Methods: NQC was synthesised and characterised using spectroscopic techniques. The compound was tested for its anti-inflammatory effect using Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPSEc) induced inflammation in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). The effect of NQC on inflammatory cytokines was measured using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). The Nrf2 activity of the compound NQC was determined using 'Keap1:Nrf2 Inhibitor Screening Assay Kit'. To obtain the insights on NQC's activity on Nrf2, molecular docking studies were performed using Schrödinger suite. The metabolic stability of NQC was determined using mouse, rat and human microsomes.
Results: NQC was found to be non-toxic at the dose of 50 µM on RAW 264.7 cells. NQC showed potent anti-inflammatory effect in an in vitro model of LPSEc stimulated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with an IC50 value 26.13 ± 1.17 µM. NQC dose-dependently down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β (13.27 ± 2.37 μM), IL-6 (10.13 ± 0.58 μM) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] (14.41 ± 1.83 μM); and inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with IC50 values, 15.23 ± 0.91 µM. Molecular docking studies confirmed the favourable binding of NQC at Kelch domain of Keap-1. It disrupts the Nrf2 interaction with kelch domain of keap 1 and its IC50 value was 4.21 ± 0.89 µM. The metabolic stability studies of NQC in human, rat and mouse liver microsomes revealed that it is quite stable with half-life values; 63.30 ± 1.73, 52.23 ± 0.81, 24.55 ± 1.13 min; microsomal intrinsic clearance values; 1.14 ± 0.31, 1.39 ± 0.87 and 2.96 ± 0.34 µL/min/g liver; respectively. It is observed that rat has comparable metabolic profile with human, thus, rat could be used as an in vivo model for prediction of pharmacokinetics and metabolism profiles of NQC in human.
Conclusion: NQC is a new class of NRF2 activator with potent in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and good metabolic stability.
METHODS: C. nutans leaves were subjected to methanol extraction and divided into two different concentrations, 200 mg/kg (low-dose) and 1000 mg/kg (high-dose). The antitumor effects of C. nutans extracts were assessed using bone marrow smearing, clonogenic, and splenocyte immunotype analyses. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin, tumor weight and tumor volume profiles also used to indicate apoptosis appearance. Serum cytokine levels were examined using ELISA assay. In addition, nitric oxide assay reflecting antioxidant activity was performed.
RESULTS: From the results obtained, the methanol extract of C. nutans leaves at 200 mg/kg (P mice. Despite its promising results, the concentration of both C. nutans extracts have also reduced the number of colonies formed in the liver and lungs.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, C. nutans extracts exert antitumor and antioxidant activities against 4 T1 mouse breast model with no adverse effect and inflammatory response at high dose of 1000 mg/kg, indicating an effective and complementary approach for cancer prevention and treatment.
METHODS: We report the establishment of an immunocompetent wild type strain 129 (wt-129) mouse model, which can be cross-species infected with human EV-A71 clinical isolates via an intraperitoneal route.
RESULTS: One intriguing disease phenotype of this new model is the development of characteristic "White-Jade" patches in the muscle, which lost sporadically the normal pink color of uninfected muscle. Viral VP1 protein and massive leukocyte infiltration were detected in muscles with or without white-jades. We demonstrated further that hypoxia is a general phenomenon associated with white-jades in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse models. Therefore, hypoxia appears to be a feature intrinsic to EV-A71 infection, irrespective of its host's immunogenetic background. To date, no effective treatment for EV-A71 is available. Here, using this new wt-129 mouse model, we showed that timely treatment with compound R837 (a TLR7 immune modulator) via oral or intraperitoneal routes, rescued the hypoxia, limb paralysis, and death at a high therapeutic efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: In this new immunocompetent mouse 129 model, we observed an unexpected white-jade phenotype and its associated hypoxia. The successful treatment with TLR7 immune modulators via an oral route, provide us a new research direction for EV-A71 basic science and translational research. It remains an open issue whether R837 or its related compounds, will be a promising drug candidate in clinical trials in EV-A71 endemic or epidemic areas in the future.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study focuses on previously unreported anti-depressant activity of E. variegata bark ethanolic extract (EBE) and determination of its mechanism of action possibly through regulation of monoamine oxidase activity in mouse brain homogenates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: EBE was characterized using standard protocols for phytochemical analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Anti-depressant activity of EBE (50, 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) was evaluated in Swiss white albino mice using acute and chronic forced swim test (FST) models. Furthermore, the potential use of the extract as an adjunct to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram, was evaluated using the chronic unpredictable mild stress test model wherein inhibitory effects on monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B were assessed by spectrophotometric-chemical analysis in mouse whole brain homogenates.
RESULTS: The extract showed significant reduction in immobility time periods in both acute (200 mg/kg) and chronic (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) FST models. When used as an adjunct with escitalopram (15 mg/kg), the extract (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed significantly greater inhibition of MAO-A and B activities when compared to escitalopram alone (30 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis of EBE revealed presence of sugars, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids and tannins. LC-MS and GC-MS analysis identified components such as 2-amino-3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylethylamine, eriodictyol, daidzein and pomiferin, N-ethyl arachidonoyl amine, inosine diphosphate, trimipramine, granisetron, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, ethyl ester, tri-TMS and dodecane, previously reported for their anti-depressant activity.
CONCLUSIONS: The study thus demonstrated potential for use of the E. variegata bark ethanolic extract as an adjunct to currently available SSRI treatment. The study also identified components present in E. variegata bark ethanolic extract that may be responsible for its anti-depressant activity. Furthermore, the study thus confirms the traditional use of E. variegata barks in improving CNS function through its anti-depressant like activity.