BACKGROUND: Evidence to guide policymakers in developing affordable and equitable cancer control plans are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
METHODS: The 2012-2014 ASEAN Costs in Oncology Study prospectively followed-up 9513 newly diagnosed cancer patients from eight LMIC in Southeast Asia for 12 months. Overall and country-specific incidence of financial catastrophe (out-of-pocket health costs ≥ 30% of annual household income), economic hardship (inability to make necessary household payments), poverty (living below national poverty line), and all-cause mortality were determined. Stepwise multinomial regression was used to estimate the extent to which health insurance, cancer stage and treatment explained these outcomes.
RESULTS: The one-year incidence of mortality (12% in Malaysia to 45% in Myanmar) and financial catastrophe (24% in Thailand to 68% in Vietnam) were high. Economic hardship was reported by a third of families, including inability to pay for medicines (45%), mortgages (18%) and utilities (12%), with 28% taking personal loans, and 20% selling assets (not mutually exclusive). Out of households that initially reported incomes above the national poverty levels, 4·9% were pushed into poverty at one year. The adverse economic outcomes in this study were mainly attributed to medical costs for inpatient/outpatient care, and purchase of drugs and medical supplies. In all the countries, cancer stage largely explained the risk of adverse outcomes. Stage-stratified analysis however showed that low-income patients remained vulnerable to adverse outcomes even when diagnosed with earlier cancer stages.
CONCLUSION: The LMIC need to realign their focus on early detection of cancer and provision of affordable cancer care, while ensuring adequate financial risk protection, particularly for the poor.
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and complicate treatment and outcomes. We identified patterns of multimorbidity in Asian patients with HF and their association with patients' quality of life (QoL) and health outcomes.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on 6,480 patients with chronic HF (1,204 with preserved ejection fraction) enrolled between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016 in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry. The ASIAN-HF registry is a prospective cohort study, with patients prospectively enrolled from in- and outpatient clinics from 11 Asian regions (Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, and Philippines). Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of multimorbidity. The primary outcome was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization within 1 year. To assess differences in QoL, we used the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We identified 5 distinct multimorbidity groups: elderly/atrial fibrillation (AF) (N = 1,048; oldest, more AF), metabolic (N = 1,129; obesity, diabetes, hypertension), young (N = 1,759; youngest, low comorbidity rates, non-ischemic etiology), ischemic (N = 1,261; ischemic etiology), and lean diabetic (N = 1,283; diabetic, hypertensive, low prevalence of obesity, high prevalence of chronic kidney disease). Patients in the lean diabetic group had the worst QoL, more severe signs and symptoms of HF, and the highest rate of the primary combined outcome within 1 year (29% versus 11% in the young group) (p for all <0.001). Adjusting for confounders (demographics, New York Heart Association class, and medication) the lean diabetic (hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, 95% CI 1.46-2.22), elderly/AF (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.26-1.96), ischemic (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.88), and metabolic (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.60) groups had higher rates of the primary combined outcome compared to the young group. Potential limitations include site selection and participation bias.
CONCLUSIONS: Among Asian patients with HF, comorbidities naturally clustered in 5 distinct patterns, each differentially impacting patients' QoL and health outcomes. These data underscore the importance of studying multimorbidity in HF and the need for more comprehensive approaches in phenotyping patients with HF and multimorbidity.
There is a growing interest in research on satisfaction with healthcare provider (HCP) and HCP- patient communication as a measure of healthcare quality of HCP’s communication competency. However, many communication assessments were not comprehensive measures and are not entirely accurate in measuring what is supposed to be measured. This study aimed at assessing the validity and reliability of a newly developed HCP-PC instrument in a Malaysian primary care setting. The HCP-PC instrument was developed using items adapted from existing instruments as well as self-developed items. A pilot study involving 277 clients of an outpatient clinic was conducted in HKL using the proposed instrument which was distributed immediately after face to face consultation. The content validity and Cronbach alpha reliability were assessed. Factor analysis constructed 3 components, exchanging information (EI), socioemotional behaviour (SB) and communication style (CS). All items loaded on the corresponding component with factor loading ≥0.6, suggesting that all items in the respective component are measuring the same direction. PCA of the final 30 items explain 61.98% of the total variance with 6.66%, 47.18% and 8.13% explained by EI, SB and CS respectively. Component-based reliability show strong internal consistency with Cronbach alpha, αEI= 0.92, αSB= 0.96 and αCS= 0.70. The pilot study supported the instrument validity and reliability after initial tests. However, further study needs to be done to confirm its construct validity to help establish a valid and reliable HCP-PC instrument for measuring patient satisfaction with HCP-PC that can be used in primary care setting.
Study site: outpatient clinic was conducted in HKL
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 Malaysian women in the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic in a selected hospital in Bangi, Selangor to determine the level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines, attitudes toward HPV vaccination and barriers of being vaccinated. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes were also addressed with a questionnaire. Seventy eight women (26%) had heard about the HPV virus and 65 about HPV vaccines (21.7%). Marital status was associated significantly with awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine (p=0.002, p=0.002; respectively), in addition to level of education (p=0.042). The percentages of women who reported correct answers for the questions on knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine ranged from 12% to 25%. One hundred fifty nine respondents (53%) had a positive attitude toward HPV vaccination. Age, marital status, and level of education were associated significantly with attitude (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively). The most important barriers reported were 'unawareness of the vaccine' 'concerned about side effects' and 'afraid of needles'. This study found a very low level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine. Education of population is highly recommended and barriers to being vaccinated should be dealt with seriously.
Study site: Hospital, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Objective The objective of this paper is to determine photoprotection awareness, knowledge, practices, and its relationship with disease activity and damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. Data were acquired from in-person interviews and medical records.
Results A total of 199 (89.6%) females and 23 (10.4%) males were recruited. Median age was 39.00 (interquartile range (IQR) 18) years, disease duration 12.12 (IQR 8) years, Fitzpatrick skin phototype III 119 (53.6%) and IV 81 (36.5%). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2 K) was 2.95 (IQR 4) while Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC-ACR DI) was 1.20 (IQR 2). The majority 205 (92.3%) were aware of sun exposure effects on SLE. Photoprotection methods were shade seeking 209 (94.1%), sun avoidance 212 (95.5%), long pants 168 (75.7%), long sleeves 155 (69.8%), sunscreen 116 (52.3%), sunglasses 114 (51.4%) and head cover 103 (46.4%). Significantly higher photoprotection practice scores (PPS) were observed in females, Malays, and individuals with higher education level and internet accessibility. PPS were not significantly correlated with SLICC-ACR DI and SLEDAI-2 K. Independent predictors for good photoprotection practice (GPP) were ethnicity (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 1.78-7.53), awareness (OR = 3.77, 95% CI 1.09-13.08) and cutaneous involvement (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.11-5.28). Photoprotection methods and GPP were not predictors for disease activity or damage.
Conclusion Photoprotection awareness and knowledge was good. Shade seeking and sun avoidance were the common photoprotection methods practised. The use of sunscreen requires improvement. Photoprotection awareness and cutaneous manifestation were predictors for GPP. Neither photoprotection methods nor GPP were associated with disease activity or damage.
Study site: Nephrology, Rheumatology and Dermatology clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A study was conducted to evaluate the extent of sleep problems among children aged between 6 to 15 years old who were followed up at Penang Hospital Paediatric Clinic for various neurological disorders and compared to those with other paediatric illnesses and their healthy siblings. A parental questionnaire was used to assess sleep problems in 48 children with neurological disorders and compared to 46 of their healthy siblings, 59 children with non-neurological paediatric illnesses and 67 of their healthy siblings. Sleep problems were clustered into five subscales: bedtime difficulties, parental involvement at time of sleep, sleep fragmentation, parasomnias and daytime drowsiness. Children with neurological disorders had significantly more sleep problems than did their siblings, those with non-neurological paediatric illnesses and their healthy siblings (p < 0.001). This was particularly so in areas of bedtime difficulties (p>0.001), the amount of parental involvement (p
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a systemic disease that leads to weight loss and muscle dysfunction resulting in an increase in mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of malnutrition and nutritional status and also factors associated with nutritional status. A total of 149 subjects were involved in the cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results of the study showed that malnutrition was more prevalent (52.4%) in the subjects with severe stages of COPD as compared to mild and moderate COPD stages (26.2%) (P < 0.05). Fat-free mass depletion as assessed using fat-free mass index (FFMI) affected 41.9% of the subjects. Plasma vitamin A, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and handgrip were the predictors for body mass index (BMI) (R(2) = 0.190, P < 0.001). Plasma vitamin A and force expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) were the predictors of FFMI (R(2) = 0.082, P = 0.007). BMI was the predictor of respiratory factors, that is, FEV(1)% predicted (R(2) = 0.052, P = 0.011). It can be concluded that there is a need to identify malnourished COPD patients for an appropriate nutrition intervention.
Study site: outpatient clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Institute of Respiratory Medicine
Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidative stress is a major risk factor for pathogenesis of some chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine antioxidant and oxidative stress status, and also theirs association with respiratory function of male COPD patients to find the antioxidant predictors' factors. A total of 149 subjects were involved in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study showed that plasma vitamin C was low in most of the subjects (86.6%). Total antioxidant capacity was the lowest in COPD stage IV compare to other stages (p < 0.05). Level of plasma vitamin A (p= 0.012) and vitamin C (p= 0.007) were low in malnourished subjects. The predictors for total antioxidant capacity were forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and intake of ?-carotene (R2= 0.104, p= 0.002). Number of cigarette (pack/ year) and smoking index (number/ year) were not associated with total antioxidant capacity of this COPD population. Plasma oxidative stress as assessed plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO) was only positively correlated with plasma glutathione (p= 0.002). It might be a need to evaluate antioxidant status especially in older COPD patients to treat antioxidant deficiency which is leading to prevent COPD progression.
Study site: Outpatient clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) and Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
This study looked into the rate and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury patients at three months post injury. Forty patients attending the neurosurgery outpatient clinic were included in the study. Benton visual retention test (BVRT), rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), digit span test, trail making test (TMT) and mini mental state examination (MMSE) were used for assessment. Forty five percent (n=18) sustained moderate to severe head injury. Twenty five percent (n=10) have abnormal MMSE result. Forty two and a half percent (n=17) have abnormal BVRT result. Seventy five percent (n=30) have abnormal RAVLT result while 35% (n=14) have abnormal digit span test result. Seventy seven and a half percent (n=31) have at least one neurological deficit. There was significant association between severity of head injury (GCS score) and neuropsychological deficit. This study highlights the point that in post head injury patients, there are high occurrences of cognitive dysfunction. MMSE and GCS play a significant and important role in assessing cognitive dysfunction. Severity of head injury as determined by GCS scores also influence the outcome in patients with head injury
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of candidate gene polymorphisms in a population is useful for a variety of gene-disease association studies, particularly for some complex traits. A single nucleotide variant of the angiotensinogene gene (AGT M235T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS G894T) have been associated with hypertension.
METHOD: A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 hypertensives and 198 age- and sex-matched controls was conducted. Subjects involved in this study were pure Malay for 3 generations. The AGT M235T and eNOS G894T polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP method.
RESULTS: The distribution of M235T genotype in the population was 3.5% for MM, 30.4% for MT and 66.1% for TT. No significant difference was observed in genotype (chi(2)=1.30, p=0.52) and allele (chi(2)=0.87, p=0.35) frequencies among the 2 study group. In contrast, the distribution of genotypes for G894T was 74.1% for GG, 24.6% for GT and 1.3% for TT, respectively. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in genotype (chi(2)=0.94, p=0.33) and allele (chi(2)=0.60, p=0.44) frequencies between both study groups.
CONCLUSION: The AGT M235T and eNOS G894T polymorphisms are unlikely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in Malays.
Study site: Outpatient clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM); government clinics, Kelantan, Malaysia.
A cross sectional study on Type 2 diabetes patients seeking treatment in the Primary Health Care outpatient clinic of the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur was undertaken. Two hundred and thirty-three subjects participated. They were asked questions on biodata and dietary intake using face-to-face interview techniques. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were taken and Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed to establish the extent of obesity. Of the 196 subjects, 66.8% were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) with 15.8% obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The mean BMI of males and females were 25.9±4.3 kg/m2 and 27.2±4.7 kg/m2 respectively. The findings from the dietary survey showed that the mean energy intake of the subjects only achieved about 72% of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Malaysia while protein intake of all subjects was adequate. The macronutreint contribution to the total calorie was consistent with the recommendation of the Malaysian Diabetic Association for a healthy diet for diabetes patients. The male subjects were found to meet the RDA requirements for all nutrients while the female subjects did not have sufficient intake of calcium, vitamin A and niacin. No consistent pattern in energy and nutrient intake was observed among different age groups. On the other hand, the Malay subjects seemed to have lower energy and all nutrient intake (except vitamin A and vitamin C) compared to the Chinese and Indian subjects. The Indian subjects seemed to have the highest intake of calcium compared to the others. Advice needs to be given to those who did not have adequate nutrient intake as well as those who need to reduce their weight.
Study site: Primary health care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
Muslim consumers have special needs in medical treatment that differ from non-Muslim consumers. In particular, there is a growing demand among Muslim consumers for Halal medications. This descriptive exploratory study aims to determine the Halal status of selected cardiovascular, endocrine, and respiratory medications stored in an out-patient pharmacy in a Malaysian governmental hospital. Sources of active ingredients and excipients for each product were assessed for Halal status based on available information obtained from product leaflets, the Medical Information Management System (MIMS) website, or manufacturers. Halal status was based on the products' sources and categorized into Halal, Mushbooh, or Haram. The proportions of Halal, Mushbooh, and Haram products were at 19.1%, 57.1%, and 23.8%, respectively. The percentage of active ingredients for cardiovascular/endocrine products that were assessed as Haram was 5.3%; for respiratory medications, it was only 1.1%. For excipients, 1.7% and 4.8% fall under the category of Haram for cardiovascular/endocrine products and respiratory products, respectively. Ethanol and magnesium stearate were found to be the common substances that were categorized as Haram and Mushbooh.
Objectives: Warfarin use in atrial fibrillation has been established for preventing occurrence of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, safety and clinical monitoring of warfarin use is crucial due to its risk of bleeding complications. This study aims to compare and establish relation of time in therapeutic range (TTR) of warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation in the first 6 months and 6 month thereafter of anticoagulation therapy.
Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary-care hospital with anticoagulation clinic in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data collected included patients’ demographics, co-morbidities, and international normalized ratio (INR). TTR were determined using Rosendaal method based on records found in database (INR Desk 4.0 system) and patients’ hemorrhage events were also recorded. Samples of the study were patient who started warfarin from January 2009 until March 2013.
Results: A total of 167 patients with atrial fibrillation were enrolled and only 6% (n=10) achieved TTR of more than 75% for the first 6 months of warfarin use as compared to 16.8% (n=28) of TTR more than 75% 6 months thereafter. As for bleeding incidences, 29% (n=45) of patients in the group of TTR less than 75% in the first 6 months had bleeding complications as compared to 18.7% (n=26) in patients of TTR less than 75% 6 months after.
Conclusions: A more regular follow up is necessary during the first 6 months of new warfarin users as they tend to be out of the TTR and have a higher bleeding risk.
Study site: anticoagulation clinic, tertiary hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is the most widely used validated scale to measure the specific symptoms of auditory hallucination and delusion. The aim of this study was to validate and to examine the psychometric properties of the auditory hallucination component of the Malay PSYRATS (MyPSYRATS). The research was done in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) among 51 schizophrenia inpatients and outpatients who had experienced or reported verbal auditory hallucination. The psychometric properties of MyPSYRATS (auditory hallucination) were studied and a comparison was made between the psychometric properties obtained and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The internal consistency of MyPSYRATS was good as revealed by Cronbach's alpha value. Factor analysis replicated three components (emotional, cognitive, and physical) similar to the factorial structure of the original auditory hallucination scale. However, two items were regrouped under the emotional component. Spearman's rank-order correlation showed a significant positive relationship between the total score of auditory hallucinations and PANSS auditory hallucinations item (P3). In conclusion, the auditory hallucination domain of MyPSYRATS is a reliable and valid assessment tool for further clinical applications.
Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention pharmacotherapy improves outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, poor medication adherence is common, and various factors play a role in adherence.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' level of adherence to evidence-based therapies at an average of 6 months after discharge for acs and to identify factors associated with self-reported non-adherence.
SETTING: This prospective study was conducted in the outpatient cardiac clinics of Hospital Pulau Pinang, located in Penang Island, a northern state in Malaysia.
METHOD: A random sample of ACS patients (n = 190) who had been discharged on a regimen of secondary preventive medications were included in this study. Six months after discharge and during their scheduled follow-up appointments to cardiac clinics, patients were interviewed using the translated eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: self-reported patients' adherence to medication.
RESULTS: Six months following their hospital discharge, only 35 patients (18.4 %) reported high adherence. Medium adherence was reported in majority of patients (51.1 %). Low adherence was reported in 58 patients (30.5 %). Forgetfulness was the most frequently reported reason for patients' non-adherence to their medications (23.2 %). Furthermore, this study identified 5 factors-namely age, employment status, ACS subtypes, number of comorbidities, and number of prescription medications per day-that may influence Patients' level of adherence to the prescribed regimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed a problem of non-adherence to secondary prevention medications among patients with ACS in Malaysia. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that older patients, unemployed patients, patients with more comorbid conditions, and those receiving multiple medications are less likely to adhere to their prescribed medications 6 months after hospital discharge.
Study site: outpatient cardiac clinics of Hospital Pulau Pinang
BACKGROUND: Aspirin resistance has posed a major dilemma in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke. There have been many factors that have been associated with aspirin resistance. Among these factors, the inflammatory processes of diabetes and glycaemic control have been significantly associated with aspirin resistance. Our study evaluated the prevalence of aspirin resistance and its associated factors.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, interventional study, which was implemented from October to November 2012 at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Sixty-nine patients with diabetes who were taking aspirin were enrolled. The glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured in these patients. The thromboelastography (TEG) level was measured using a TEG machine by a trained technician employing standard methods. The variables obtained were analysed for prevalence of aspirin resistance, HbA1c, CRP, and TEG level. The Chi-square test (and Fisher exact test where applicable) were used to evaluate the associations between aspirin resistance with glycaemic control (HbA1c) and inflammatory markers (CRP).
RESULTS: The prevalence of aspirin resistance was 17.4% (95%; CI 9.3, 28.4). Glycaemic control (HbA1c) and inflammatory markers (CRP) were not associated with aspirin resistance. Aspirin resistance was prevalent in our study population and was comparable to other studies. The mean HbA1c in the aspirin-resistant group was 8.9%, whereas the mean HbA1c in the aspirin-sensitive group was 8.6%.
CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in HbA1c between the two groups. There was no significant association between CRP levels and aspirin resistance.
KEYWORDS: aspirin resistance; diabetes mellitus; thromboelastography
Study site: NeuroMedical Specialist Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
A cross sectional pilot study was carried out to look into the usefulness of percent free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer in HUSM patients. All patients who attended surgical clinic and admitted to surgical wards with signs and symptoms of prostate problems during the study period were taken as the study subjects. Total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) was estimated by immunoassay technique and those values of 4 ng/mL or more were proceeded for estimation of fPSA. Using the cut-off value of less than 25% fPSA for diagnosing patients with prostate cancer, our study showed that majority of the prostate cancer patients have a ratio of fPSA:tPSA more than 25% and a significantly higher level of total prostate specific antigen (P<0.005) when compared with patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Unexpectedly, the fPSA values were high in patients diagnosed as prostate cancer compared to BPH. Ratio of percent fPSA to tPSA was found not to be sensitive and specific, in diagnosing prostate cancer at the cut-off value of 25%. In conclusion, total PSA is a more useful biochemical test for diagnosing prostate cancer in our patients.
Study site: Surgical clinic, inpatients, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
Many studies have shown that failure in the control of hypertension with oral antihypertensives could be associated with noncompliance. The present study was conducted to assess the compliance rate to antihypertensive therapies and also to determine factors related to any noncompliance. The study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Data was collected from patients' medical records and via personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Out of a total of 175 respondents recruited in the study, 49.1% missed at least a dose of their antihypertensive agents during a one·month period. The most common reason given by respondents who were not compliant to their antihypertensive therapies was forgetfulness (91.8%), followed by too busy (20.0%) and insufficient medication supplied to them (18.8%). None of the factors analysed, including the demography of the respondents, their knowledge about hypertension and the types of antihypertensive therapies they were on, had any statistically significant influence on the compliance behaviour of the respondents to their antihypertensive therapies. However, more than 80% of the respondents kept their appointment to see their doctor and only this factor appeared to be related to the medication compliance behaviour although it still did not reach any statistical significance. KEYWORDS: Compliance, antihypertensive agent, blood pressure, knowledge
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign but locally invasive tumour. Patients are usually in their adolescent age and present with epistaxis and nasal blockage. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation and the C.T. scan findings. Pre-operative superselective embolisation (SSE) and surgical excision is the treatment of choice. The out patient clinic of ORL-HNS hospital of University Science Malaysia received 25 referrals, all male, majority between 9-13 years of age and few adolescents. Clinically the patients were consistent with symptoms of recurrent epistaxis and nasal blockage. They reported from October 1998 to October 2001 from with in the state of Kelantan and the nearby states of Pahang, Kedah and Terenganu. Diagnosis was mostly made on typical radiological findings and the tumours were classified accordingly into four stages. SSE and surgical excision was carried out in all cases. Regular follow-up helped us to identify early recurrences which were treated with salvage surgery or radiotherapy in one case with extensive intracranial extension. A retrospective review of presenting features, diagnostic difficulties, surgical approaches and its outcome is presented. Maxillary swing procedure performed in three cases as a new surgical option in the management of JNA is also discussed.
Study site: ENT clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia