PURPOSE: The overall objective of the survey was to systematically examine patients' perspectives on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and their treatment in Southeast Asia.
METHODS: A multinational cross-sectional survey involving adult men seeking consultation at urology outpatient clinics because of LUTS in Southeast Asia was conducted using convenience sampling. Self-reported prevalence, bother, treatment and treatment satisfaction of selected LUTS including urgency, nocturia, slow stream, and post-micturition dribble were evaluated.
RESULTS: In total, 1535 eligible patients were enrolled in the survey. A majority of respondents were aged 56-75 years, not employed, and had not undergone prostate operation before. Overall, the self-reported prevalence of nocturia was 88% (95% CI 86-90%), slow stream 61% (95% CI 59-63%), post micturition dribble 55% (95% CI 52-58%), and urgency 52% (95% CI 49-55%). There were marked differences in the country specific prevalence of LUTS complaints. Frequently, symptoms coexisted and were combined with nocturia. More than half of patients felt at least some degree of bother from their symptoms: 61% for urgency, 57% for nocturia, 58% for slow stream, and 60% for post-micturition dribble. Before seeing the present urologists, nearly half of patients have received some form of prescribed treatment and more than 80% of patients indicated they would like to receive treatment.
CONCLUSION: Men who sought urologist care for LUTS often presented with multiple symptoms. Nocturia emerged as the most common symptom amongst the four core symptoms studied.
Study site in Malaysia: Urology clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking.
METHODS: The study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, temporal distribution, population history and clinical symptoms of betacoronavirus infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2013. A total of 2,060 adults presented with acute respiratory symptoms were screened for the presence of betacoronaviruses using multiplex PCR. The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference.
RESULTS: A total of 48/2060 (2.4 %) specimens were tested positive for HCoV-OC43 (1.3 %) and HCoV-HKU1 (1.1 %). Both HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 were co-circulating throughout the year, with the lowest detection rates reported in the October-January period. Phylogenetic analysis of the spike gene showed that the majority of HCoV-OC43 isolates were grouped into two previously undefined genotypes, provisionally assigned as novel lineage 1 and novel lineage 2. Sign of natural recombination was observed in these potentially novel lineages. Location mapping showed that the novel lineage 1 is currently circulating in Malaysia, Thailand, Japan and China, while novel lineage 2 can be found in Malaysia and China. Molecular dating showed the origin of HCoV-OC43 around late 1950s, before it diverged into genotypes A (1960s), B (1990s), and other genotypes (2000s). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 27.3 % of the HCoV-HKU1 strains belong to genotype A while 72.7 % belongs to genotype B. The tree root of HCoV-HKU1 was similar to that of HCoV-OC43, with the tMRCA of genotypes A and B estimated around the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Correlation of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 with the severity of respiratory symptoms was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reported the molecular complexity and evolutionary dynamics of human betacoronaviruses among adults with acute respiratory symptoms in a tropical country. Two novel HCoV-OC43 genetic lineages were identified, warranting further investigation on their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.
Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections.
METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS). Association between the fusion and glycoprotein genes diversity, viral load (quantified using an improved RT-qPCR assay), and symptom severity were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression analyses.
RESULTS: Among 81/3706 HMPV-positive patients, there were no significant differences in terms of demographics, number of days elapsed between symptom onset and clinic visit, respiratory symptoms manifestation and severity between different HMPV genotypes/sub-lineages. Surprisingly, elderly patients (≥65 years old) had lower severity of symptoms (indicated by TSSS) than young and middle age adults (p = 0.008). Nasopharyngeal viral load did not correlate with nor predict symptom severity of HMPV infection. Interestingly, at 3-5 days after symptom onset, genotype A-infected patients had higher viral load compared to genotype B (4.4 vs. 3.3 log10 RNA copies/μl) (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HMPV genetic diversity and viral load did not impact symptom severity in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Differences in viral load dynamics over time between genotypes may have important implications on viral transmission.
Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Systematic anticoagulation management clinic is recommended to manage patients on chronic warfarin therapy. In Malaysia, the service was introduced as warfarin medication therapy adherence clinic (WMTAC), which is managed by pharmacists with a physician advisory.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of WMTAC in comparison with usual medical clinic (UMC), which is managed by medical officers in Kuala Lumpur Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia.
METHODS: Data from a 6-month retrospective cohort study comparing the two clinics and the mean percentages of time in the therapeutic range for the patients were used to estimate the cost-effectiveness. The mean clinic costs were estimated using the time-motion study. A Markov model with a 6-monthly cycle was used to simulate lifetime cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the health care service provider. The base-case analysis assumed a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation, 57 years of age with comorbid illnesses. The transition probabilities of these clinic outcomes were obtained from a literature search. Future costs and effectiveness were discounted by 3% to convert to present values. All costs were in Malaysian ringgit standardized for the year 2007.
RESULTS: The mean 6-month treatment cost was lower for the WMTAC, which was significantly lower (P < 0.001). The UMC was found to be dominated by the WMTAC for both intermediate and lifetime analyses. The sensitivity analysis showed that clinic consultation costs had a major impact on the cost-effectiveness analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: WMTAC is a more cost-effective option than UMC in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
Study site: Medical clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
OBJECTIVES: Assessment of nicotine withdrawal symptoms is an essential part of tobacco dependence treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Malay translated version of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS).
METHODS: The original scale was translated into Malay following the standard guidelines proposed for translation studies. The reliability and validity of the Malay version scale were evaluated on the basis of data collected from 133 participants. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability. To validate the psychometric properties of the scale, factor analysis and construct validity were used. This study was conducted at the Quit Smoking Clinic at Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.
RESULTS: The translated scale has excellent reliability, with total Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. The test-retest reliability for the scale presented an excellent reliability and stability of the translated scale with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r = 0.876; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the exhaled carbon monoxide level, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence total score, and number of cigarettes smoked per day and the MNWS total score (r = 0.72, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively; P < 0.001). A principal-components analysis with orthogonal rotation yielded a unidimensional model that includes all the items of the MNWS.
CONCLUSIONS: The Malay version of the MNWS is a reliable and valid measure of withdrawal symptoms as well as the smoking urge, and it is applicable to clinical practice and research study.
Study site: Quit Smoking Clinic at Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the validity and reliability of a disease-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire-the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4 (SQLS-R4)-in patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia.
METHODS: A total of 222 outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre completed the SQLS-R4 in either the Malay or the English language. A generic self-report health-related quality-of-life measure-the EuroQoL group EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire-and a measure of symptom severity-the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale-were also administered to assess validity.
RESULTS: Good internal consistency reliability was found for both the psychosocial and vitality domains (Cronbach's α = 0.95 and 0.85, respectively). Most items were also significantly correlated with their own scale score (rs ranging from 0.29 to 0.74). There was a moderate correlation between the SQLS-R4 "vitality" domain and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire "usual activities" domain (rs = 0.44) and a large correlation between the SQLS-R4 "psychosocial" domain and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire "anxiety/depression" domain (rs = 0.44-0.57). Most of the symptom dimensions of the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale were also moderately correlated with the SQLS-R4 subscale scores.
CONCLUSIONS: The SQLS-R4 is a valid and reliable health-related quality-of-life instrument for use in minimally ill patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia, but some of the items may be redundant and irrelevant. Validation of SQLS-R4 in different types of patients and various levels of illness severity is required to further verify its application.
Study site: Psychiatry clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal polysaccharide and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. This study compared introducing PHiD-CV (10 valent vaccine) with current no vaccination, as well as against the alternative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).
METHODS: A lifetime Markov cohort model was adapted using national estimates of disease burden, outcomes of pneumococcal disease, and treatment costs of disease manifestations including pneumonia, acute otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis for a hypothetical birth cohort of 550,000 infants. Clinical information was obtained by review of medical records from four public hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2008 to 2009. Inpatient cost from the four study hospitals was obtained from a diagnostic-related group-based costing system. Outpatient cost was estimated using clinical pathways developed by an expert panel. The perspective assessed was that of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.
RESULTS: The estimated disease incidence was 1.2, 3.7, 70, and 6.9 per 100,000 population for meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute otitis media, respectively. The Markov model predicted medical costs of Malaysian ringgit (RM) 4.86 billion (US $1.51 billion) in the absence of vaccination. Vaccination with PHiD-CV would be highly cost-effective against no vaccination at RM30,290 (US $7,407) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. On comparing PHiD-CV with PCV13, it was found that PHiD-CV dominates PCV13, with 179 quality-adjusted life-years gained while saving RM35 million (US $10.87 million).
CONCLUSIONS: It is cost-effective to incorporate pneumococcal vaccination in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. Our model suggests that PHiD-CV would be more cost saving than PCV13 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia.
Study site: UKM Medical Centre, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital
Alor Setar, and Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Kota Kinabalu
Endocrinologists and other clinicians who provide care to diabetic patients have ideal teaching opportunities to connect and deliver tobacco cessation interventions in diabetes care. This study aimed to develop, validate and measure the reliability of a new tool that would be used to evaluate physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counselling in patients with diabetes, as well as barriers to deliver tobacco cessation counselling in their clinics.
This study was conducted from March till December 2012 in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. A standardised, 22-item, self-administered questionnaire was developed to determine (i) physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counselling in patients with diabetes, and (ii) barriers in delivering tobacco cessation counselling in their clinics. Face and content validity were assessed. Six pharmacists, whom were faculty members with experience and expertise in research and in the development of surveys, reviewed the questionnaire to assess its content validity.Reliability test was run along to check whether the new tool questions are correlated with one another adequatly or no.
Reliability test for the tool was pretested on a sample of 25 physicians physicians who ran the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Reliability analyses for the attitude domain and practice domain were 0.710 and 0.720, respectively.
The questionnaire was valid and reliable to be use for the evaluation of physician’s barriers, attitude and practice regarding tobacco cessation counselling in the diabetics clinics.
Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) and its types used in diabetes patients in Quetta, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with diabetes patients, attending different government and private hospitals and clinic of Quetta city, Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions (5 questions related with disease and remaining questions were for information regarding CAM use). Descriptive statistics were applied to evaluate the patient’s demographics. Inferential statistics were used to fine the association between demographics characteristics and CAM (p<0.05).
Results: A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed and 451 were returned (with response rate of 90.2%). Out of 451 patients 148 (32.8%) used CAM for the diabetes treatment, out of which 87 (58.8%) were females and 61 (41.2%) were males. Most of the participants were uneducated 51 (34.5%) and belongs to large families 89 (60.1%). Fifty (33.8%) participants were using mind body intervention, followed by alternative medical system (33.1%) and herbal products (31.8%) respectively for treatment of diabetes. Type of family, monthly income and per month medicine cost were significant associated (p<0.05) with CAM use.
Conclusions: The current study indicated that diabetes patients used mind body intervention, alternative medical system and herbal products are the most common CAM type used for diabetes control. Further research is recommended to evaluate the diabetes control in patients with CAM used.
Objectives: To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of RMTAC (an adjunct
pharmaceutical asthma management) vs. usual physician care clinic by using decision analytic modelling method. Methods: A dynamic adherence asthma Markov
cohort model was developed. The economic evaluation was based on a lifetime
horizon and cycle length of one month, from the healthcare provider‘s (Ministry
of Health) perspective, with the outcomes assessed in cost per QALY gained and
cost per hospitalization averted. Probabilities of asthma control-adherence states
from RMTAC database, costs from national sources, utilities using standard gamble method on Malaysia’s asthma patients, and other inputs from secondary data
sources were used to inform the probabilistic model, according to gender and age
subgroups. A scenario analysis was conducted to test the structural assumption on
follow-up visits after the final treatment visit. Results: In female subgroup, RMTAC
management dominates the usual care by having 0.91 (95% CI 0.24 – 1.69) QALY
gained and 0.58 (95% CI -2.30 – 6.23) hospitalization averted, at a lower cost. For male
subgroup, the ICERs were RM10 (95% CI -RM14431 – RM8323) per QALY gained and
RM18 (95% CI -RM35790 – RM30266) per hospitalization averted. At the willingnessto-pay threshold of RM29000 per an additional QALY gained, the RMTAC intervention
is likely to be cost-effective 99% and 57% of the time (for QALY and hospitalization
outcome, respectively). The analysis was robust to assumptions of follow-up visits
frequency and patients’ gender. Conclusions: Implementing RMTAC in Malaysia
has high probability of being more cost-effective than the usual care management
for both male and female subgroups across all age groups. Further investigation is
necessary to ensure that implementing this decision does not exceed the overall
national healthcare expenditure
Study site : Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Objectives: Warfarin has been used for more than 50 years as stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. New oral anticoagulant, Dabigatran, was developed and shown to be safer and more efficacious compared to Warfarin due to its lower tendency of bleeding and in reducing stroke incidences. This study aims to compare the pattern of anticoagulants used and to assess their safety and efficacy by evaluating bleeding and stroke occurrences in both groups.
Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at a hospital with hematology clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The samples of the study were patients with atrial fibrillation, prescribed with warfarin or dabigatran. Data collected includes patients’ demographics, co-morbidities, and stroke and haemorrhage events.
Results: A total of 71 patients were recruited in this study with 21, 21 and 29 patients were on Warfarin, Dabigatran 110 mg and Dabigatran 150 mg respectively. Out of 50 Dabigatran users, 36 of them are warfarin-experienced. 1 out of 21 patients on warfarin experienced stroke while none in both 110 and 150mg dabigatran group. A total of 11 (52.4%) of warfarin patients experienced bleeding with 2 of them having major bleeding whereas, only 4 (8%) out of 50 dabigatran patients experienced minor bleeding, 1 in patient who were on Dabigatran 150mg and 3 patients who were on Dabigatran 110mg.
Conclusions: The pattern of anticoagulant used for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation is slowly changing from Warfarin to Dabigatran. Evaluation of safety and efficacy profile of Warfarin shows that Warfarin requires more extensive management and monitoring in order to achieve therapeutic goals with fewer side effects. Comparison between both anticoagulants show that Dabigatran is safer and more effective compared to warfarin
Study site: Haematology clinic, hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
Widespread evidence has demonstrated the negative effects of tobacco smoking in patients with diabetes. Although many studies have explored the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population, data are lacking regarding its prevalence in a specific population with a chronic disease such as diabetes.
Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among patients with diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to study diabetic patients who attended the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Malaysia from March to August 2012. All the diabetic patients who attended the endocrine clinic during that period were asked about their smoking status, and their medical records were reviewed. A total of 1,118 patients with diabetes were reviewed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking in diabetic patients at the endocrine clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang.
Results: The majority of the study population was male, with Malay and Chinese patients in almost equal proportions and a smaller proportion of Indian patients. Most of these patients had started smoking before they were diagnosed with diabetes. Among the 1,118 diabetic patients, only 108 patients smoked; therefore, the prevalence of tobacco smoking in our patients with diabetes was 9.66%.
Conclusions: A low prevalence of tobacco smoking was estimated in this study. This prevalence is close to the corresponding value in the general population in Malaysia.
Study site: Endocrine clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Objectives: Health care services in Malaysia are widely available and accessible at a minimal cost. However, in pursuing with the health care reform, policy-makers and hospital managers need to know the unit cost for the purpose of planning and efficiency of providing the services. This study estimated the cost of out-patient services in a public hospital
Methods:The study was conducted in a 341 bedded hospital that provide secondary level care to 24,486 in-patients and 127,389 specialist out-patients in 2010. The costs were estimated using a step-down approach where the costs were allocated to the different cost-centres. Capital costs were annualised cost of capital item with life expectancy of more than 1 year and recurrent cost were all inputs consumed within a year. Total costs were then allocated to the in-patient and out-patient services based on historical financial data with a ratio of 1: 4. This was then followed by a stepwise approach of allocating the ancillary department cost centres to the clinical department cost centres. The unit cost per patient visit was calculated based on the number of visits for each department. Base year of 2010 was used to calculate the cost and patients visits. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the hospital.
Conclusions: The findings provide an estimate of the costs for out-patient visit. At the current minimal fee of MYR 5.00 (USD 1.5), the Ministry of Health is subsidising more than 95.0% of the health care cost for each patient. These estimates provide the policy-makers with an understanding of the cost data should they need to establish a cost basis for payment rates.
Objectives: Systematic anticoagulation management clinic is now recommended to manage warfarinized atrial fibrillation (AF) patient. In Malaysia, the service is recently introduced as pharmacist managed Warfarin Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (WMTAC). The objective of the present study was to assess the cost effectiveness of anticoagulation clinic in comparison with usual medical in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
Methods: A Markov model built using the provider perspective and 20 year time horizon was used to assess the cost effectiveness. The base case analysis assumed a cohort of patients with AF 57 years of age with comorbid illnesses. Data sources include a 6 month retrospective cohort analysis of the effectiveness of the clinics, the cost of drugs, cost of personnel and space of the clinics, cost of monitoring and cost of adverse events were obtained from the local source and publications. The transition probabilities of these clinics outcomes were obtained from a literature search. Future costs were discounted by 3% to convert to present values. All costs were in Ringgit Malaysia (RM) based on year 2012.
Results: The results of a 20-year period model showed that UMC was dominated by the WMTAC in the same time period. The mean cost of the WMTAC was RM 5864 whereas the UMC cost was RM 6550. The sensitivity analysis showed that clinic treatment costs and effectiveness influenced the cost-effectiveness. If the cost of WMTAC was increased by 50% of the current cost, the WMTAC would not be a dominant intervention. WMTAC was also cost effective for a willingness to pay of RM32000.
Conclusions: The anticoagulation management service appears to cost less and provide greater effectiveness than usual care. In conclusion, the Markov model suggests that from the provider perspective the anticoagulation clinic is a more cost effective option than the usual medical clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
Study site: Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Objectives: Warfarin use in atrial fibrillation has been established for preventing occurrence of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, safety and clinical monitoring of warfarin use is crucial due to its risk of bleeding complications. This study aims to compare and establish relation of time in therapeutic range (TTR) of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation in the first 6 months and 6 month thereafter of anticoagulation therapy.
Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary-care hospital with anticoagulation clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data collected included patients’ demographics, co-morbidities, and international normalized ratio (INR). TTR were determined using Rosendaal method based on records found in database (INR Desk 4.0 system) and patients’ hemorrhage events were also recorded. Samples of the study were patient who started warfarin from January 2009 until March 2013.
Results: A total of 167 patients with atrial fibrillation were enrolled and only 6% (n=10) achieved TTR of more than 75% for the first 6 months of warfarin use as compared to 16.8% (n=28) of TTR more than 75% 6 months thereafter. As for bleeding incidences, 29% (n=45) of patients in the group of TTR less than 75% in the first 6 months had bleeding complications as compared to 18.7% (n=26) in patients of TTR less than 75% 6 months after.
Conclusions: A more regular follow up is necessary during the first 6 months of new warfarin users as they tend to be out of the TTR and have a higher bleeding risk.
Study site: anticoagulation clinic, tertiary hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of sexual dysfunction in our primary care referral population.
METHODS: Participants seeking treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) were recruited from general urology clinics. The subjects completed the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, International Index of Erectile Function-5, and selected questions from the University of Washington Symptom Score. Additional information on demographics and medical and treatment history were also obtained. Sexual dysfunction was defined as self-reported erectile dysfunction (ED) or ejaculatory difficulty, or both.
RESULTS: Of 296 participants with CP/CPPS, 214 (72.3%) reported sexual dysfunction. The National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total score averaged 22.5 +/- 6.9 for participants with sexual dysfunction compared with 20.4 +/- 7.8 for participants who did not report sexual dysfunction (P = 0.03). Of the 214 participants with sexual dysfunction, 54 (25.0%) complained of ED only, 71 (33.4%) complained of ejaculatory difficulties only, and 89 (41.6%) complained of both ED and ejaculatory difficulties. Men reporting both ED and ejaculatory difficulty reported worse CP/CPPS symptoms (analysis of variance, P = 0.042) and worse quality of life (analysis of variance, P = 0.006) than men without sexual dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dysfunction was reported by almost three quarters of patients with CP/CPPS. Patients with CP/CPPS and sexual dysfunction experienced substantially worse symptoms, particularly worse quality of life, than other patients with CP/CPPS. Sexual dysfunction merits consideration as an important aspect of CP/CPPS and a potential outcome measure.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to develop an Urdu version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS-U) and validate it for Pakistani patients suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: IPSS-U was developed by a two-step forward and back translation and to evaluate its psychometric properties, a prospective study involving patients suffering from LUTS (n=267) was conducted at Outpatient Urology Department, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Internal consistency and reproducibility were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and the Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Moreover, exploratory, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to determine dimensionality of IPSS-U items.
RESULTS: Overall reliability of IPSS-U was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.72, ICC of symptom questions=0.92 and ICC of QOL index=0.75). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that two factors were consistent, which together explained 59.8% of the variance. IPSS-U items 1, 3, 5 and 6 were components of the first factor whereas item 2, 4 and 7 were components of the second factor. All the items loaded high on their factors and there were no cross loadings. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis also showed two-factor model, with acceptable fitting patterns.
CONCLUSION: IPSS-U is a valid and reliable non-gender specific instrument to assess the frequency and severity of LUTS in Urdu-speaking population.
BACKGROUND/AIM: Multiple asthma guidelines have been developed to reduce asthma mortality, morbidity, and cost associated with asthma worldwide. In Malaysia, within this context, it is relatively unknown to what extent doctors adhere to the asthma guidelines. This study aimed to assess guideline adherence and calculate the cost of adhered and nonadhered prescriptions by medical doctors in a public tertiary health care facility.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. One hundred and eighty patients, a total of 30 patients per doctor, were enrolled to assess guideline adherence. The patients were followed for a second visit to assess their lung function. The costs of adhered and nonadhered prescriptions were calculated.
RESULTS: One hundred and forty-three patients (79%) received guideline (Global Initiative for Asthma 2011)-adhering pharmacotherapy. In the majority of patients (n = 133, 73.9%) asthma control was classified as partially controlled. There was no significant association observed between patient asthma control and patient demographics; however, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between lung function values from the first and second visits. The cost of adhered prescription was higher (70.1 Malaysian ringgit) than that of nonadhered prescription (13.74 Malaysian ringgit).
CONCLUSION: Fair levels of guideline adherence were observed. Emphasis should be placed on identifying appropriate cost-effective medication regimens based on patient asthma control and constant feedback from patients.
Study site: Respiratory clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
The objectives in this epidemiology review are to measure and report the extent of morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB), the proportion of new sputum smear positive cases in districts and the status of cohort analysis as of 1999. As for leprosy, the main objective is to determine morbidity and the treatment outcomes of Multiple Drug Therapy (MDT). Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive action plan for prevention, control and monitoring of tuberculosis and leprosy cases and patients is being produced and implemented throughout the state. The analysis concentrated on patients diagnosed at all out-patient units and admitted in all of the state's hospitals. The patient particulars were recorded using a standardized format based on TB and Leprosy Health Management Information System (TB HMIS). TB was the second highest by notification of communicable diseases in Malaysia in 2001. 29% or about one-third of the national TB cases are from Sabah. However, it has been noted that there was an average decline of 2.6% in annual notification since 10 years ago to date. There was also a reduction of 11.4% in 2001 as compared to annual notification in 2000. Immigrants contribute more than 24% in detection of new cases since 1990. Treatment success rate in term of completion of treatment to date is 82%. Mortality rate has steadily declined from 14 deaths to 7 deaths per 100,000 population. Leprosy in Sabah also contributes to 30% of the yearly total caseload of Malaysia and has the highest notification rate of 2 per every 100,000 population as compared to other states. The average registered leprosy cases over the past 5 years are 239 cases and the prevalence rate is 0.7/10,000 population. The state has successfully achieved its goal to decrease leprosy as per the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of yearly overall prevalence rate of less than 1 case for every 10,000 population. However, the districts of Kudat, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Kota Kinabalu and Semporna are still within the prevalence rate of more than one per 10,000 population. This review highlights some interesting findings which can be incorporated into the State and Districts action plans and strategies. It is also noted that in order to translate National Plans and Strategies into effective action at the community level, health workers need relevant up-to-date knowledge of the pattern of health and disease, and of their determinants, in each district. The Sabah Health Department continues to organize and support programs related to management and control of tuberculosis and leprosy to progressively reduce the incidence of these diseases in the community by breaking the chain of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively.
Study site: outpatient clinics, inpatients, hospitals, Sabah, Malaysia
Irreducible dislocation of the interphalangeal joint (IPJ) big toe is a rare injury Hitori et al. (2006) . We report a case of the right big toe IPJ dislocation following a trauma. The problem was diagnosed and managed at other medical centers with standard treatment of closed manual reduction and splint. The right big toe was splinted accordingly and the patient was referred to our orthopedic outpatient clinic. At the clinic, a repeat plain radiograph was ordered due to high suspicion of the irreducible IPJ.
Study site: orthopedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia