RESULTS: Men and boys trafficked for fishing (aged 12-55) were mainly from Cambodia (n = 217) and Myanmar (n = 55). Common physical health problems included dizzy spells (30.2%), exhaustion (29.5%), headaches (28.4%) and memory problems (24.0%). Nearly one-third (29.1%) reported pain in three or more areas of their body and one-quarter (26.9%) reported being in "poor" health. Physical health symptoms were strongly associated with: severe violence; injuries; engagement in long-haul fishing; immigration detention or symptoms of mental health disorders. Survivors were exposed to multiple work hazards and were perceived as disposable when disabled by illness or injuries. Employers struggled to apply internationally recommended Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) practices in Thailand. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) encountered challenges when trying to obtain healthcare for uninsured fishermen. Challenges included fee payment, service provision in native languages and officials siding with employers in disputes over treatment costs and accident compensation. Survivors' post-trafficking concerns included: money problems (75.9%); guilt and shame (33.5%); physical health (33.5%) and mental health (15.3%).
CONCLUSION: Fishermen in this region are exposed to very serious risks to their health and safety, and their illnesses and injuries often go untreated. Men who enter the fishing industry in Thailand, especially migrant workers, require safe working conditions and targeted protections from human trafficking. Survivors of the crime of sea slavery must be provided with the compensation they deserve and the care they need, especially psychological support.
CASE PRESENTATION: 55 year old gentlemen presented with generalised pruritic erythematous rash on trunk and extremities. Six weeks prior to his consultation, antiviral agent entecavir was commenced for his chronic hepatitis B infection. Skin biopsy revealed acanthosis and focal lymphocytes with moderate perivascular lymphocyte infiltration. Skin condition recovered completely after caesation of offending drug and short course of oral corticosteroids.
CONCLUSION: This case highlight the awareness of clinicians on the spectrum of cutaneous drug reaction related to entecavir therapy.
RESEARCH QUESTION: We aim to determine if clusters of Chinese patients with COPD exist and their association with clinical outcomes and inflammation.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Chinese patients with stable COPD were prospectively recruited into two cohorts (derivation and validation) from six hospitals across three Southeast Asian countries (Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong; n = 1,480). Each patient was followed more than 2 years. Clinical data (including co-morbidities) were employed in unsupervised hierarchical clustering (followed by validation) to determine the existence of patient clusters and their prognostic outcome. Accompanying systemic cytokine assessments were performed in a subset (n = 336) of patients with COPD to determine if inflammatory patterns and associated networks characterized the derived clusters.
RESULTS: Five patient clusters were identified including: (1) ex-TB, (2) diabetic, (3) low comorbidity: low-risk, (4) low comorbidity: high-risk, and (5) cardiovascular. The cardiovascular and ex-TB clusters demonstrate highest mortality (independent of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease assessment) and illustrate diverse cytokine patterns with complex inflammatory networks.
INTERPRETATION: We describe clusters of Chinese patients with COPD, two of which represent high-risk clusters. The cardiovascular and ex-TB patient clusters exhibit high mortality, significant inflammation, and complex cytokine networks. Clinical and inflammatory risk stratification of Chinese patients with COPD should be considered for targeted intervention to improve disease outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: Parents' perceptions of being parented in the past and their current parenting as well as adolescents' perceptions of current parenting were explored applying a multi-method approach.
METHODS: Following written informed consent, a total of 24 interviews with 10 families (dyads of 14 parents and ten adolescents) from Udupi taluk in southern India was conducted. In the first stage, in-depth interviews were conducted with parent participants (Generation 1 (G1)) and in the second stage, adolescents (Generation 2 (G2)) participated in the photovoice component. Multiple forms of data including photographs, journals and interviews facilitated using the SHOWeD model were collected and were analysed thematically using ATLAS.ti(v.8).
RESULTS: Subtle changes in reinforcing culture-specific gender norms between generations were elicited. Differences in communication, granting autonomy to female adolescents, and in disciplining methods between G1 and G2 were observed. Warm parenting was transmitted between generations while harsh parenting in G1 in the presence of external social support was discarded in favor of warm parenting in G2.
CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for perceptions of parenting and adolescent behaviors across two generations. Transmission of warm parenting and interruption in the cycle of harsh parenting in the presence of external social support were significant findings. Related theoretical and methodological applications are discussed.