The synthesis of nanoparticles often result in the generation of harmful chemical pollutants. As such, many researchers have focused on developing green processes, which include the biosynthesis. In this research, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using the leaf extract of whortleberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) via a simple ultrasonic-assisted method. The morphology, crystal size and structure, surface, thermal, and optical properties of the bio-mediated ZnO sample (ZnOext) were analyzed and compared with that produced without incorporating the extract (ZnOchem). The ZnO samples were evaluated for their antidiabetic, antibacterial, as well as their sono- and photo-catalytic performances. Initially, the samples were intraperitoneal injected to alloxan-diabetic rats to examine their treatment efficiency in terms of effects on fasting blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and total triglyceride levels. The ZnOext showed significantly higher efficiency for improving the health status of alloxan-diabetic rats in contrast with other tested treatments, vis. ZnOchem, insulin, and only leaf extract. In addition, both the ZnO samples were assessed against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and through sono- and photo-catalytic processes for removing rhodamine B, respectively. The results of this study indicated that not only the ZnOext sample was pollution free, it also exhibited higher potentials for treating diabetic rats, bacterial decontamination, and also oxidative removal of organic compounds under the influences of ultrasound and UV irradiations when compared with ZnOchem sample.
Snake venom LAAOs have been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic, edema-inducing, platelet aggregation-inducing/platelet aggregation-inhibiting, bactericidal and antiviral activities. A heat-stable form of l-amino acid oxidase isolated from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom (OH-LAAO) has been shown to exhibit very potent cytotoxicity against human tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts, and the cytotoxicity was due to the apoptosis-inducing effect of the enzyme. In this work, the molecular mechanism of cell death induced by OH-LAAO was investigated. The enzyme exerts its apoptosis-inducing effect presumably via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways as suggested by the increase in caspase-8 and -9 activities. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed that the expression of a total of 178 genes was significantly altered as a result of oxidative stress induced by the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzyme. Of the 178 genes, at least 27 genes are involved in apoptosis and cell death. These alterations of gene expression was presumably caused by the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction, as well as the non-specific oxidative modifications of signaling molecules that eventually lead to apoptosis and cell death. The very substantial up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes may also contribute to the potent cytotoxic action of OH-LAAO by producing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, the potent apoptosis inducing activity of OH-LAAO was likely due to the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction, as well as the non-specific oxidation of signalling molecules.
Heart mitochondria freshly isolated from ginseng treated rats respired higher at ADP-induced, state 3 respiratory rates and with greater respiratory indices. These mitochondria were less susceptible to experimentally-induced functional impairment. Control heart mitochondria incubated with ginseng extract also showed that ginseng prevented mitochondria from incubation induced deterioration with NAD-linked substrates. Comparison of force of contraction of isolated, perfused and electrically paced hearts showed that deterioration of the force of heart contraction was consistently smaller throughout the experiment in hearts from ginseng treated rats. These results indicated that Panax ginseng was able to delay experimentally induced heart mitochondrial impairment and muscle contraction deterioration.
New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (k(b)=5.03-33.00×10(5) M(-1)) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47×10(4) M(-1)) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.
The synthesis of derivatives of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MUs), which are structurally interesting antioxidants, was performed in this study. The modification of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) by different reaction steps was performed to yield the target compounds, the 4-MUs. The 4-MUs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR and Nuclear magnetic resonance; NMR) and micro-elemental analysis (CHNS). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the 4-MUs was evaluated in terms of their free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assay, chelating activity and their (FRAP) ferric-reducing antioxidant power, which were compared with a standard antioxidant. Our results reveal that the 4-MUs exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant mechanisms of the 4-MUs were also studied. Density Function Theory (DFT)-based quantum chemical studies were performed with the basis set at 3-21G. Molecular models of the synthesized compounds were studied to understand the antioxidant activity. The electron levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), for these synthesized antioxidants were also studied.
Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+) and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.
Accumulation of oxidized nucleic acids causes genomic instability leading to senescence, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Phytoagents are known to reduce the risk of cancer development; whether such effects are through regulating the extent of nucleic acid oxidation remains unclear. Here, we outlined the role of reactive oxygen species in nucleic acid oxidation as a driving force in cancer progression. The consequential relationship between genome instability and cancer progression highlights the importance of modulation of cellular redox level in cancer management. Current epidemiological and experimental evidence demonstrate the effects and modes of action of phytoagents in nucleic acid oxidation and provide rationales for the use of phytoagents as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents. Vitamins and various phytoagents antagonize carcinogen-triggered oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals and/or activating endogenous defence systems such as Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes or pathways. Moreover, metal ion chelation by phytoagents helps to attenuate oxidative DNA damage caused by transition metal ions. Besides, the prooxidant effects of some phytoagents pose selective cytotoxicity on cancer cells and shed light on a new strategy of cancer therapy. The "double-edged sword" role of phytoagents as redox regulators in nucleic acid oxidation and their possible roles in cancer prevention or therapy are discussed in this review.
The therapeutic potential of Cassia surattensis in reducing free radical-induced oxidative stress and inflammation particularly in hepatic diseases was evaluated in this study. The polyphenol rich C. surattensis seed extract showed good in vitro antioxidant. C. surattensis seed extract contained total phenolic content of 100.99 mg GAE/g dry weight and there was a positive correlation (r > 0.9) between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of the seed extract. C. surattensis seed extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and relative liver weight in paracetamol-induced liver hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the extract significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) contents in the liver tissues, which led to decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The histopathological examination showed the liver protective effect of C. surattensis seed extract against paracetamol-induced histoarchitectural alterations by maximum recovery in the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue. Furthermore, histopathological observations correspondingly supported the biochemical assay outcome, that is, the significant reduction in elevated levels of serum liver enzymes. In conclusion, C. surattensis seed extract enhanced the in vivo antioxidant status and showed antihepatotoxic activities, which is probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.
A series of five new 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl 4-(un/substituted)benzoates 4(a-e), with the general formula of C₈H₅O(C=O)CH₂O(C=O)C₆H₄X, X = H, Cl, CH₃, OCH₃ or NO₂, was synthesized in high purity and good yield under mild conditions. The synthesized products 4(a-e) were characterized by FTIR, ¹H-, (13)C- and ¹H-(13)C HMQC NMR spectroscopic analysis and their 3D structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The tested compounds showed antimicrobial ability in the order of 4b < 4a < 4c < 4d < 4e and the highest potency with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 125 µg/mL was observed for 4e. The results of antioxidant activities revealed the highest activity for compound 4e (32.62% ± 1.34%) in diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 4d (31.01% ± 4.35%) in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and 4a (27.11% ± 1.06%) in metal chelating (MC) activity.
In this day and age, the expectation of cosmetic products to effectively slow down skin photoaging is constantly increasing. However, the detrimental effects of UVB on the skin are not easy to tackle as UVB dysregulates a wide range of molecular changes on the cellular level. In our research, irradiated keratinocyte cells not only experienced a compromise in their redox system, but processes from RNA translation to protein synthesis and folding were also affected. Aside from this, proteins involved in various other processes like DNA repair and maintenance, glycolysis, cell growth, proliferation, and migration were affected while the cells approached imminent cell death. Additionally, the collagen degradation pathway was also activated by UVB irradiation through the upregulation of inflammatory and collagen degrading markers. Nevertheless, with the treatment of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) seed extract and fractions, the dysregulation of many genes and proteins by UVB was reversed. The reversal effects were particularly promising with the S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla ethyl acetate fraction (SMEAF). SMHF was able to oppose the detrimental effects of UVB in several different processes such as the redox system, DNA repair and maintenance, RNA transcription to translation, protein maintenance and synthesis, cell growth, migration and proliferation, and cell glycolysis, while SMEAF successfully suppressed markers related to skin inflammation, collagen degradation, and cell apoptosis. Thus, in summary, our research not only provided a deeper insight into the molecular changes within irradiated keratinocytes, but also serves as a model platform for future cosmetic research to build upon. Subsequently, both SMHF and SMEAF also displayed potential photoprotective properties that warrant further fractionation and in vivo clinical trials to investigate and obtain potential novel bioactive compounds against photoaging.
Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlies cataractogenesis, and therefore, various antioxidants have been investigated for anticataract properties. Several vitamin E analogs have also been studied for anticataract effects due to their antioxidant properties; however, the anticataract properties of tocotrienols have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied tocotrienol on the onset and progression of cataract and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactosemic rats.
Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC).
The compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ) was previously shown to be cytotoxic against several cancer cell lines, but its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of MNQ-induced cytotoxicity of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.
High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with DPPH free radical method and α-amylase bioassay was used to compare antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from 10 marine macroalgae species (3 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta and 3 Rhodophyta) from Blue Lagoon beach (Malaysia). Samples were also evaluated for their phenolic and stigmasterol content. On average, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the ethyl acetate extracts (55.1mg/100g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) compared to 35.0mg/100g GAE) while, as expected, phenolic content was higher in ethanol extracts (330.5mg/100g GAE compared to 289.5mg/100g GAE). Amounts of fucoxanthin, stigmasterol and α-amylase inhibitory activities were higher in ethyl acetate extracts. Higher enzyme inhibition is therefore related to higher concentrations of triterpenes and phytosterols (Note: these compounds are more soluble in ethyl acetate). Ethyl acetate extracts from Caulerpa racemosa and Padina minor, had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, and also showed moderately high antioxidant activities, stigmasterol content and polyphenolic content. Caulerpa racemose, being green algae, does not contain fucoxanthin, while Padina minor, being brown algae, contains high amounts of fucoxanthin. Therefore, it is very unlikely that fucoxanthin contributes to α-amylase inhibitory activity as previously reported.
The steady increase of diabetes is becoming a major burden on health care systems. As diabetic complications arise from oxidative stress, an antioxidant therapy along with anti-diabetic drugs is recommended. Myrmecodia or ant plant is highly valued as a traditional medicine in West Papua. It is used as an alternative treatment for diabetes, as the substances produced by ants can reduce blood sugar levels. The aim of this study was to develop and establish high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC)-bioautographic methods to measure the antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects in different extracts from Myrmecodia platytyrea and to compare them with sterol content. Antioxidant activity in methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts were measured with a direct HPTLC-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) assay, while hypoglycemic effects were assessed using a newly developed α-amylase inhibitory activity assay. Stigmasterol is observed, after derivatization with anisaldehyde, as purple colored zones under visible light at hRF values of 0.66. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the ethanol extract which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, while the DCM extract did not show antioxidant activity, but had significant α-amylase inhibitory activity. The highest α-amylase inhibitory activity was observed in the EA and DCM extracts and was related to their stigmasterol content.
The antioxidant activity of two synthesized coumarins namely, N-(4,7-dioxo-2- phenyl-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H,4H,7H)-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 5 and N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 6 were studied with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical methods and compared with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid. Compounds 5 and 6 were synthesized in a good yield from the addition reaction of maleic anhydride or mercaptoacetic acid to compound 4, namely N'-benzylidene-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide. Compound 4 was synthesized by the condensation of compound 3, namely 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy) acetohydrazide, with benzaldehyde. Compound 3, however, was synthesized from the addition of hydrazine to compound 2, namely ethyl 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetate, which was synthesized from the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with 4-hydroxycoumarin 1. Structures for the synthesized coumarins 2-6 are proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10-3 M and 10-5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin) decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS) enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis) and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10-5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10-3 M to 10-5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP) increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL-1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%-72.90% with the 10-5 M SA treatment followed by the 10-3 M SA (52.14%-63.66%) treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%-46.7%). These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10-5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.
Amauroderma rugosum fruiting bodies possess excellent cardiovascular benefits, including antioxidative, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation, and antithrombotic effects. In this article, we describe our investigations of the in vitro antioxidant activity and in vitro antiatherosclerotic potential through inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL peroxidation, and 3-hydroxy3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase catalytic activity using various fruiting body extracts partitioned with an organic solvent. Among 5 extracts/fractions tested, the semipolar ethyl acetate (EA) fraction demonstrated good antioxidant capacity based on total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating ability, cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation assays. The EA fraction also showed the strongest inhibitory effect on Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Chemical analysis conjointly identified 10 phenolic compounds (4 benzoic acid derivatives, 3 flavonoids, 1 cinnamic acid, 1 hexahydroxydiphenic acid dilactone, and 1 xanthone derivative), some of which play pivotal roles in arresting the physiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thereby attenuating the risk of cardiovascular events occurring.
Erythrocytes require glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) to generate NADPH and protect themselves against hemolytic anemia induced by oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is a major antioxidant enzyme that requires NADPH to recycle its oxidized (disulfide-bonded) form. Our aims were to determine whether Prx2 is more highly oxidized in G6PD-deficient erythrocytes and whether these cells are able to recycle oxidized Prx2 after oxidant challenge. Blood was obtained from 61 Malaysian neonates with G6PD deficiency (average 33% normal activity) and 86 controls. Prx2 redox state was analyzed by Western blotting under nonreducing conditions. Prx2 in freshly isolated blood was predominantly reduced in both groups, but the median level of oxidation was significantly higher (8 vs 3%) and the range greater for the G6PD-deficient population. When treated with reagent H2O2, the G6PD-deficient erythrocytes were severely compromised in their ability to recycle oxidized Prx2, with only 27 or 4% reduction after 1 h treatment with 0.1 or 1 mM H2O2 respectively, compared with >97% reduction in control erythrocytes. The accumulation of oxidized Prx2 in oxidatively stressed erythrocytes with common G6PD variants suggests that impaired antioxidant activity of Prx2 could contribute to the hemolysis and other complications associated with the condition.-Cheah, F.-C., Peskin, A. V., Wong, F.-L., Ithnin, A., Othman, A., Winterbourn, C. C. Increased basal oxidation of peroxiredoxin 2 and limited peroxiredoxin recycling in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes from newborn infants.
Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced inflammation is among the convergence points for the greatest hallmarks of hepatic insulin resistance. Celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii has been reported to mitigate insulin resistance and inflammation in animal disease models. Nevertheless, the specific mechanistic actions of celastrol in modulating such improvements at the cellular level remain obscure. The present study sought to explore the mechanistic roles of celastrol upon insulin resistance induced by palmitate in C3A human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes exposed to palmitate (0.75mM) for 48h exhibited reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress with diminished fatty acid oxidation. Elevated expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways and the amplified release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were observed following palmitate treatment. Consistently, palmitate reduced and augmented phosphorylated Tyrosine-612 and Serine-307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins, respectively in hepatocytes. However, celastrol at the optimum concentration of 30nM was able to reverse these deleterious occasions and protected the cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Importantly, we presented evidence for the first time that celastrol efficiently prevented palmitate-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes at least, via improved mitochondrial functions and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, the present investigation underlines a conceivable mechanism to elucidate the cytoprotective potential of celastrol in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation against the development of hepatic insulin resistance.