A study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of enhanced virgin coconut oil (EVCO) and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) plant against strongyle nematodes in goats. Two preparations of 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% virgin coconut oil and 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% palm oil, were given orally to two groups of mixed breeds goats. The efficacy test indicated that EVCO was insufficiently active as an anthelmintic. Four concentrations of senduduk solution (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg ml(-1)) were compared with a control and albendazole in an in vitro test for larvicidal effect. There was no significant larval mortality using senduduk solution. An in vivo test of senduduk was conducted by comparing three groups of goats, namely control, levamisole and treatment groups that were given a daily oral dose of senduduk crude extract with 1g kg(-1) from Day 0 to Day 12 and 2 g kg(-1) from Day 13 to Day 30. This efficacy test with senduduk also gave negative results. The findings obtained indicated that EVCO and senduduk were ineffective as anthelmintics against caprinestrongyle nematodes at the concentrations used.
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus serves as an important ectoparasite of livestock and a vector of several pathogens resulting in diseases, subsequently affecting the agricultural field as well as the economy. The extensive use of synthetic acaricides is known to cause resistance over time and therefore a much safer, effective and environmentally friendly alternative to overcome tick infestation should be implemented. Larval immersion tests (LIT) were done to evaluate the effects of Citrus hystrix (Family: Rutaceae) and Cymbopogon citratus (Family: Poaceae) essential oils (EOs) for their individual and combined (1:1) acaricidal activity against the cattle tick. Results showed that LC50 and LC90 values in 24 and 48 hours for Cit. hystrix EO were 11.98% and 24.84%, and 10.95% and 21.71% respectively. LC50 and LC90 values for Cym. citratus EO were 1.21% and 6.28%, and 1.05% and 6.12% respectively. The mixture of EOs from two plants in 1:1 ratio (Cit. hystrix 50%: Cym. citratus 50%) was found to exhibit antagonistic effect (synergistic factor < 1). The 24 hours and 48 hours LC50 and LC90 values for combined EOs were 1.52% and 2.84%, and 1.50% and 2.76% respectively. Individual and combined essential oils were subjected to qualitative analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to screen the chemical components present in EOs. Our results showed that the combination of Cit. hystrix and Cym. citratus at 1:1 ratio resulted in an antagonistic effect and the use of Cym. citratus alone is more toxic to R. (B.) microplus, making it a better alternative to chemical based acaricide.
The present study was conducted to detect the therapeutic effect of Moringa oleifera and Thymus vulgaris oils on hepatic coccidiosis in experimentally infected rabbits. Also, immunomodulatory effect of the two oils was detected. Twenty-four Newzealand rabbits were used in this study and divided into 4 groups; healthy rabbits, experimentally infected rabbits with Eimeria stiedae oocysts, and two infected treated groups (one with moringa (200 mg/kg) and the other with thyme (500 mg/kg) oils). The results showed highly significant reduction in oocysts shedding (P<0.001 and P<0.05) in the two infected and treated rabbits than the infected non-treated rabbits in almost all days post infection (PI). Thyme oil was more potent and stopped oocysts shedding earlier at the day 34 PI compared to moringa oil at the day 41 PI. Microscopically, there was a damage in the oocysts shed by treated rabbits. Macroscopically, the livers of thyme oil treated rabbits showed more enhancement with protection percentage 75% than those treated with moringa oil in which protection percentage was 55%. The highest titer of antibodies was detected in moringa oil treated rabbits. It was concluded that both moringa and thyme oils had an anti-coccidial effect with thyme oil superiority. So, thyme oil could be useful as an alternative product for the control of rabbit coccidiosis.
Okara, soybean waste from tofu and soymilk production, was utilised as a natural antioxidant in soap formulation for stratum corneum application. D-optimal mixture design was employed to investigate the influence of the main compositions of okara soap containing different fatty acid and oils (virgin coconut oil A (24-28% w/w), olive oil B (15-20% w/w), palm oil C (6-10% w/w), castor oil D (15-20% w/w), cocoa butter E (6-10% w/w), and okara F (2-7% w/w)) by saponification process on the response hardness of the soap. The experimental data were utilized to carry out analysis of variance (ANOVA) and to develop a polynomial regression model for okara soap hardness in terms of the six design factors considered in this study. Results revealed that the best mixture was the formulation that included 26.537% A, 19.999% B, 9.998% C, 16.241% D, 7.633% E, and 7.000% F. The results proved that the difference in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation significantly affects the hardness of soap. Depending on the desirable level of those six variables, creation of okara based soap with desirable properties better than those of commercial ones is possible.
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 10⁵ ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 10⁵ ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.
Oxidization of dietary cooking oil increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension by increasing the formation oxidative oxygen radicals. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitrites, and vascular reactivity. Nitrites were measured, as an indirect marker for nitric oxide production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group fed with basal diet and other three groups fortified with 15% weight/weight fresh palm oil (FPO), palm oil heated five times (5HPO) or palm oil heated ten times (10HPO) for 24 weeks. The oil was heated to 180 degrees C for 10 min. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and at intervals of four weeks for 24 weeks using non-invasive tail-cuff method. Following 24 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and thoracic aortas were dissected for measurement of vascular reactivity. Blood pressure was elevated significantly (p < 0.05) in 5HPO and 10HPO groups, with the 10HPO group showing higher values. Aortic rings from animals fed with heated oil showed diminished relaxation in response to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, and greater contraction to phenylephrine. Acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside cause endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation, respectively. Relaxation responses remained unaltered in the FPO group, with the attenuated contractile response to phenylephrine, compared to control group. FPO increased plasma nitrites by 28%, whereas 5HPO and 10HPO reduced them by 25% and 33%, respectively. Intake of repeatedly heated palm oil causes an increase in blood pressure, which may be accounted for by the attenuated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant response.
Large quantities of agro-based liquid wastes are produced every year and their disposal is often a problem for industries. In light of that, in this study prudent effort was done to screen the agro-industrial wastes - pineapple waste (PAW) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) for valuable biophenols product. Three different solvents; ethanol, acetone and distilled water were screened in order to enhance the process. All experiments were performed using fixed process conditions of solid to solvent ratio, temperatures, time and agitation speed. Effectiveness of extraction process to produce biophenol was based on high amount with more activity. POME was selected as potential source with biophenol content of 125.42 mg/L GAE.
A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in comparison with the traditional sources of saturated fats such as coconut oil, dairy and animal fats. In addition, palm oil consumption may raise HDL levels and reduce platelet aggregability. As with all nutrients, there is a need to obtain a balance of different fatty acids found in fats in edible oils and other food sources. There is no single ideal source of fat that answers to the recent American Heart Association's call to reflect a 1:1:1 ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in relation to the recommended dietary fat intake of 30% of calories or less.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
The effect of a capsulated palm-oil-vitamin E concentrate (palmvitee) on human serum and lipoprotein lipids was assessed. Each palmvitee capsule contains approximately 18, approximately 42, and approximately 240 mg of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and palm olein, respectively. All volunteers took one palmvitee capsule per day for 30 consecutive days. Overnight fasting blood was taken from each volunteer before and after the experiment. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed by using the enzymatic CHOD-PAP method. Our results showed that palmvitee lowered both serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in all the volunteers. The magnitude of reduction of serum TC ranged from 5.0% to 35.9% whereas the reduction of LDL-C values ranged from 0.9% to 37.0% when compared with their respective starting values. The effect of palmvitee on triglycerides (TGs) and HDL-C was not consistent. Our results show that the palmvitee has a hypocholesterolemic effect.
Previous cell-based and animal studies showed mixed tocotrienols are neuroprotective, but the effect is yet to be proven in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of mixed tocotrienols in humans with white matter lesions (WMLs). WMLs are regarded as manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, reflecting varying degrees of neurodegeneration and tissue damage with potential as a surrogate end point in clinical trials.
Oxidative stress has significant role in pathophysiology of any kind of depression through actions of free radicals, non-radical molecules, and unbalancing antioxidant systems in body. In the current study, antidepressant responses of fish oil (FO), Neptune krill oil (NKO), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), and also imipramine (IMP) as the reference were studied. Natural light was employed to induce stress in the animals followed by oral administration of the drugs for 14 days. The antidepressant effect was assessed by tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers were then measured in the brain tissue of the animals. The administration of FO and NKO could significantly reduce the immobility of the animals; while, increasing climbing and swimming time compared to the normal saline in CUS-control group in TST and FST, similarly to IMP but not with Vit B12. Vit B12 could not effect on SOD activity and H2O2 level, but, cause decrease of the malondialdihydric (MDA) level and CAT activity, as well as increased the GPx and GSH activities. The rest treatments led to decrease of MDA, H2O2 levels and CAT activity and increase of GPx, SOD, GSH activities.
Misuse of antibiotics in the clinical and agricultural sectors has caused the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae which contributes a threat to human health. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of lavender essential oil (LVO) as an antimicrobial agent in combinatory therapy with meropenem in suppressing the growth of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP). Synergistic interactions between LVO and meropenem were detected, which significantly reduce the inhibitory concentration of both LVO and meropenem by 15 and 4-fold respectively. Comparative proteomic profiling identified a disruption in the bacterial membrane via oxidative stress that was indicated by loss of membrane and cytoplasmic proteins and the upregulation of oxidative regulators. As a proof of concept, zeta potential measurements showed a change in cell surface charge while outer membrane permeability measurement indicated an increase in membrane permeability following exposure to LVO. This was indicative of a disrupted outer membrane. Ethidium bromide influx/efflux assays demonstrated no significant efflux pump inhibition by LVO, and scanning electron microscopy revealed irregularities on the cell surface after exposure to LVO. Oxidative stress was also detected with increased level of ROS and lipid peroxidation in LVO-treated cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that LVO induced oxidative stress in K. pneumoniae which oxidizes the outer membrane, enabling the influx of generated ROS, LVO and meropenem into the bacterial cells, causing damage to the cells and eventually death.
This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.
Matched MeSH terms: Fish Oils/pharmacology; Plant Oils/pharmacology
Phenylhydrazine, a hemolytic agent, is widely used as a model of experimental hyperbilirubinemia. Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) was shown to exert beneficial effects in hyperbilirubinemic rat neonates.
Bioassay guided fractionation of the roots of Cyathostemma argenteum using the brine shrimp resulted in the isolation of two uncommon flavanones, 2,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy flavanone 1 and 2,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavanone 2 while the stem bark yielded the related compounds 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy flavone 3 and 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy flavone 4. The alkaloids liriodenine 5 and discretamine 6 as well as benzyl benzoate 7 were isolated from the roots and 6 was also isolated from the stembark. In cytotoxicity tests using four human breast cancer cell lines, 1 and 2 were weakly toxic to MCF-7 cells (IC(50) = 19.6 and 19.0 microM, respectively) but showed little activity against MCF-7 cells resistant to doxorubicin or against two oestrogen receptor-deficient cell lines. Compound 5, but not 6 and 7, was moderately cytotoxic against all four cell lines. These results are discussed in the context of the traditional use of C. argenteum in the treatment of breast cancer.
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the initiation and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. The present study evaluated the hypocholesterolemic effect of virgin avocado oil (VAO) using urinary metabolomic method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-cholesterol diet for four weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia. After confirming the establishment of hypercholesterolemia model, the VAO (450 and 900 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) and simvastatin (10 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) were given orally while maintaining the high-cholesterol diet for another four weeks. Assessment of urinary metabolomics using NMR revealed that VAO treatment could partially recover the metabolism dysfunction induced by hypercholesterolemia mainly via lipid, energy, amino acid, and gut microbiota metabolism.
In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance.
Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed.