavage. Treatment was given for 14 days, and UVB irradiation was given on days 9, 11, and 13. Oral L-glutathione significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation and elevated superoxide dismutase activity the and glutathione level. L-glutathione also inhibited melanin content and tyrosinase activity significantly (P<0.05) as compared with the UVB-irradiated group. Histopathological examination also showed that L-glutathione reduced the deposition of melanin pigment in the basal layer of the epidermis as compared with that in UVB-irradiated mice. All in all, the present study demonstrated that L-glutathione has the potential to be developed as a photoprotection agent against UVB-induced oxidative stress and melanogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  10. Ghani KA, Sudik S, Omar AF, Mail MH, Seeni A
    PMID: 31216502 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2019.117241
    Cancer is increasing in incidence and the leading cause of death worldwide. Controlling and reducing cancer requires early detection and technique to accurately detect and quantify predictive biomarkers. Optical spectroscopy has shown promising non-destructive ability to display distinctive spectral characteristics between cancerous and normal tissues from different part of human organ. Nonetheless, not many information is available on spectroscopic properties of cancer cell lines. In this research, the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) absorbance spectroscopy measurement of cultured cervical cancer (HeLa) and prostate cancer cells (DU145) lines has been performed to develop spectral signature of cancer cells and to generate algorithm to quantify cancer cells. Spectroscopic measurement on mouse skin fibroblast (L929) was also taken for comparative purposes. In visible region, the raw cells' spectra do not produce any noticeable peak absorbance that provides information on color because the medium used for cells is colorless and transparent. NIR wavelength between 950 and 975 nm exhibit significant peak due to water absorbance by the medium. Development of spectral signature for the cells through the application of regression technique significantly enhances the diverse characteristics between L929, HeLa and DU145. The application of multiple linear regression allows high measurement accuracy of the cells with coefficient of determination above 0.94.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  11. Ravishankar D, Albadawi DAI, Chaggar V, Patra PH, Williams HF, Salamah M, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2019 Nov 05;862:172627.
    PMID: 31461638 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172627
    Isorhapontigenin is a polyphenolic compound found in Chinese herbs and grapes. It is a methoxylated analogue of a stilbenoid, resveratrol, which is well-known for its various beneficial effects including anti-platelet activity. Isorhapontigenin possesses greater oral bioavailability than resveratrol and has also been identified to possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on platelet function have not been reported previously. In this study, we report the effects of isorhapontigenin on the modulation of platelet function. Isorhapontigenin was found to selectively inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 1.85 μM although it displayed marginal inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by other platelet agonists at 100 μM. However, resveratrol exhibited weaker inhibition on ADP-induced platelet aggregation (IC50 > 100 μM) but inhibited collagen induced platelet aggregation at 50 μM and 100 μM. Isorhapontigenin also inhibited integrin αIIbβ3 mediated inside-out and outside-in signalling and dense granule secretion in ADP-induced platelet activation but interestingly, no effect was observed on α-granule secretion. Isorhapontigenin did not exert any cytotoxicity on platelets at the concentrations of up to 100 μM. Furthermore, it did not affect haemostasis in mice at the IC50 concentration (1.85 μM). In addition, the mechanistic studies demonstrated that isorhapontigenin increased cAMP levels and VASP phosphorylation at Ser157 and decreased Akt phosphorylation. This suggests that isorhapontigenin may interfere with cAMP and PI3K signalling pathways that are associated with the P2Y12 receptor. Molecular docking studies emphasised that isorhapontigenin has greater binding affinity to P2Y12 receptor than resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that isorhapontigenin has selective inhibitory effects on ADP-stimulated platelet activation possibly via P2Y12 receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  12. Yap JKY, Pickard BS, Chan EWL, Gan SY
    Mol. Neurobiol., 2019 Nov;56(11):7741-7753.
    PMID: 31111399 DOI: 10.1007/s12035-019-1638-7
    The innate immune system and inflammatory response in the brain have critical impacts on the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the central nervous system (CNS), the innate immune response is primarily mediated by microglia. However, non-glial cells such as neurons could also partake in inflammatory response independently through inflammasome signalling. The NLR family pyrin domain-containing 1 (NLRP1) inflammasome in the CNS is primarily expressed by pyramidal neurons and oligodendrocytes. NLRP1 is activated in response to amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates, and its activation subsequently cleaves caspase-1 into its active subunits. The activated caspase-1 proteolytically processes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) into maturation whilst co-ordinately triggers caspase-6 which is responsible for apoptosis and axonal degeneration. In addition, caspase-1 activation induces pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of programmed cell death. Studies in murine AD models indicate that the Nlrp1 inflammasome is indeed upregulated in AD and neuronal death is observed leading to cognitive decline. However, the mechanism of NLRP1 inflammasome activation in AD is particularly elusive, given its structural and functional complexities. In this review, we examine the implications of the human NLRP1 inflammasome and its signalling pathways in driving neuroinflammation in AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  13. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Maulidiani M, Mediani A, et al.
    Food Res. Int., 2019 Nov;125:108565.
    PMID: 31554083 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108565
    Inflammation has been revealed to play a central role in the onset and progression of many illnesses. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics method was adopted to evaluate the effects of Phoenix dactylifera seeds, in particular the Algerian date variety of Deglet on the metabolome of the LPS-IFN-γ-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Variations in the extracellular and intracellular profiles emphasized the differences in the presence of tyrosine, phenylalanine, alanine, proline, asparagine, isocitrate, inosine and lysine. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed noticeable clustering patterns between the treated and induced RAW cells based on the metabolic profile of the extracellular metabolites. However, the effects of treatment on the intracellular metabolites appears to be less distinct as suggested by the PCA and heatmap analyses. A clear group segregation was observed for the intracellular metabolites from the treated and induced cells based on the orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot. Likewise, 11 of the metabolites in the treated cells were significantly different from those in the induced groups, including amino acids and succinate. The enrichment analysis demonstrated that treatment with Deglet seed extracts interfered with the energy and of amino acids metabolism. Overall, the obtained data reinforced the possible application of Deglet seeds as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  14. Csato V, Kadir SZSA, Khavandi K, Bennett H, Sugden S, Gurney AM, et al.
    Physiol Rep, 2019 Nov;7(22):e14260.
    PMID: 31782255 DOI: 10.14814/phy2.14260
    We investigated the biomechanical relationship between intraluminal pressure within small mesenteric resistance arteries, oxidant activation of PKG, Ca2+ sparks, and BK channel vasoregulation. Mesenteric resistance arteries from wild type (WT) and genetically modified mice with PKG resistance to oxidative activation were studied using wire and pressure myography. Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ transients within vascular smooth muscle cells of intact arteries were characterized using high-speed confocal microscopy of intact arteries. Arteries were studied under conditions of varying intraluminal pressure and oxidation. Intraluminal pressure specifically, rather than the generic stretch of the artery, was necessary to activate the oxidative pathway. We demonstrated a graded step activation profile for the generation of Ca2+ sparks and also a functional "ceiling" for this pressure --sensitive oxidative pathway. During steady state pressure - induced constriction, any additional Ca2+ sensitive-K+ channel functional availability was independent of oxidant activated PKG. There was an increase in the amplitude, but not the Area under the Curve (AUC) of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ transient in pressurized arteries from mice with oxidant-resistant PKG compared with wild type. Overall, we surmise that intraluminal pressure within resistance arteries controls Ca2+ spark vasoregulation through a tightly controlled pathway with a graded onset switch. The pathway, underpinned by oxidant activation of PKG, cannot be further boosted by additional pressure or oxidation once active. We propose that these restrictive characteristics of pressure-induced Ca2+ spark vasoregulation confer stability for the artery in order to provide a constant flow independent of additional pressure fluctuations or exogenous oxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  15. Han H, Chen N, Huang X, Liu B, Tian J, Lei H
    J. Biol. Chem., 2019 Oct 18;294(42):15408-15417.
    PMID: 31467081 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.010130
    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that play a critical role in transmitting signals from cell-surface molecules to intracellular protein effectors. Key PI3Ks include PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, and PI3Kδ, which are regulated by receptors. The signaling pathway comprising the PI3Ks, along with a Ser/Thr kinase (AKT), a proto-oncogene product (mouse double minute (MDM)2), and a tumor suppressor protein (p53), plays an essential role in experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a fibrotic blinding eye disorder. However, which PI3K isoforms are involved in PVR is unknown. A major characteristic of PVR is the formation of epi (or sub)-retinal membranes that consist of extracellular matrix and cells, including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, glial cells, and macrophages. RPE cells are considered key players in PVR pathogenesis. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses, we herein provide the evidence that PI3Kδ is highly expressed in human RPEs when it is primarily expressed in leukocytes. We also found that PI3Kδ inactivation through two approaches, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion and a PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor (idelalisib), not only blocks vitreous-induced activation of AKT and MDM2 but also abrogates a vitreous-stimulated decrease in p53. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PI3Kδ inactivation prevents vitreous-induced proliferation, migration, and contraction of human RPEs. These results suggest that PI3Kδ may represent a potential therapeutic target for RPE-related eye diseases, including PVR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  16. Subramaniam M, Arshad NM, Mun KS, Malagobadan S, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Biomolecules, 2019 Oct 18;9(10).
    PMID: 31635311 DOI: 10.3390/biom9100626
    Cancer development and progression are extremely complex due to the alteration of various genes and pathways. In most cases, multiple agents are required to control cancer progression. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a mouse model, the synergistic interactions of anti-cancer agents, 1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), and cisplatin (CDDP) in double and triple combinations to treat chemo-sensitize and immune-sensitize breast cancer. Changes in tumor volume and body weight were monitored. Organs were harvested and stained using hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological assessment. Milliplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine cytokine levels, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted on tumor biopsies to verify systemic drug effects. In vivo mouse models showed tumor regression with maintenance of regular body weight for all the different treatment regimens. IHC results provided conclusive evidence indicating that combination regimens were able to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa-B activation and reduce the expression of its regulated pro-inflammatory proteins. Reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-ɣ) levels were observed when using the triple combination, which indicated that the synergistic drug combination was able to significantly control cancer progression. In conclusion, ACA, MIP, and CDDP together serve as promising candidates for further development and for subsequent clinical trials against estrogen-sensitive breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  17. Liew PS, Chen Q, Ng AWR, Chew YC, Ravin NV, Sim EUH, et al.
    Anal. Biochem., 2019 Oct 15;583:113361.
    PMID: 31306622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.113361
    Phage N15 protelomerase (TelN) cleaves double-stranded circular DNA containing a telomerase-occupancy-site (tos) and rejoins the resulting linear-ends to form closed-hairpin-telomeres in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Continued TelN expression is essential to support resolution of the linear structure. In mammalian cells, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show that phage TelN, expressed transiently and stably in human and mouse cells, recapitulates its native activities in these exogenous environments. We found TelN to accurately resolve tos-DNA in vitro and in vivo within human and mouse cells into linear DNA-containing terminal telomeres that are resistant to RecBCD degradation, a hallmark of protelomerase processing. In stable cells, TelN activity was detectable for at least 60 days, which suggests the possibility of limited silencing of its expression. Correspondingly, linear plasmid containing a 100 kb human β-globin gene expressed for at least 120 h in non-β-globin-expressing mouse cells with TelN presence. Our results demonstrate TelN is able to cut and heal DNA as hairpin-telomeres within mammalian cells, providing a tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts. The TelN protelomerase may be useful for exploring novel technologies for genome interrogation and chromosome engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  18. Martins J, Brijesh S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 Oct 07.
    PMID: 31600560 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112280
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Erythrina variegata, commonly referred to as 'tiger's claw' or 'Indian coral tree' and 'Parijata' in Sanskrit, belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is a plant native to the coast of India, China, Malaysia, East Africa, Northern Australia and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In traditional medicine, 'Paribhadra' an Indian preparation, makes use of the leaves and bark of E. variegata to destroy pathogenic parasites and relieve joint pains. E. variegata is known to exhibit anxiolytic and anti-convulsant activities. Folkore medicine also suggests that E. variegata barks act on the central nervous system. However, there is a lack of data demonstrating this. The anti-depressant activity of E. variegata bark has not been reported in literature.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study focuses on previously unreported anti-depressant activity of E. variegata bark ethanolic extract (EBE) and determination of its mechanism of action possibly through regulation of monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain homogenates.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: EBE was characterized using standard protocols for phytochemical analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Anti-depressant activity of EBE (50, 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated in Swiss white albino mice using acute and chronic forced swim test (FST) models. Furthermore, the potential use of the extract as an adjunct to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram, was evaluated using the chronic unpredictable mild stress test model wherein inhibitory effects on monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B were assessed by spectrophotometric-chemical analysis in mouse whole brain homogenates.

    RESULTS: The extract showed significant reduction in immobility time periods in both acute (200 mg/kg) and chronic (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) FST models. When used as an adjunct with escitalopram (15 mg/kg), the extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed significantly greater inhibition of MAO-A and B activities when compared to escitalopram alone (30 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis of EBE revealed presence of sugars, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids and tannins. LC-MS and GC-MS analysis identified components such as 2-amino-3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylethylamine, eriodictyol, daidzein and pomiferin, N-ethyl arachidonoyl amine, inosine diphosphate, trimipramine, granisetron, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, ethyl ester, tri-TMS and dodecane, previously reported for their anti-depressant activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study thus demonstrated potential for use of the E. variegata bark ethanolic extract as an adjunct to currently available SSRI treatment. The study also identified components present in E. variegata bark ethanolic extract that may be responsible for its anti-depressant activity. Furthermore, the study thus confirms the traditional use of E. variegata barks in improving CNS function through its anti-depressant like activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  19. Mustafa I, Chin NL, Fakurazi S, Palanisamy A
    Foods, 2019 Oct 06;8(10).
    PMID: 31590464 DOI: 10.3390/foods8100456
    The effects of different drying methods, including sun-, oven-, and freeze-drying on the changes in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) rhizome were studied. Sun-, oven-, and freeze-dried ginger showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in phenolic content by 1.79, 1.53, and 1.91-fold; flavonoid content increased by 6.06, 5.27, and 4.90-fold; FRAP increased by 3.95, 3.51, and 3.15-fold; ABTS•+ scavenging activity increased by 2.07, 1.72, and 1.61-fold; and DPPH• inhibition increased by 78%, 58%, and 56%, respectively. Dried ginger also exhibited better inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharides-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7. The drying process demonstrated a positive effect on the bioactivities of ginger. The sun-dried ginger exhibited the most potent antioxidant properties with the best enhanced anti-inflammatory activity followed by the oven-dried ginger and lastly, the freeze-dried ginger.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  20. Shazali NAH, Zaidi NE, Ariffin H, Abdullah LC, Ghaemi F, Abdullah JM, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Oct 04;12(19).
    PMID: 31590332 DOI: 10.3390/ma12193251
    The aim was to isolate cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from commercialized oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose nanofibre (CNF) through sulphuric acid hydrolysis and explore its safeness as a potential nanocarrier. Successful extraction of CNC was confirmed through a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transmission infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry analysis. For subsequent cellular uptake study, the spherical CNC was covalently tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), resulting in negative charged FITC-CNC nanospheres with a dispersity (Ð) of 0.371. MTT assay revealed low degree cytotoxicity for both CNC and FITC-CNC against C6 rat glioma and NIH3T3 normal fibroblasts up to 50 µg/mL. FITC conjugation had no contribution to the particle's toxicity. Through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), synthesized FITC-CNC manifested negligible cellular accumulation, indicating a poor non-selective adsorptive endocytosis into studied cells. Overall, an untargeted CNC-based nanosphere with less cytotoxicity that posed poor selectivity against normal and cancerous cells was successfully synthesized. It can be considered safe and suitable to be developed into targeted nanocarrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
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