Work-Related Hand Injuries (WRHIs) may result in disability and diminished productivity and cause economic impacts not only to the individual, worker’s families and industries, but to the local community as well.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of severe Work-Related Hand Injuries (WRHIs) and factors associated at a tertiary hospital.
Methods: A pre-tested validated questionnaire was used to obtain data. All patients 18 years and above with WRHIs seen at a tertiary hospital between January 2010 and June 2010 were included in the study. Data was analysed using SPSS version 18.
Results: Out of the 297 industrial accidents, 74 (24.9%) were WRHIs. Among those with WRHIs, (47.3%) of them had severe hand injuries. The overall mean age of the respondents was 30.36 (± 9.54 SD) years. Majority (82.5%) of the injuries occurred between Mondays to Friday. Majority (70.1%) of hand injuries were caused by machine and 48.6% of the hand injuries occurred when the hand was caught in the operating part of the machine. Majority (62.1%) of the respondents had fingers’ injuries and 32.4% had open fracture. Bivariate analysis showed that there was significant association between severity of WRHIs and locations of injury, mechanisms of injury, sources of injury and sectors of industry (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that WRHIs was significantly associated with source of injury and sector of industry. Respondents with hand injury resulted while operating on mechanical machine was 26 times more likely to report severe WRHIs than those with other sources of their hand injury like (sharp tool, heavy door, and wet floor). Respondents working in metal-machinery industries were eight times more likely to report severe WRHIs than those who working in other sectors of industry like (wood-furniture, constriction, food preparing, service and automotive).
Conclusions: WRHIs contributed to 24.9% of all industrial accidents seen at the emergency department and orthopaedic clinic and 47.3% of the respondents with WRHIs had severe hand injuries. Severity of WRHIs was significantly associated with sources of injury and sectors of industry.
Study site: emergency room, orthopaedic ward, general surgery ward and the orthopaedic outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors influencing poor glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin.
RESEARCH DESIGN: A qualitative method comprising in-depth individual interviews. A semistructured interview guide was used. The interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach.
PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen people with type 2 diabetes using insulin with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9% for >1 year.
SETTING: The Primary Care Clinic and Diabetes Clinic in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia.
RESULTS: Data analysis uncovered four themes: lifestyle challenges in adhering to medical recommendations; psychosocial and emotional hurdles; treatment-related factors; lack of knowledge about and self-efficacy in diabetes self-care.
CONCLUSIONS: Factors that explain the poor glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin were identified. Healthcare providers could use these findings to address patients' concerns during consultations and help to improve glycaemic control.
Study site: Primary Care Clinic and Diabetes Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Missed appointments affect patients' health in addition to reducing practice efficiency. This study explored the rate and reasons of non-attendance among patients with chronic illnesses. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in a family practice clinic over a one-month period in 2004. Those who failed turn up for scheduled appointments were interviewed by telephone based on a structured questionnaire. Out of 671 patients, the non-attendance rate was 16.7%. Sixty-seven percent of non-attenders were successfully interviewed. Males (p = 0.01), Indians (p = 0.015), patients with coronary artery disease (p = 0.017), multiple diseases (> 4) (p = 0.036) and shorter appointment intervals (p = 0.001) were more likely to default. The main reasons for non-attendance were: forgot the appointment dates (32.9%), not feeling well (12.3%), administrative errors (19.1%) and work or family commitments (8.2%). The majority would prefer a reminder through telephone (71.4%), followed by letters (41.3%). In conclusion, appropriate intervention could be taken based on the reasons identified in this study.
Study site: Family Practice Clinic of the
Department of Primary Care
Medicine, University of Malaya
Medical Centre, Malaysia
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies focus on patients' views on factors influencing implementation of patient decision aids (PDAs). This study aims to explore patients' views on the factors influencing implementation of an "insulin choice" PDA in a primary care setting.
METHODS: This study used a descriptive qualitative study design. Interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview guide developed based on the theoretical domains framework. Nine in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes who have been advised to start insulin or were currently using insulin and those who had been seeking diabetes treatment in the clinic for more than 1 year. Interviews were conducted after the participants were familiarized with the PDA. Data were analysed using a thematic approach.
RESULTS: Five themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) trust in the physician (patients preferred physicians to other health care providers in delivering the insulin PDA to them as they trusted physicians more when it comes to making decisions such as starting insulin), (b) physician's attitude (patients were more likely to trust a physician who is friendly and sympathetic hence would be more willing to use the insulin PDA), (c) physician's communication style (patients were more willing to use the insulin PDA if the physicians would take time and guide them in the PDA use), (d) conducive environment (patients preferred to read the PDA at home), and (e) cost (patients would not be willing to pay to use the insulin PDA unless they needed it).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients want physicians to play a major role in the implementation of the insulin PDA; physicians' communication style and commitment may influence implementation outcomes. Health care authorities need to create a conducive environment and provide patients with free access to PDA to promote effective implementation.
Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure (BP) is found to have a positive effect on BP control. Delivering a BP telemonitoring service in primary care offers primary care physicians an innovative approach toward management of their patients with hypertension. However, little is known about patients' acceptance of such service in routine clinical care.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service delivered in primary care based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).
METHODS: A qualitative study design was used. Primary care patients with uncontrolled office BP who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into a BP telemonitoring service offered between the period August 2012 and September 2012. This service was delivered at an urban primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty patients used the BP telemonitoring service. Of these, 17 patients consented to share their views and experiences through five in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. An interview guide was developed based on the TAM. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analysis.
RESULTS: Patients found the BP telemonitoring service easy to use but struggled with the perceived usefulness of doing so. They expressed confusion in making sense of the monitored home BP readings. They often thought about the implications of these readings to their hypertension management and overall health. Patients wanted more feedback from their doctors and suggested improvement to the BP telemonitoring functionalities to improve interactions. Patients cited being involved in research as the main reason for their intention to use the service. They felt that patients with limited experience with the internet and information technology, who worked out of town, or who had an outdoor hobby would not be able to benefit from such a service.
CONCLUSION: Patients found BP telemonitoring service in primary care easy to use but needed help to interpret the meanings of monitored BP readings. Implementations of BP telemonitoring service must tackle these issues to maximize the patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service.
A study was conducted to determine the clinical factors that affect the quality of life in adult asthmatics. As part of their routine follow-up visit, 399 patients completed the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire, had peak expiratory flow rate readings (PEFR) taken and were interviewed to determine current symptom severity. The grade of severity of asthma was verified by the consultant physician in-charge. The mean age of the patients was 41.8 years and 31.8% of the patients were men. Most of the patients were Malay (64.7%), 89% had at least secondary level education and the mean duration of asthma was 17.6 years. The majority of patients had moderate or severe disease (43.6% and 55.9% respectively). For asthmatics with moderate or severe symptoms of chest tightness and/or shortness of breath, all domains of SF-36 scored significantly lower than those with mild symptoms, with the exception of the domain bodily pain. Patients with moderate/severe cough recorded significantly lower scores than those with mild cough for all domains except for bodily pain and social functioning. Only the physical functioning, role physical, general health and role emotional scores were significantly worse in those with a consultant grade of severe asthma compared to those with mild/moderate asthma. Patients with PEFR < 80% predicted had lower scores for the domains physical functioning, role physical and general health than those with PEFR > or = 80% predicted, but the scores for the other domains were similar in both groups. Quality of life is significantly impaired in adult asthmatics with current respiratory symptoms. However, consultant grade of severity of asthma and PEFR readings do not affect quality of life scores as much.
Study site: Asthma clinics, hospitals, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes often require insulin as the disease progresses. However, health care professionals frequently encounter challenges when managing patients who require insulin therapy. Understanding how health care professionals perceive the barriers faced by patients on insulin will facilitate care and treatment strategies.
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the views of Malaysian health care professionals on the barriers faced by patients using insulin.
METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health care professionals involved in diabetes care using insulin. Forty-one health care professionals participated in the study, consisting of primary care doctors (n = 20), family medicine specialists (n = 10), government policymakers (n = 5), diabetes educators (n = 3), endocrinologists (n = 2), and one pharmacist. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic approach.
RESULTS: FIVE THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED AS BARRIERS: side effects, patient education, negative perceptions, blood glucose monitoring, and patient adherence to treatment and follow-up. Patients perceive that insulin therapy causes numerous negative side effects. There is a lack of patient education on proper glucose monitoring and how to optimize insulin therapy. Cost of treatment and patient ignorance are highlighted when discussing patient self-monitoring of blood glucose. Finally, health care professionals identified a lack of a follow-up system, especially for patients who do not keep to regular appointments.
CONCLUSION: This study identifies five substantial barriers to optimizing insulin therapy. Health care professionals who successfully identify and address these issues will empower patients to achieve effective self-management. System barriers require government agency in establishing insulin follow-up programs, multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, and subsidies for glucometers and test strips.
KEYWORDS: diabetes; focus groups; insulin; noncommunicable disease; primary care; qualitative study
Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidative stress is a major risk factor for pathogenesis of some chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine antioxidant and oxidative stress status, and also theirs association with respiratory function of male COPD patients to find the antioxidant predictors' factors. A total of 149 subjects were involved in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study showed that plasma vitamin C was low in most of the subjects (86.6%). Total antioxidant capacity was the lowest in COPD stage IV compare to other stages (p < 0.05). Level of plasma vitamin A (p= 0.012) and vitamin C (p= 0.007) were low in malnourished subjects. The predictors for total antioxidant capacity were forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and intake of ?-carotene (R2= 0.104, p= 0.002). Number of cigarette (pack/ year) and smoking index (number/ year) were not associated with total antioxidant capacity of this COPD population. Plasma oxidative stress as assessed plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO) was only positively correlated with plasma glutathione (p= 0.002). It might be a need to evaluate antioxidant status especially in older COPD patients to treat antioxidant deficiency which is leading to prevent COPD progression.
Study site: Outpatient clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) and Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
A study was conducted at the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Ipoh Hospital, an urban public primary healthcare facility, over a weekend, to determine the profile of patients attending the clinic, the reasons for encounter and the reasons for choosing after hours medical care. The data from this study would be useful in determining the need for and formulating a policy for after hours medical care at urban primary health care facilities in the country. The study showed there was a low proportion of acute illness in the weekend clinic. A total of 17% of the patients had an acute illness and a further 8% had aggravation of an existing illness. This group of patients requires access to weekend medical services. The main reason for choosing after hours care was social, that is the convenience of an off-day from work or school. Several options can be explored to provide after hours care, including volunteer government doctors or private general practitioners running the service. Another option is to direct public patients during the weekends to private general practitioners in their locality who will be subsidized. The cost of providing after hours care is expected to be higher. Misuse of services may have to be considered as the study showed 5 % of the patients were not ill during the encounter.
Study site: Outpatient Department (OPD) of Hospital Ipoh
OBJECTIVE: Most weight interventions among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) used body mass index (BMI) as outcome measure but excluded waist circumference (WC) although the latter is a stronger predictor of obesity complications. This study aimed to assess a weight-management program consisting of education, exercise and behavioural techniques for patients with SMI using weight parameters including WC as the outcome measures.
METHODS: A group intervention was carried out as part of psychiatric outpatient community service. It used structured modules on diet, exercise and related topics comprising of education and exercises sessions with a total of 12-week duration. The participants were outpatients with SMI recruited through referrals to the program by the treating doctor. The participants' body weight, BMI and WC were measured at the baseline, fortnightly and at the end of the program.
RESULTS: A total of 27 patients participated in the program which was carried out in 6 cycles. The pre- and post-intervention comparisons analysis of the weight parameters found a significant reduction in the WC (mean=3.878 cm+5.165, p=0.001) while no significant changes were recorded in body weight and BMI.
CONCLUSION: Small but significant loss in WC and possibly weight maintenance were achieved using this non-pharmacological intervention. Modest loss in WC may have an impact on reducing the risk of obesity-related health risks.
Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Waist circumference (WC), a surrogate indicator of abdominal fat mass, is used to measure central obesity associated with increased risk of hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 DM, whereas body mass index (BMI) is traditionally used to measure somatic obesity. This study aimed to identify the WC and BMI cut-off points to predict the metabolic risk factors for MS and to determine which is a better predictor.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of six months. The study involved 355 subjects aged 13-91 years. Youden's index was used to identify the optimal cut-off points.
RESULTS: The optimal cut-off point of WC to predict individual metabolic risk in females was 84.5-91.0 cm. The BMI cut-off point to predict hypertension and raised fasting blood sugar was 23.7 kg/m², and that for low level high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 22.9 kg/m². For males, the corresponding cut-off points were 86.5-91.0 cm for WC and 20.75-25.5 kg/m² for BMI, with corresponding sensitivities and specificities. Area under the curve and the odds of developing individual and ≥ 2 metabolic risk factors for MS were higher for WC than for BMI.
CONCLUSION: WC is a better predictor of metabolic risk factors for developing MS than BMI. Therefore, we propose that metabolic risk factors be screened when WC ≥ 80 cm is found in both genders regardless of BMI.
The compulsive behaviour of observing an unsuspecting person undressing or being naked in voyeurism may be related to Obsessive-Compulsive spectrum disorder. The aim of this paper is to report a case that reiterates a unique psychopathology of a Malaysian male voyeur with an obsession on female body parts. This 35 year-old voyeur man who attended psychiatric outpatient clinic in an academic medical centre presented to a psychiatrist for taking photos of his sisters' naked bodies and collected nails and hairs from their body, coded them with intend for masturbation. His voyeuristic thoughts and urges which came repeatedly and intrusively, involving attempts to resist them and was associated with an inner tension for the urges to be fulfilled. He responded both to Paroxetine and behaviour therapy. The possibility that voyeurism, a paraphilia can manifest itself as a subtype of OCD is discussed. Keywords: Malaysian voyeur, obsession-compulsive spectrum disorder, body parts
OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to determine the relationship of long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic primary care setting.
METHOD: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of 807 hypertensive patients over a period of 10 years. Three-monthly clinic blood pressure readings were used to derive blood pressure variability (BPV), and CVD events were captured from patient records.
RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 9.8 years with 63.3% being women. The BPV and mean SBP over 10 years were 14.7 ± 3.5 and 142 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular event was 13%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BPV was the predictor of CVD events, whereas the mean SBP was not independently associated with cardiovascular events in this population. Those with lower SBP and lower BPV had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same low mean SBP but higher BPV (10.5 versus 12.8%). Similarly those with higher mean SBP but lower BPV also had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same high mean and higher BPV (11.6 versus 16.7%). Other variables like being men, diabetes and Indian compared with Chinese are more likely to be associated with cardiovascular events.
CONCLUSION: BPV is associated with an increase in CVD events even in those who have achieved lower mean SBP. Thus, we should prioritize not only control of SBP levels but also BPV to reduce CVD events further.
The results of this study indicate that the important viral agents associated with lower respiratory tract infections in young children are respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, and parainfluenza virus, particularly in those under 2 years of age. This is in close agreement with studies done in temperate climates. Influenza A virus is seasonal and plays an important role in upper respiratory tract infections in older children.
Study site: Inpatients and outpatients, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Few studies on falls interventions have been conducted in South East Asia. Despite its population ageing rapidly, the acceptability of interventions among the older population in this region remains variable. This study aims to explore views and experiences regarding falls and their prevention among older persons at high risk of falls.
METHOD: Sixteen individuals aged 60 years and over with at least one fall in the preceding 12 months were recruited from our Primary Care clinics. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews among individuals and focus-groups was conducted. Thematic analyses were conducted on transcriptions of audio-taped interviews using the WeftQDA software. The interviews ceased when data saturation was achieved.
RESULTS: The three themes included older persons' views on falls, help-seeking behaviour and views on falls interventions. Many older persons interviewed did not perceive falls as a serious problem, some reported a stigma surrounding falls, while others felt they had not sustained more serious injuries due to God's grace. Older persons sought traditional medicine and other alternative treatments for pain relief and other fall-related symptoms. Accessibility of healthcare facilities often prevented older persons from receiving physiotherapy or eye tests.
CONCLUSION: The delivery of complex interventions for a multifactorial condition such as falls in the older persons in our setting is inhibited by various cultural barriers, falls perceptions as well as logistic difficulties. Efforts to establish a multi-disciplinary intervention among our older population will need to include strategies to overcome these issues.
KEYWORDS: Accidental falls; Aged; Falls interventions; Falls preventions; Older adults; Qualitative study
Study site: Primary Care Clinics at University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
Choanal stenosis is a well recognized late complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However velopharyngeal stenosis post radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. We present here a case of bilateral choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis in a patient treated with radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 58-year-old woman presented to our otolaryngology clinic with a one year history of nasal obstruction. She was diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal carcinoma 12 years ago for which she received radiotherapy. Clinical examination revealed bilateral choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis. Treatment of choanal stenosis and velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging due to high incidence of recurrence and patients frequently require multiple procedures. The patient underwent a transnasal endoscopic excision of velopharyngeal scar tissue and widening of posterior choana using Surgitron®, mitomycin-C applied topically to the surgical wound and bilateral stenting under general anesthesia. The stents were kept for two weeks, and 3 years post operation velopharyngeal aperture and posterior choana remained patent. As illustrated in this case velopharyngeal stenosis can occur after radiotheraphy and should not be overlooked. Combine modality of transnasal endoscopic excision of velopharyngeal scar tissue, widening of choanal stenosis with Surgitron® followed by the application of mitomycin-C and stenting has been shown to be an effective option.
Study site: ENT clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: The Structured Migraine Interview (SMI) is a valid and reliable instrument for migraine diagnosis. However, a Malay version of the SMI is not available to be applied to the local Malaysian population. This study was designed to access the validity and reliability of a new Malay version of the SMI questionnaire.
METHODS: Patients with headache attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, were screened against the inclusion/exclusion criteria before recruitment. A standard translation procedure was used to translate and adapt the questionnaire into the Malay language. The translated version was tested for face, content and construct validities. Subsequently, validity and reliability studies were conducted (1(st) compilation), followed by retesting seven days later (2(nd) compilation).
RESULTS: A total of 157 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were enrolled in this study. The kappa value was 0.70 (p
The Short Form Health Survey SF-36 is a well-known generic health-related quality of life measure that has widely been used worldwide. However, given the cultural, social and ethnic differences in some countries, it might not follow the intended structure of the instrument. Hence, this study aims to determine the psychometric properties of the Malay version of Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) among postpartum mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1-month postpartum mothers attending Obstetric and Gynecology clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Kelantan, Malaysia. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and the factor structure was extracted by performing confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS v. 20 and AMOS v. 20. A total of 108 women responded. The mean (SD) score for the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score and Mental Component Summary (MCS) score were 43.3 (7.08) and 42.4 (6.87) respectively. The Cronbach alpha for PCS-12 was 0.749 and MCS-12 was 0.701. Spearman correlations of individual items and the SF-12 component summary scores showed PF, RP, BP and GH items correlated higher with the PCS score, whereas the VT, SF, RE, and MH items correlated higher with the MCS score lending support to its good convergent validity. The confirmatory factor solution showed final model with two factors structure and six items each with acceptable factor loadings, satisfactory absolute and parsimonious fitness (RMSEA=0.1, x2/df=2.4). The psychometric tests of the Malay version of SF-12 generally showed acceptable validity and reliability among postpartum women.
Study site: Obstretic and gynecology Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire.
METHODS: Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration).
RESULTS: A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87.
CONCLUSION: The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings.
Study site: Neurology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In view of the differing sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the non-English-speaking populations, we conducted the first validation study of the Malay version (M-MMSE) in Malaysia among 300 subjects (from the community and outpatient clinics).
METHODS: Three versions were used: M-MMSE-7 (serial 7), M-MMSE-3 (serial 3) and M-MMSE-S (spell 'dunia' backwards). Dementia was assessed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. The optimal cutoff scores were obtained from the receiver operating characteristics curves.
RESULTS: Seventy-three patients (24.3%) had dementia and 227 (75.7%) were controls. Three hundred patients completed the M-MMSE-7, 160 the M-MMSE-3 and 145 the M-MMSE-S. All 3 versions were valid and reliable in the diagnosis of dementia. The optimal cutoff scores varied with each version and gender. In the control group, significant gender differences were observed in the patients with the lowest educational status. Increasing educational levels significantly improved the M-MMSE performance in both genders.
CONCLUSION: All 3 versions of the M-MMSE are valid and reliable as a screening tool for dementia in the Malaysian population, but at different cutoff scores. In those with the lowest educational background, gender-adjusted cutoff scores should be applied.
Study site: Community, neurology and dementia outpatient clinics, Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)