Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1403 in total

  1. Kumar S, Sharma D, Narasimhan B, Ramasamy K, Shah SAA, Lim SM, et al.
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):96.
    PMID: 31355369 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0613-8
    Heterocyclic 1,3-diazine nucleus is a valuable pharmacophore in the field of medicinal chemistry and exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities. PharmMapper, a robust online tool used for establishing the target proteins based on reverse pharmacophore mapping. PharmMapper study is carried out to explore the pharmacological activity of 1,3-diazine derivatives using reverse docking program. PharmMapper, an open web server was used to recognize for all the feasible target proteins for the developed compounds through reverse pharmacophore mapping. The results were analyzed via molecular docking with maestro v11.5 (Schrodinger 2018-1) using GTPase HRas as possible target. The molecular docking studies displayed the binding behavior of 1,3-diazine within GTP binding pocket. From the docking study compounds s3 and s14 showed better docked score with anticancer potency against cancer cell line (HCT116). Hence, the GTPase HRas may be the possible target of 1,3-diazine derivatives for their anticancer activity where the retrieved information may be quite useful for developing rational drug designing. Furthermore the selected 1,3-diazine compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against murine macrophages cell line. 1,3-Diazine compounds exhibited good selectivity of the compounds towards the human colorectal carcinoma cell line instead of the murine macrophages. The toxicity study of the most active compounds was also performed on non cancerous HEK-293 cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  2. Liew PS, Chen Q, Ng AWR, Chew YC, Ravin NV, Sim EUH, et al.
    Anal. Biochem., 2019 Oct 15;583:113361.
    PMID: 31306622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.113361
    Phage N15 protelomerase (TelN) cleaves double-stranded circular DNA containing a telomerase-occupancy-site (tos) and rejoins the resulting linear-ends to form closed-hairpin-telomeres in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Continued TelN expression is essential to support resolution of the linear structure. In mammalian cells, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show that phage TelN, expressed transiently and stably in human and mouse cells, recapitulates its native activities in these exogenous environments. We found TelN to accurately resolve tos-DNA in vitro and in vivo within human and mouse cells into linear DNA-containing terminal telomeres that are resistant to RecBCD degradation, a hallmark of protelomerase processing. In stable cells, TelN activity was detectable for at least 60 days, which suggests the possibility of limited silencing of its expression. Correspondingly, linear plasmid containing a 100 kb human β-globin gene expressed for at least 120 h in non-β-globin-expressing mouse cells with TelN presence. Our results demonstrate TelN is able to cut and heal DNA as hairpin-telomeres within mammalian cells, providing a tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts. The TelN protelomerase may be useful for exploring novel technologies for genome interrogation and chromosome engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Li H, Liu L, Dang M, Zhang W, Liu J
    Int. J. Neurosci., 2019 Sep 13.
    PMID: 31516045 DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1667797
    The present study was designed to explore the relative susceptibility of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived mice to global cerebral ischemic injury with the possible role of hydrogen sulfide and enzymes responsible for its production. IVF was carried to obtain pups, which were allowed to grow to the age of eight weeks. Thereafter, male mice were subjected to 20 minutes of global ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The mice obtained from other groups including normal mating; superovulation, but normal mating and normal mating, but embryo implantation were also subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. IVF-derived mice exhibited significant more injury in response to I/R injury in comparison to other groups assessed in terms of impairment in locomotor activity, development of motor in coordination, neurological severity score, cerebral infarction, apoptosis markers (caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, there was a relative decrease in the brain levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its biosynthetic enzymes viz. cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase. Interestingly, the levels of H2S and cystathionine-γ-lyase were significantly low in IVF-derived mice in basal conditions also i.e. before subjecting to I/R injury and these biochemical alterations were associated with the behavioral deficits in mice, even before subjecting to I/R injury. It is concluded that in vitro fertilization-derived mice are more susceptible to global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, which may be possibly due to decreased levels of hydrogen sulfide and its biosynthetic enzymes viz., cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  4. Nigjeh SE, Yeap SK, Nordin N, Rahman H, Rosli R
    Molecules, 2019 Sep 05;24(18).
    PMID: 31492037 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24183241
    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females globally. The tumorigenic activities of cancer cells such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and differentiation have contributed to relapse and eventual mortality in breast cancer. Thus, current drug discovery research is focused on targeting breast cancer cells with ALDH activity and their capacity to form secondary tumors. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), from lemon grass (Cymbopogoncitrates), has been previously reported to have a cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the in vivo effect of citral in targeting ALDH activity of breast cancer cells. BALB/c mice were challenged with 4T1 breast cancer cells followed by daily oral feeding of 50 mg/kg citral or distilled water for two weeks. The population of ALDH+ tumor cells and their capacity to form secondary tumors in both untreated and citral treated 4T1 challenged mice were assessed by Aldefluor assay and tumor growth upon cell reimplantation in normal mice, respectively. Citral treatment reduced the size and number of cells with ALDH+ activity of the tumors in 4T1-challenged BALB/c mice. Moreover, citral-treated mice were also observed with smaller tumor size and delayed tumorigenicity after reimplantation of the primary tumor cells into normal mice. These findings support the antitumor effect of citral in targeting ALDH+ cells and tumor recurrence in breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  5. Fatemian T, Moghimi HR, Chowdhury EH
    Pharmaceutics, 2019 Sep 03;11(9).
    PMID: 31484456 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11090458
    : Pharmacotherapy as the mainstay in the management of breast cancer suffers from various drawbacks, including non-targeted biodistribution, narrow therapeutic and safety windows, and also resistance to treatment. Thus, alleviation of the constraints from the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of classical anti-cancer drugs could lead to improvements in efficacy and patient survival in malignancies. Moreover, modifications in the genetic pathophysiology of cancer via administration of small nucleic acids might pave the way towards higher response rates to chemotherapeutics. Inorganic pH-dependent carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were utilized in this study to efficiently deliver various classes of therapeutics into cancer cells. Co-delivery of drugs and genetic materials was successfully attained through a carbonate apatite delivery device. On 4T1 cells, siRNAs against AKT and ERBB2 plus paclitaxel or docetaxel resulted in the largest increase in anti-cancer effects compared to CA/paclitaxel or CA/docetaxel. Therefore, these ingredients were selected for further in vivo investigations. Animals receiving injections of CA/paclitaxel or CA/docetaxel loaded with siRNAs against AKT and ERBB2 possessed significantly smaller tumors compared to CA/drug-treated mice. Interestingly, synergistic interactions in target protein knock down with combinations of CA/AKT/paclitaxel, CA/ERBB2/docetaxel were documented via western blotting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  6. Chen XY, Butt AM, Mohd Amin MCI
    Mol. Pharm., 2019 Sep 03;16(9):3853-3872.
    PMID: 31398038 DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00483
    The development of oral vaccine formulation is crucial to facilitate an effective mass immunization program for various vaccine-preventable diseases. In this work, the efficacy of hepatitis B antigen delivered by bacterial nanocellulose/poly(acrylic acid) composite hydrogel microparticles (MPs) as oral vaccine carriers was assessed to induce both local and systemic immunity. Optimal pH-responsive swelling, mucoadhesiveness, protein drug loading, and drug permeability were characterized by MPs formulated with minimal irradiation doses and acrylic acid concentration. The composite hydrogel materials of bacterial nanocellulose and poly(acrylic acid) showed significantly greater antigen release in simulated intestinal fluid while ensuring the integrity of antigen. In in vivo study, mice orally vaccinated with antigen-loaded hydrogel MPs showed enhanced vaccine immunogenicity with significantly higher secretion of mucosal immunoglobulin A, compared to intramuscular vaccinated control. The splenocytes from the same group demonstrated lymphoproliferation and significant increased secretion of interleukin-2 cytokines upon stimulation with hepatitis B antigen. Expression of CD69 in CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD19+ B lymphocytes in splenocytes from mice orally vaccinated with antigen-loaded hydrogel MPs was comparable to that of the intramuscular vaccinated control, indicating early activation of lymphocytes elicited by our oral vaccine formulation in just two doses. These results demonstrated the potential of antigen-loaded hydrogel MPs as an oral vaccination method for hepatitis B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Md Roduan MR, Abd Hamid R, Mohtarrudin N
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 03;19(1):238.
    PMID: 31481122 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2650-1
    BACKGROUND: Annonacin, an annonaceous acetogenin isolated from Annona muricata has been reported to be strongly cytotoxic against various cell lines, in vitro. Nevertheless, its effect against in vivo tumor promoting activity has not been reported yet. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate antitumor-promoting activity of annonacin via in vivo two-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model and its molecular pathways involved.

    METHODS: Mice were initiated with single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) (390 nmol/100 μL) followed by, in subsequent week, repeated promotion (twice weekly; 22 weeks) with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (1.7 nmol/100 μL). Annonacin (85 nM) and curcumin (10 mg/kg; reference) were, respectively, applied topically to DMBA/TPA-induced mice 30 min before each TPA application for 22 weeks. Upon termination, histopathological examination of skin, liver and kidney as well as genes and proteins expression analysis were conducted to elucidate the potential mechanism of annonacin.

    RESULTS: With comparison to the carcinogen control, Annonacin significantly increased the tumor latency period and reduced the tumor incidence, tumor burden and tumor volume, respectively. In addition, it also suppressed tumorigenesis manifested by significant reduction of hyperkeratosis, dermal papillae and number of keratin pearls on skin tissues. Annonacin also appeared to be non-toxic to liver and kidney. Significant modulation of both AKT, ERK, mTOR, p38, PTEN and Src genes and proteins were also observed in annonacin-targeted signaling pathway(s) against tumorigenesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, results of this study indicate that annonacin is a potential therapeutic compound targeting tumor promoting stage in skin tumorigenesis by modulating multiple gene and protein in cancer signaling pathways without apparent toxicity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  8. Vafaei A, Bin Mohamad J, Karimi E
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2019 Sep;33(17):2531-2535.
    PMID: 29527930 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1448810
    In this study the antioxidant and cytotoxicity activity of the Adonidia merrillii fruits were investigated using different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate and water). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extract was higher compare with other extract with respective values of 17.80 ± 0.45 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 5.43 ± 0.33 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Beside that The RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, naringin and rutin. In the DPPH, NO2 and ABTS scavenging assays, the methanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity as compared to the ethyl acetate and water extracts. The extracts exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxic activity in the assays using human hepatocytes (Chang liver cells) and NIH/3T3 (fibroblasts cell) cell lines. The findings showed the Adonidia merrillii fruit extracts to possess considerable antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. The fruit, therefore, is a potential candidate for further work to discover antioxidant and cytotoxic drugs from natural sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  9. Amran EN, Sudik S, Omar AF, Mail MH, Seeni A
    Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2019 Sep;27:380-384.
    PMID: 31301437 DOI: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.07.006
    The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between the color changes of phenol red and the growth of cancer cells, i.e., HeLa and DU145 cells, over a specific period of time. Normal mouse skin fibroblasts (L929 cells) were used as a reference. In this research, the color changes of phenol red due to the acidification of the cell culture medium from the growth of the cells over a period of nine hours showed potential colorimetric characteristics of cancer cells. The color changes of phenol red were observed using visible absorbance spectroscopy. The transformation of the absorbance spectra into coefficients of determination against the examined range of wavelengths created a distinctive spectral signature that signifies phenol red discoloration in cancer and normal cell culture lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  10. Aw-Yong KL, NikNadia NMN, Tan CW, Sam IC, Chan YF
    Rev. Med. Virol., 2019 Sep;29(5):e2073.
    PMID: 31369184 DOI: 10.1002/rmv.2073
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) from the Picornaviridae family is an important emerging pathogen causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide. EV-A71 also caused fatal neurological complications in young children especially in Asia. On the basis of seroepidemiological studies from many Asian countries, EV-A71 infection is very common. Children of very young age are particularly vulnerable. Large-scale epidemics that occur every 3 to 4 years are associated with accumulation of an immunologically naive younger population. Capsid proteins especially VP1 with the presence of major B- and T-cell epitopes are the most antigenic proteins. The nonstructural proteins mainly contribute to T-cell epitopes that induce cross-reactive immune responses against other enteroviruses. Dominant epitopes and their neutralization magnitudes differ in mice, rabbits, and humans. Neutralizing antibody is sufficient for immune protection, but poorer cellular immunity may lead to severe neurological complications and deaths. Some chemokines/cytokines are consistently found in severely ill patients, for example, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, MCP-1, IL-8, MIG, IP-10, IFN-γ, and G-CSF. An increase in white cell counts is a risk factor for severe HFMD. Recent clinical trials on EV-A71 inactivated vaccine showed >90% efficacy and a robust neutralization response that was protective, indicating neutralizing antibody correlates for protection. No protection against other enteroviruses was observed. A comprehensive understanding of the immune responses to EV-A71 infection will benefit the development of diagnostic tools, potential therapeutics, and subunit vaccine candidates. Future development of a multivalent enterovirus vaccine will require knowledge of correlates of protection, understanding of cross-protection and memory T-cell responses among enteroviruses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  11. Lee HC, Md Yusof HH, Leong MP, Zainal Abidin S, Seth EA, Hewitt CA, et al.
    Int. J. Neurosci., 2019 Sep;129(9):871-881.
    PMID: 30775947 DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1580280
    Aims: The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is one of the key regulators of pro-gliogenesis process during brain development. Down syndrome (DS) individuals, as well as DS mouse models, exhibit an increased number of astrocytes, suggesting an imbalance of neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift attributed to dysregulated JAK-STAT signalling pathway. The gene and protein expression profiles of JAK-STAT pathway members have not been characterised in the DS models. Therefore, we aimed to profile the expression of Jak1, Jak2, Stat1, Stat3 and Stat6 at different stages of brain development in the Ts1Cje mouse model of DS. Methods: Whole brain samples from Ts1Cje and wild-type mice at embryonic day (E)10.5, E15, postnatal day (P)1.5; and embryonic cortex-derived neurospheres were collected for gene and protein expression analysis. Gene expression profiles of three brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus) from Ts1Cje and wild-type mice across four time-points (P1.5, P15, P30 and P84) were also analysed. Results: In the developing mouse brain, none of the Jak/Stat genes were differentially expressed in the Ts1Cje model compared to wild-type mice. However, Western blot analyses indicated that phosphorylated (p)-Jak2, p-Stat3 and p-Stat6 were downregulated in the Ts1Cje model. During the postnatal brain development, Jak/Stat genes showed complex expression patterns, as most of the members were downregulated at different selected time-points. Notably, embryonic cortex-derived neurospheres from Ts1Cje mouse brain expressed lower Stat3 and Stat6 protein compared to the wild-type group. Conclusion: The comprehensive expression profiling of Jak/Stat candidates provides insights on the potential role of the JAK-STAT signalling pathway during abnormal development of the Ts1Cje mouse brains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  12. Ali MK, Moshikur RM, Wakabayashi R, Tahara Y, Moniruzzaman M, Kamiya N, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Sep 01;551:72-80.
    PMID: 31075635 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.04.095
    Ionic liquid (IL) surfactants have attracted great interest as promising substitutes for conventional surfactants owing to their exceptional and favorable physico-chemical properties. However, most IL surfactants are not eco-friendly and form unstable micelles, even when using a high concentration of the surfactant. In this study, we prepared a series of halogen-free and biocompatible choline-fatty-acid-based ILs with different chain lengths and degrees of saturation, and we then investigated their micellar properties in aqueous solutions. Characterization of the synthesized surface-active ILs (SAILs) was performed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The surface-active properties of the SAILs were investigated by tensiometry, conductometry, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The critical micelle concentration of the SAILs was found to be 2-4 times lower than those of conventional surfactants. The thermodynamic properties of micellization (ΔG0m, ΔH0m, and ΔS0m) indicate that the micellization process of the SAILs is spontaneous, stable, and entropy-driven at room temperature. The cytotoxicity of the SAILs was evaluated using mammalian cell line NIH 3T3. Importantly, [Cho][Ole] shows lower toxicity than the analogous ILs with conventional surfactants. These results clearly suggest that these environmentally friendly SAILs can be used as a potential alternative to conventional ILs for various purposes, including biological applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Micelles; Mice
  13. Polat OK, Uno M, Maruyama T, Tran HN, Imamura K, Wong CF, et al.
    J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 2019 Sep;30(9):1587-1603.
    PMID: 31266820 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2018070756
    BACKGROUND: TRPC6 is a nonselective cation channel, and mutations of this gene are associated with FSGS. These mutations are associated with TRPC6 current amplitude amplification and/or delay of the channel inactivation (gain-of-function phenotype). However, the mechanism of the gain-of-function in TRPC6 activity has not yet been clearly solved.

    METHODS: We performed electrophysiologic, biochemical, and biophysical experiments to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of TRPC6. To address the pathophysiologic contribution of CDI, we assessed the actin filament organization in cultured mouse podocytes.

    RESULTS: Both lobes of CaM helped induce CDI. Moreover, CaM binding to the TRPC6 CaM-binding domain (CBD) was Ca2+-dependent and exhibited a 1:2 (CaM/CBD) stoichiometry. The TRPC6 coiled-coil assembly, which brought two CBDs into adequate proximity, was essential for CDI. Deletion of the coiled-coil slowed CDI of TRPC6, indicating that the coiled-coil assembly configures both lobes of CaM binding on two CBDs to induce normal CDI. The FSGS-associated TRPC6 mutations within the coiled-coil severely delayed CDI and often increased TRPC6 current amplitudes. In cultured mouse podocytes, FSGS-associated channels and CaM mutations led to sustained Ca2+ elevations and a disorganized cytoskeleton.

    CONCLUSIONS: The gain-of-function mechanism found in FSGS-causing mutations in TRPC6 can be explained by impairments of the CDI, caused by disruptions of TRPC's coiled-coil assembly which is essential for CaM binding. The resulting excess Ca2+ may contribute to structural damage in the podocytes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  14. Tan CH, Wong KY, Chong HP, Tan NH, Tan KY
    J Proteomics, 2019 Aug 30;206:103418.
    PMID: 31201947 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2019.103418
    The Philippine cobra, Naja philippinensis, is a WHO Category 1 venomous snake of medical importance responsible for fatal envenomation in the northern Philippines. To elucidate the venom proteome and pathophysiology of envenomation, N. philippinensis venom proteins were decomplexed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and protein fractions were subsequently digested with trypsin, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and data mining. Three-finger toxins (3FTX, 66.64% of total venom proteins) and phospholipases A2 (PLA2, 22.88%) constitute the main bulk of venom proteome. Other proteins are present at low abundances (<4% each); these include metalloproteinase, serine protease, cobra venom factor, cysteine-rich secretory protein, vespryn, phosphodiesterase, 5' nucleotidase and nerve growth factor. In the three-finger toxin family, the alpha-neurotoxins comprise solely short neurotoxins (SNTX, 44.55%), supporting that SNTX is the principal toxin responsible for neuromuscular paralysis and lethality reported in clinical envenomation. Cytotoxins (CTX) are the second most abundant 3FTX proteins in the venom (21.31%). The presence of CTX correlates with the venom cytotoxic effect, which is more prominent in murine cells than in human cells. From the practical standpoint, SNTX-driven neuromuscular paralysis is significant in N. philippinensis envenomation. Antivenom production and treatment should be tailored accordingly to ensure effective neutralization of SNTX. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The venom proteome of Naja philippinensis, the Philippine cobra, is unravelled for the first time. Approximately half the protein bulk of the venom is made up of short neurotoxins (44.55% of the total venom proteins). As the only alpha-neurotoxins present in the venom, short neurotoxins are the causative toxins of the post-synaptic blockade and fast-onset neuromuscular paralysis in N. philippinensis envenomation. A substantial amount of cytotoxins (21.31%) was also detected in N. philippinensis venom, supporting that the venom can be cytotoxic although the effect is much weaker in human cells compared to murine cells. The finding is consistent with the low incidence of local tissue necrosis in N. philippinensis envenomation, although this does not negate the need for monitoring and care of bite wound in the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  15. Elshaer R, Tawfik MK, Nosseir N, El-Ghaiesh SH, Toraih EA, Elsherbiny NM, et al.
    Life Sci., 2019 Aug 30.
    PMID: 31476305 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116824
    AIMS: Leflunomide is a disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) beneficial in refractory cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Since leflunomide approval, hepatotoxicity and instructions of liver function monitoring have been recommended. The current work aimed to explore the possible role of inflammation in leflunomide-induced hepatotoxicity with a focus on the TLR4-mediated stimulation of PI3K/mTOR/NFκB pathway.

    MAIN METHODS: Forty-eight male albino mice were allocated into four different groups (n; 12 mice/group). Group (i): normal mice, Group (ii-iv) mice received escalating dosed/s of leflunomide (2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) every 48 h for eight weeks. At the end of the study, mice were sacrificed, and blood samples were collected for determination of liver enzymes. Liver samples were collected; (1) formalin-fixed for histologic examination, (2) frozen for PI3K and mTOR genes PCR assays.

    KEY FINDINGS: Results indicated a significant elevation of liver enzymes in leflunomide-treated mice (10 mg/kg); AST and ALT activities were 218.17 ± 6.83 U/L and 99.83 ± 9.82 U/L versus 130.5 ± 12.79 U/L and 44.72 ± 3.58 U/L in the vehicle group. Additionally, histopathological examination revealed higher necro-inflammatory scores in leflunomide-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry indicated dose-dependent increased staining of TLR4 and caspase 3. Furthermore, leflunomide-treated mice (5 or 10 mg/kg) showed greater staining for NFκB compared to vehicle control. RT-PCR results revealed upregulations in genes expressing PI3K and mTOR by leflunomide.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The current study highlights the possible role of TLR4-PI3K/mTOR/NFκB in the pathogenesis of leflunomide-induced hepatic injury. A better understanding of mechanisms of leflunomide-induced hepatotoxicity may be of translational implication for the predictive, preventive and therapeutic purposes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  16. Ait Abderrahim L, Taïbi K, Abderrahim NA, Alomery AM, Abdellah F, Alhazmi AS, et al.
    Toxicon, 2019 Aug 26;169:38-44.
    PMID: 31465783 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.08.005
    Microcystin Leucine-Arginine (MC-LR) is a toxin produced by the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. It is the most encountered and toxic type of cyanotoxins. Oxidative stress was shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of microcystin LR by the induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that oxidize and damage cellular macromolecules. In the present study we examined the effect of acute MC-LR dose on the cardiac muscle of BALB/c mice. Afterwards, melatonin and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were assayed and evaluated as potential protective and antioxidant agents against damages generated by MC-LR. For this purpose, thirty mice were assigned into six groups of five mice each. The effect of MC-LR was first compared to the control group supplied with distilled water, then compared to the other groups supplied with melatonin and NAC. The experiment lasted 10 days after which animals were euthanized. Biomarkers of toxicity such as alkaline phosphatase activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, reduced glutathione content, serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum sorbitol dehydrogenase were assayed. Results showed that toxin treated mice have experienced significant oxidative damage in their myocardial tissue as revealed by noticeable levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and by the reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity. Whereas, melatonin and NAC treated mice manifested lesser oxidative damages. Our findings suggest a potential therapeutic use of melatonin and N-acetyl cysteine as antioxidant protective agents against oxidative damage induced by MC-LR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  17. Chen XY, Butt AM, Mohd Amin MCI
    J Control Release, 2019 Aug 26;311-312:50-64.
    PMID: 31465827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.08.031
    The current conventional injectable vaccines face several drawbacks such as inconvenience and ineffectiveness in mucosal immunization. Therefore, the current development of effective oral vaccines is vital to enable the generation of dual systemic and mucosal immunity. In the present study, we examine the potential of pH-responsive bacterial nanocellulose/polyacrylic acid (BNC/PAA) hydrogel microparticles (MPs) as an oral vaccine carrier. In-vitro entrapment efficiency and release study of Ovalbumin (Ova) demonstrated that as high as 72% of Ova were entrapped in the hydrogel, and the release of loaded Ova was pH-dependent. The released Ova remained structurally conserved as evident by Western blot and circular dichroism. Hydrogel MPs reduced the TEER measurement of HT29MTX/Caco2/Raji B triple co-culture monolayer by reversibly opening the tight junctions (TJs) as shown in the TEM images. The ligated ileal loop assay revealed that hydrogel MPs could facilitate the penetration of FITC-Ova into the Peyer's patches in small intestine. Ova and cholera toxin B (CTB) were utilized in in-vivo oral immunization as model antigen and mucosal adjuvant. The in-vivo immunization revealed mice orally administered with Ova and CTB-loaded hydrogel MPs generated significantly higher level of serum anti-Ova IgG and mucosal anti-Ova IgA in the intestinal washes, compared to intramuscular administrated Ova. These results conclude that BNC/PAA hydrogel MPs is a potential oral vaccine carrier for effective oral immunization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  18. Ravishankar D, Albadawi DAI, Chaggar V, Patra PH, Williams HF, Salamah M, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2019 Aug 25;862:172627.
    PMID: 31461638 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172627
    Isorhapontigenin is a polyphenolic compound found in Chinese herbs and grapes. It is a methoxylated analogue of a stilbenoid, resveratrol, which is well-known for its various beneficial effects including anti-platelet activity. Isorhapontigenin possesses greater oral bioavailability than resveratrol and has also been identified to possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on platelet function have not been reported previously. In this study, we report the effects of isorhapontigenin on the modulation of platelet function. Isorhapontigenin was found to selectively inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 1.85 μM although it displayed marginal inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by other platelet agonists at 100 μM. However, resveratrol exhibited weaker inhibition on ADP-induced platelet aggregation (IC50 > 100 μM) but inhibited collagen induced platelet aggregation at 50 μM and 100 μM. Isorhapontigenin also inhibited integrin αIIbβ3 mediated inside-out and outside-in signalling and dense granule secretion in ADP-induced platelet activation but interestingly, no effect was observed on α-granule secretion. Isorhapontigenin did not exert any cytotoxicity on platelets at the concentrations of up to 100 μM. Furthermore, it did not affect haemostasis in mice at the IC50 concentration (1.85 μM). In addition, the mechanistic studies demonstrated that isorhapontigenin increased cAMP levels and VASP phosphorylation at Ser157 and decreased Akt phosphorylation. This suggests that isorhapontigenin may interfere with cAMP and PI3K signalling pathways that are associated with the P2Y12 receptor. Molecular docking studies emphasised that isorhapontigenin has greater binding affinity to P2Y12 receptor than resveratrol. Our results demonstrate that isorhapontigenin has selective inhibitory effects on ADP-stimulated platelet activation possibly via P2Y12 receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  19. Mohd Tamsir N, Mohd Esa N, Shafie NH, Hussein MZ, Hamzah H, Abdullah MA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 23;20(17).
    PMID: 31450737 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20174114
    A nanocomposite, phytic acid-chitosan-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IP6-CS-MNPs) has been used to treat colon cancer in vitro, previously. However, its potential toxicity in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of oral administration of IP6-CS-MNPs in mice. In this study, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of IP6-CS-MNPs were orally administered to two different groups of BALB/c mice, once. Additionally, the mice in the control group were given only deionized water. After 14 days of post-IP6-CS-MNPs administration, in a similar way to the untreated mice, the treated mice showed no sign of mortality and abnormalities. However, the serum urea level of mice receiving 2000 mg/kg b.w of IP6-CS-MNPs was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). The mice that received 1000 mg/kg IP6-CS-MNPs showed a significantly higher level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to the control group. However, there were no significant histopathological changes seen in the liver and kidneys of treated mice compared to the untreated group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  20. Osman AY, Kadir AA, Jesse FF, Saharee AA
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Aug 21;136:103669.
    PMID: 31445124 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103669
    Brucella melitensis is one of the leading zoonotic pathogens with significant economic implications in animal industry worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide, however, remains by far the major virulence with substantial role in diseases pathogenesis. Nonetheless, the effect of B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide on immunopathophysiological aspects largely remains an enigma. This study examines the effect of B.melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide on immunopathophysiological parameters following experimental infection using mouse model. Eighty four (n = 84) mice, BALB/c, both sexes with equal gender distribution and 6-8 weeks-old were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1-2 (n = 72) were orally inoculated with 0.4 mL containing 109 CFU/mL of B. melitensis and its LPS, respectively. Group 3 (n = 12) was challenged orally with phosphate buffered saline and served as a control group. Animals were observed for clinical signs, haematological and histopathological analysis for a period of 24 days post-infection. We hereby report that B.melitensis infected group demonstrated significant clinical signs and histopathological changes than LPS infected group. However, both infected groups showed elevated levels of interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) and antibody levels (IgM and IgG) with varying degrees of predominance in LPS infected group than B. melitensis infected group. For hormone analysis, low levels of progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were observed in both B. melitensis and LPS groups throughout the study period. Moreover, in B. melitensis infected group, the organism was re-isolated from the organs and tissues of gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems thereby confirming the infection and transmission dynamics. This report is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in relation to the immunopathophysiological aspects in a mouse model after oral inoculation with B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
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