METHODS: A total of 20 healthy volunteers were challenged with 3 test meals, similar in fat content (~31% en) but varying in saturated SFA content and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios (P/S). The 3 meals were lauric + myristic acid-rich (LM), P/S 0.19; palmitic acid-rich (POL), P/S 0.31; and stearic acid-rich (STE), P/S 0.22. Blood was sampled at fasted baseline and 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours. Plasma lipids (triacylglycerol [TAG]) and lipoproteins (TC, LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C]) were evaluated.
RESULTS: Varying SFA in the test meal significantly impacted postprandial TAG response (p < 0.05). Plasma TAG peaked at 5 hours for STE, 4 hours for POL, and 2 hours for LM test meals. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for plasma TAG was increased significantly after STE treatment (STE > LM by 32.2%, p = 0.003; STE > POL by 27.9%, p = 0.023) but was not significantly different between POL and LM (POL > LM by 6.0%, p > 0.05). At 2 hours, plasma HDL-C increased significantly after the LM and POL test meals compared with STE (p < 0.05). In comparison to the STE test meal, HDL-C AUC was elevated 14.0% (p = 0.005) and 7.6% (p = 0.023) by the LM and POL test meals, respectively. The TC response was also increased significantly by LM compared with both POL and STE test meals (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Chain length of saturates clearly mediated postmeal plasma TAG and HDL-C changes.
METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling. Furthermore, to analyze pharmacological effectiveness in skin cancer and controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects, imiquimod-fish oil combination was tested in vitro on epidermoid carcinoma cells and in vivo in Swiss albino mice cancer model.
RESULTS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigels exhibited higher drug availability inside the skin as compared to individual imiquimod hydrogel and oleogel controls through quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Imiquimod-fish oil combination in bigel enhanced the antitumor effects and significantly reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and reducing tumor progression via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Imiquimod-fish oil combination also resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which could also aid anti-tumor activity against skin cancer.
CONCLUSION: Imiquimod administration through a bigel vehicle along with fish oil could be beneficial for controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects and in the treatment of skin cancer.
METHODS: Animals were divided into three groups: (i) normal non-diabetic (NDM), (ii) diabetic treated (tocotrienol-rich fractions - TRF) and (iii) diabetic untreated (non-TRF). The treatment group received oral administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions (200 mg/kg body weight) daily for eight weeks. The normal non-diabetic and the diabetic untreated groups were fed standard rat feed. Blood glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and morphological changes of the thoracic aorta were evaluated.
RESULTS: Tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment reduced serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group also showed significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, as compared to the untreated group. The tocotrienol-rich fractions group had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared to the untreated group. Superoxide dismutase activity and levels of vitamin C in plasma were increased in tocotrienol-rich fractions-treated rats. The levels of plasma and aorta malondealdehyde + 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4-HNE) and oxidative DNA damage were significant following tocotrienol-rich fractions treatment. Electron microscopic examination showed that the normal morphology of the thoracic aorta was disrupted in STZ-diabetic rats. Tocotrienol-rich fractions supplementation resulted in a protective effect on the vessel wall.
CONCLUSION: These results show that tocotrienol-rich fractions lowers the blood glucose level and improves dyslipidemia. Levels of oxidative stress markers were also reduced by administration of tocotrienol-rich fractions. Vessel wall integrity was maintained due to the positive effects mediated by tocotrienol-rich fractions.
METHODS: Subjects underwent a randomized double-blind crossover trial, consuming diets supplemented with 20 g/day of either soybean oil-based mayonnaise (SB-mayo) or palm olein-based mayonnaise (PO-mayo) for 4 weeks each with a 2-week wash-out period. The magnitude of changes for metabolic outcomes between dietary treatments was compared with PO-mayo serving as the control. The data was analyzed by ANCOVA using the GLM model. Analysis was adjusted for weight changes.
RESULTS: Treatments resulted in significant reductions in TC (diff = -0.25 mmol/L; P = 0.001), LDL-C (diff = -0.17 mmol/L; P = 0.016) and HDL-C (diff = -0.12 mmol/L; P 0.05). Lipoprotein particle change was significant with large LDL particles increasing after PO-mayo (diff = +63.2 nmol/L; P = 0.007) compared to SB-mayo but small LDL particles remained unaffected. Plasma glucose, apolipoproteins and oxidative stress markers remained unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS: Daily use with 20 g of linoleic acid-rich SB-mayo elicited reductions in TC and LDL-C concentrations without significantly changing LDL-C:HDL-C ratio or small LDL particle distributions compared to the PO-mayo diet.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the National Medical Research Register, National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, (NMRR-15-40-24035; registered on 29/01/2015; https://www.nmrr.gov.my/fwbPage.jsp?fwbPageId=ResearchISRForm&fwbAction=Update&fwbStep=10&pk.researchID=24035&fwbVMenu=3&fwbResearchAction=Update ). Ethical approval was obtained from the National University of Malaysia's Medical Ethics Committee (UKM 188.8.131.52/244/SPP/NN-054-2011, approved on 25/05/2011).