Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clinical characteristics in hypertensive patients according to the criteria of the new International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition. Hypertensive patients were recruited from the Medical Out-Patient Department, Kuantan Hospital. The five components of metabolic syndrome were examined which included blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg), fasting glucose (≥5.6mmol/L), fasting triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (80cm). Out of 139 hypertensive patients, there were 113 met all the selection criteria consisted of 61 male and 52 female subjects. The participants’ age ranged from 21 to 91 years (51.9±16.8 years; mean±SD), and body mass index 13.5-42.3 kg/m2 (27.5±4.9 kg/m2). According to the IDF criteria, the prevalence of central obesity was 67.2% in men and 84.6% in women. Among the 113 hypertensive subjects over 21 years of age, 51 subjects or 45.1% had metabolic syndrome. The present data revealed that there was high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysian hypertensive subjects. This finding was supported by the fact of high prevalence of central obesity among the study subjects.
Study site: Medical clinic, Hospital Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Evidence to guide policymakers in developing affordable and equitable cancer control plans are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
METHODS: The 2012-2014 ASEAN Costs in Oncology Study prospectively followed-up 9513 newly diagnosed cancer patients from eight LMIC in Southeast Asia for 12 months. Overall and country-specific incidence of financial catastrophe (out-of-pocket health costs ≥ 30% of annual household income), economic hardship (inability to make necessary household payments), poverty (living below national poverty line), and all-cause mortality were determined. Stepwise multinomial regression was used to estimate the extent to which health insurance, cancer stage and treatment explained these outcomes.
RESULTS: The one-year incidence of mortality (12% in Malaysia to 45% in Myanmar) and financial catastrophe (24% in Thailand to 68% in Vietnam) were high. Economic hardship was reported by a third of families, including inability to pay for medicines (45%), mortgages (18%) and utilities (12%), with 28% taking personal loans, and 20% selling assets (not mutually exclusive). Out of households that initially reported incomes above the national poverty levels, 4·9% were pushed into poverty at one year. The adverse economic outcomes in this study were mainly attributed to medical costs for inpatient/outpatient care, and purchase of drugs and medical supplies. In all the countries, cancer stage largely explained the risk of adverse outcomes. Stage-stratified analysis however showed that low-income patients remained vulnerable to adverse outcomes even when diagnosed with earlier cancer stages.
CONCLUSION: The LMIC need to realign their focus on early detection of cancer and provision of affordable cancer care, while ensuring adequate financial risk protection, particularly for the poor.
OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine the effect of lamotrigine add-on therapy on the seizure frequency and cost in paediatric patients. (2) To determine the prescribing pattern of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).
METHOD: A retrospective study of medical records was carried out from October 2000 to June 2001 at the paediatric clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Seizure frequency, cost of drug and types of AED prescribed.
RESULTS: A total of 209 medical records were retrieved during the study period. Lamotrigine (LTG) was prescribed in 29 patients as add-on therapy. In 18 patients, there was a significant reduction in seizure frequency after the addition of LTG. Approximately 70% experienced a reduction in seizure frequency of more than 50%. Side effects of LTG were considered mild and manageable. However, drug cost after the addition of LTG increased by 103%. In the remaining 180 patients, the most common AED prescribed was sodium valproate (VPA). Only 15% of the patients received combination therapy. Mean monthly cost of monotherapy was found to be RM 24.4 while monthly cost of combination therapy was RM 45.4 (1 Euro-RM 5.00).
CONCLUSION: The majority of paediatric patients in the study are on AED monotherapy and only a small percentage was prescribed lamotrigine. The use of lamotrigine is associated with better seizure control but with an increase in drug cost.
Study site: paediatric clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang.
Irreducible dislocation of the interphalangeal joint (IPJ) big toe is a rare injury Hitori et al. (2006) . We report a case of the right big toe IPJ dislocation following a trauma. The problem was diagnosed and managed at other medical centers with standard treatment of closed manual reduction and splint. The right big toe was splinted accordingly and the patient was referred to our orthopedic outpatient clinic. At the clinic, a repeat plain radiograph was ordered due to high suspicion of the irreducible IPJ.
Study site: orthopedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
Objective: To audit the amount and complexity of case load and the waiting time for orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic Department of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM).
Materials and Methods: This study involved three waiting list records in Orthodontic department, UKM and 484 patients’ record were selected using Random Sampling technique. Demographic data of the patients were noted. Data on date of patient’s visit to ‘Klinik Rawatan Utama’ (KRU), Screening clinic and first orthodontic treatment (removable/fixed) clinics were also recorded. The severity of referred cases were graded using complexity scale (Russle et al, 1999).
Results: Patients were mostly female (76%) with age ranging from 10 to 52 years old. 75% of the referred cases were complex cases. From the year 2002-2007, 35% were referred for removable and 65% were referred for fixed clinic. In average, orthodontic screening waiting time was 6.9 ± 2.5 month. Patient would received removable and fixed appliance treatment after 4.4 ± 1.0 months and 14.5 ± 9.8 months respectively.
Conclusions: Most patients were referred to fixed waiting list. The waiting time from 2002 until 2007 for orthodontic treatment in UKM was longest for fixed followed by screening. The shortest waiting time was for the removable treatment.
Study site: Orthodontic Department of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
Background. Patient satisfaction influences the outcomes of the patient-physician encounter.
Objective. The objective of this study was to validate the Malay version patient satisfaction
(MISS-21) questionnaire using a confirmatory validity approach.
Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 252 patients attending primary health
clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Construct validity (convergent and discriminant) using
confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content
validity and face validity processes. Criterion validity was assessed using Pearson correlations
with the scale of shared decision making 9-item questionnaire (SDMQ-9). The data was
analysed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 19.
Results. A total of 252 (100%) outpatients responded to this study. The final model that consists
of three domains with 11 items had a good fit; (χ2
(df) = 65.805 (32), P
AIMS: The aim was to examine relationships between total and unbound mycophenolic acid (MPA) and prednisolone exposure and clinical outcomes in patients with lupus nephritis.
METHODS: Six blood samples were drawn pre- and at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-dose and total and unbound MPA and prednisolone pre-dose (C0 ), maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were determined using non-compartmental analysis in 25 patients. The analyses evaluated drug exposures in relation to treatment response since starting MPA and drug-related adverse events.
RESULTS: Dose-normalized AUC varied 10-, 8-, 7- and 19-fold for total MPA, unbound MPA, total prednisolone and unbound prednisolone, respectively. Median values (95% CI) of total MPA AUC(0,8 h) (21.5 [15.0, 42.0] vs. 11.2 [4.8, 30.0] mg l(-1) h, P= 0.048) and Cmax (11.9 [6.7, 26.3] vs. 6.1 [1.6, 9.2] mg l(-1) , P = 0.016) were significantly higher in responders than non-responders. Anaemia was significantly associated with higher total (37.8 [14.1, 77.5] vs. 18.5 [11.7, 32.7] mg l(-1) h, P = 0.038) and unbound MPA AUC(0,12 h) (751 [214, 830] vs. 227 [151, 389] mg l(-1) h, P = 0.004). Unbound prednisolone AUC(0,24 h) was significantly higher in patients with Cushingoid appearance (unbound: 1372 [1242, 1774] vs. 846 [528, 1049] nmol l(-1) h, P = 0.019) than in those without. Poorer treatment response was observed in patients with lowest tertile exposure to both total MPA and prednisolone as compared with patients with middle and higher tertile exposure (17% vs. 74%, P = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potential role for therapeutic drug monitoring in individualizing immunosuppressant therapy in patients with lupus nephritis.
KEYWORDS: lupus nephritis; mycophenolic acid; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; prednisolone; treatment outcome
Study site: Nephrology and SLE Clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) provides effective treatment for lupus nephritis patients. Owing to its large pharmacokinetic variability, it is questionable whether standard fixed dose therapy can achieve optimal MPA exposure. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of MPA and its metabolite, 7-O-MPA-β-glucuronide (MPAG), to identify important covariate influences and better predict patient dosing requirements.
METHODS: MPA and MPAG concentration-time profiles were collected from 25 patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with or without cyclosporine (CsA) co-therapy. Samples were collected pre-dose and at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-dose on one or two occasions.
RESULTS: A total of 225 and 226 concentration-time measurements of MPA and MPAG, respectively, were used to develop the model, utilizing NONMEM® software. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination for MPA and a one-compartment model with first-order elimination and enterohepatic circulation (EHC) for MPAG best described the data. Apparent clearance of MPAG (CL/F MPAG) significantly decreased with reducing renal function and extent of EHC was reduced with concomitant CsA use. Simulations using the final model showed that a 70-kg subject with a creatinine clearance of 90 mL/min receiving concomitant CsA would require 1.25 g of MMF twice daily while a similar subject who did not receive concomitant CsA would require 0.75 g twice daily to achieve a MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) of 45 mg·h/L.
CONCLUSION: A 'tiered' dosing approach considering patient renal function and CsA co-therapy, rather than a 'one dose fits all' approach, would help individualize MMF therapy in adult lupus nephritis patients to ensure more patients have optimal MPA exposure.
Study site: Nephrology and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The Malaysian Dengue Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) have been developed to provide evidence-based guidance in the management of dengue infections. The use of these guidelines is essential to ensure its recommendations are being practiced. However, the adherence to the guidelines for management of dengue (revised 2nd edition) by healthcare providers still remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion among healthcare providers that adhere to this Dengue CPG. A retrospective cohort study of dengue cases registered from 1 January 2014 to 1 June 2015 was conducted in public hospitals and health clinics in Selangor, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur. Adherence to the CPG recommendations were recorded by reviewing patients' case notes. Overall proportion of adherence in clinical components of the recommendation were (7.1 to 100.0% versus 7.7 to 73.8%) in history taking, (6.7 to 100.0% versus 12.3 to 60.0%) in physical examinations, (18.4 to 100.0% versus 23.1 to 83.2%) in assessment of warning signs, (0.6 to 100.0% versus 12.3 to 87.7%) in assessment of haemodynamic status, (60.0 to 100.0% versus 27.7 to 40.0%) in diagnosis, (46.6 to 80.0% versus 52.3%) in case notifications, (73.2 to 100.0% versus 89.2 to 96.9%) in performing specific laboratory investigations and (7.9 to 100.0% versus 21.5%) in monitoring, for outpatient versus inpatient, respectively. Adherence trends were demonstrated to be higher in hospital settings compared to outpatient settings. Adherence to this Dengue CPG varies widely with overall good clinical outcomes observed.
Study site: public hospitals and health clinics in Selangor, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur
Objective: A study was conducted at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) adult psychiatric clinic from June 2006 to December 2006. The aim was to assess the rate of the metabolic syndrome in a group of outpatients with mood disorders and schizophrenia and also to determine the relationship of this condition with sociodemographic factors and psychiatric illness characteristics.
Methods: A total of 51 subjects agree to participate of which 100 were approached. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF)(2005) criteria are used for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and Diagnostic Statistical Manual Version IV (DSM-IV) criteria are used to made psychiatric diaognosis.
Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 37.2% and was significantly higher amongst mood disorders patient. However the metabolic syndrome is not associated with the anti psychotic therapy (p=0.41).
Conclusion: This study suggests that it is important for the psychiatrist to monitor metabolic syndrome in any of their patients.
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients.
Method: This is a cross-sectional study of 108 PD patients from neurological clinic UKM Medical Centre and Kuala Lumpur Hospital. The patients were recruited from August to December 2004. Psychosis was determined using SCID, the severity of psychosis was rated using BPRS. The cognitive functions were evaluated with MMSE and the severity of depression was assessed with HAM-D.
Results: The result shows that the prevalence of psychosis in Parkinson's disease patients in this sample was 13%. The psychosis was found to be significantly associated with advancing age, duration of illness, severity of depression and cognitive impairment. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that severity of depression (OR = 1.08, 95% C.I. = 1.01 - 1.16) and advancing age (OR = 4.72, 95% C.I. = 1.37 - 16.29) increased risk of psychosis in PD patients.
Conclusion: We found that advancing age and severity of depression increase risk to develop psychosis in patients with PD.
Study site: neurological clinic UKM Medical Centre and Kuala Lumpur Hospita
Objective The objective of this paper is to determine photoprotection awareness, knowledge, practices, and its relationship with disease activity and damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. Data were acquired from in-person interviews and medical records.
Results A total of 199 (89.6%) females and 23 (10.4%) males were recruited. Median age was 39.00 (interquartile range (IQR) 18) years, disease duration 12.12 (IQR 8) years, Fitzpatrick skin phototype III 119 (53.6%) and IV 81 (36.5%). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2 K) was 2.95 (IQR 4) while Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC-ACR DI) was 1.20 (IQR 2). The majority 205 (92.3%) were aware of sun exposure effects on SLE. Photoprotection methods were shade seeking 209 (94.1%), sun avoidance 212 (95.5%), long pants 168 (75.7%), long sleeves 155 (69.8%), sunscreen 116 (52.3%), sunglasses 114 (51.4%) and head cover 103 (46.4%). Significantly higher photoprotection practice scores (PPS) were observed in females, Malays, and individuals with higher education level and internet accessibility. PPS were not significantly correlated with SLICC-ACR DI and SLEDAI-2 K. Independent predictors for good photoprotection practice (GPP) were ethnicity (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 1.78-7.53), awareness (OR = 3.77, 95% CI 1.09-13.08) and cutaneous involvement (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.11-5.28). Photoprotection methods and GPP were not predictors for disease activity or damage.
Conclusion Photoprotection awareness and knowledge was good. Shade seeking and sun avoidance were the common photoprotection methods practised. The use of sunscreen requires improvement. Photoprotection awareness and cutaneous manifestation were predictors for GPP. Neither photoprotection methods nor GPP were associated with disease activity or damage.
Study site: Nephrology, Rheumatology and Dermatology clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The reasons underlying the need for extraction of 2765 permanent teeth carried out over a 6 month period in the Out-patient Clinic in the Dental Faculty, University of Malaya, was investigated. The present study showed that dental caries (67.4%) is the leading cause for extraction followed by periodontal disease (19.6%). Caries accounted for the highest proportion of extractions up to the age of 50 whereas periodontal disease becomes the major factor beyond this age. The highest frequency of extractions carried out was between the ages of 21-30.
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant which is associated with a decrease in Bone Mass Density (BMD).
AIM: The study aimed to explore the prevalence of osteoporosis conditions in Malaysians with chronic warfarin patients using calcaneal quarter of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) machine and to investigate whether long-term sodium warfarin therapy that antagonizes vitamin K is affecting the increasing rate of osteoporosis in Penang and to find the risk factors of getting osteoporosis among warfarin users and its non users.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among 130 patients using warfarin, attending the outpatient clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit the required sample. Another 140 subjects were selected from the community as a control group (non-users of warfarin).
RESULTS: This study showed that more than three-quarter patients (82%) were at high risk of abnormal BMD. The warfarin users were two times more likely to have a higher osteoporosis risk compared to control group. Moreover, BMD has a negative correlation with age, but has a positive correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI). Patients showed a negative correlation with a higher dose of warfarin intake.
CONCLUSION: This study concluded that osteopenia and osteoporosis are serious problems between users and non-users warfarin in Penang. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration in the Malaysian Health Ministry's agenda.
Prescribing pattern surveys are one of the pharmacoepidemiological techniques that provide an unbiased picture of prescribing habits. Prescription surveys permit the identification of suboptimal prescribing patterns for further evaluation. The aims of this study were to determine the prescribing trend, adherence of the prescribers to the guideline, and the impact of drug expenditure on drug utilization at the cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study. Demographic data of the patients, diagnoses and the drugs prescribed were recorded. The average drug acquisition costs (ADAC) were calculated for each antihypertensive drug class on a daily and annual basis. Adherence to the guideline was calculated as a percentage of the total number of patients. A total of 313 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average age of the study population was 59.30 ± 10.35 years. The mean number of drugs per prescription in the study was 2.09 ± 0.78. There were no significant differences in the demographic data. Antihypertensive drugs were used in monotherapy and polytherapy in 20.8% and 79.2% of the patients, respectively. Adherence to the guideline regarding prescription occurred in 85.30% of the patients. The lowest priced drug class was diuretics and the highest was angiotensin-receptor blockers. In conclusion, the total adherence to the guideline was good; the adherence percentage only slightly decreased with a co-existing comorbidity (such as diabetes mellitus). The use of thiazide diuretics was encouraged because they are well tolerated and inexpensive, and perindopril was still prescribed for diabetic patients since it is relatively cheap (generic drug) and its daily dosage is beneficial.
Study site: cardiac clinic of Penang Hospital, Malaysia
Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are both chronic conditions and the relationship between them is complex.
Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of Low Bone Mineral density (LBMD, i.e., osteopenia and osteoporosis), as well as, the difference and associations between Quantitative Ultrasound Scan (QUS) parameters with socio-demographic data and clinical related data among T2DM in Penang, Malaysia.
Method: An observational, cross-sectional study with a convenient sample of 450 T2DM patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang (HPP) to measure Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at the heel bone using QUS. In addition, a self-reported structured questionnaire about the socio-demographic data and osteoporosis risk factors were collected. Moreover, the study included the retrospective collection of clinical data from patients' medical records.
Results: The mean value of T-score for normal BMD, osteopenic and osteoporotic patients' were (-0.41±0.44), (-1.65±0.39) and (-2.76±0.27), respectively. According to QUS measurements, more than three quarters of T2DM patients (82%) were at high risk of abnormal BMD. The results showed that QUS scores were significantly associated with age, gender, menopausal duration, educational level and diabetic related data. Moreover, the QUS parameters and T-scores demonstrated significant negative correlation with age, menopausal duration, diabetic duration and glycaemic control, as well as, a positive correlation with body mass index and waist to hip ratio. The current study revealed that none of the cardiovascular disease risk factors appear to influence the prevalence of low BMD among T2DM Malaysian patients.
Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the assessment of T2DM patients' bone health and related factor are essential and future educational programs are crucial to improve osteoporosis management.
Study site: Diabetes clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang
BACKGROUND: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure (BP) is found to have a positive effect on BP control. Delivering a BP telemonitoring service in primary care offers primary care physicians an innovative approach toward management of their patients with hypertension. However, little is known about patients' acceptance of such service in routine clinical care.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service delivered in primary care based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).
METHODS: A qualitative study design was used. Primary care patients with uncontrolled office BP who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into a BP telemonitoring service offered between the period August 2012 and September 2012. This service was delivered at an urban primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty patients used the BP telemonitoring service. Of these, 17 patients consented to share their views and experiences through five in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. An interview guide was developed based on the TAM. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analysis.
RESULTS: Patients found the BP telemonitoring service easy to use but struggled with the perceived usefulness of doing so. They expressed confusion in making sense of the monitored home BP readings. They often thought about the implications of these readings to their hypertension management and overall health. Patients wanted more feedback from their doctors and suggested improvement to the BP telemonitoring functionalities to improve interactions. Patients cited being involved in research as the main reason for their intention to use the service. They felt that patients with limited experience with the internet and information technology, who worked out of town, or who had an outdoor hobby would not be able to benefit from such a service.
CONCLUSION: Patients found BP telemonitoring service in primary care easy to use but needed help to interpret the meanings of monitored BP readings. Implementations of BP telemonitoring service must tackle these issues to maximize the patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service.
Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is gaining popularity among hypertensive patients. This study aimed to explore the influence of self-initiated HBPM on primary care patients with hypertension.
Six in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted, taking into consideration the experiences of 24 primary care patients with hypertension. These patients had been using HBPM as part of their hypertension management. The overriding influences were grouped under themes which emerged from analyzing the data using the grounded theory approach.
There are both positive and negative influences of self-initiated HBPM. Patients used the readings of their HBPM to decide on many aspects of their hypertension management. The HBPM readings both influenced their adherence to diet and exercise and provided certain reassurance when they experienced symptoms. In addition, the act of discussing their HBPM readings with their health care providers resulted in an enhanced doctor-patient therapeutic relationship. Nevertheless, HBPM created confusion at times in some patients, particularly with regard to the target blood pressure level and the need for medication. This led to some patients making their own medical decisions based on their own standards.
HBPM is becoming an integral part of hypertension management. Primary care patients who self-initiated HBPM reported being more self-efficacious, but lack of participation and guidance from their doctors created confusion, and hindered the true benefit of HBPM.
Study site: urban primary care clinic, located within the University Malaya Medical Centre
To determine the outcome of laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty for the management of patients with snoring in Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital (HUSM). A retrospective review of patients who underwent LAUP with or without tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy under general anaesthesia between December 2003 to December 2006. Data was obtained from admission and follow-up records in the otorhinolaryngology clinic of USM Hospital (HUSM). A total of nineteen patients underwent procedure for the treatment of snoring. Majority of these patients presented with symptoms of loud snoring and daytime somnolence. The main operations performed were LAUP with or without tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy. The justification for LAUP were overhanging and excessive uvula or soft palate, whereas for adenotonsillectomy were the hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils. On follow-up, most of the patients claimed improvement of snoring within the first 2 months post-operation. However, majority of them defaulted follow-up after that. One patient (AHI preoperatively was mild) was reviewed up to 8 months with no snoring. One patient (AHI was severe preoperatively and normal post operatively) remained in our follow-up was satisfied with the operation. Two patients continued to experience snoring post LAUP despite trial of non-surgical methods. The outcome of LAUP in our patients showed variable results. This showed that patient selection is very important to achieve good result in LAUP. Long-term follow-up is also essential to document the success for LAUP.
Study site: otorhinolaryngology clinic of USM Hospital (HUSM)
To determine the characteristic presenting symptoms, otoscopic findings, audiological profiles and the intraoperative findings of children with chronic otitis media with effusion who required surgical intervention. A prospective cross sectional study was undertaken in the otorhinolaryngology clinic of USM Hospital (HUSM) involving 25 cases (50 ears) of children with chronic otitis media with effusion requiring surgical intervention from June 1999 to September 2001. Their ages ranged from 3 to 12 years old. The gender distribution included males at 72 % and females at 28 %. The presenting symptoms noted were hearing impairment (52%), otalgia (18%), ear block (16%) and tinnitus (14%). The otoscopic findings were fluid in the middle ear (40%), dullness (32%) and retraction of the tympanic membrane (28%). On audiometry, 24 ears had moderate deafness (48%), 16 ears had mild deafness (32%) while 4 ears had severe deafness (8%). With tympanometry, 42 ears out of the total 50 had a flat type B curve (84%) while 6 ears had type As curve (12%). During myringotomy, middle ear secretion was seen in 38 ears (76%) out of the 50 ears; 22 ears had mucoid secretion while 16 ears had serous secretion. Clinically, the commonest presenting symptom was hearing impairment (52%) while the most common otoscopic finding was fluid in the middle ear (40%). Audiologically, most patients had moderate conductive hearing loss (48%) and a type B curve (84%) on tympanometry. On myringotomy middle ear fluid was found in 76 % of the ears.
Study site: otorhinolaryngology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia