Displaying all 15 publications

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  1. Toh HT
    Am. J. Chin. Med., 1994;22(3-4):275-84.
    PMID: 7872239
    Heart mitochondria freshly isolated from ginseng treated rats respired higher at ADP-induced, state 3 respiratory rates and with greater respiratory indices. These mitochondria were less susceptible to experimentally-induced functional impairment. Control heart mitochondria incubated with ginseng extract also showed that ginseng prevented mitochondria from incubation induced deterioration with NAD-linked substrates. Comparison of force of contraction of isolated, perfused and electrically paced hearts showed that deterioration of the force of heart contraction was consistently smaller throughout the experiment in hearts from ginseng treated rats. These results indicated that Panax ginseng was able to delay experimentally induced heart mitochondrial impairment and muscle contraction deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/chemistry*
  2. Saw JT, Bahari MB, Ang HH, Lim YH
    Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2006 Nov;12(4):236-41.
    PMID: 17030294
    This is a cross-sectional survey evaluating the use of herbal medicines in medical wards patients that may interfere with the effect of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. Among the 250 patients participated, 42.4% (n=106) were taking herbs with 76 patients (71.7%) using herbs for the past 12 months. Overall, almost 31% (n=23, N=76) of patients were taking one or more of the specified herbal medicines [ginseng (Panax ginseng), garlic (Allium sativum), ginkgo (Gingko biloba) thought to interact with antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. The study showed that 21% (n=16, N=76) of patients co-ingested specified herbs with antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, of which half of them were at risk of potential drug-herb interactions. A large proportion of respondents involved in potential drug-herb interaction were elderly people (62.5%, n=5). However, more than 90% of herbal users did not disclose the use of herbal medicine to their health professionals. It is thus prudent for all care givers to be aware of the possibility of drug-herb interaction and inquire about herbal use from patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/adverse effects
  3. Ping FW, Keong CC, Bandyopadhyay A
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2011 Jan;133:96-102.
    PMID: 21321426
    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. Chronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax*
  4. Bandyopadhyay A, Ping FW, Keong CC
    J Hum Ergol (Tokyo), 2011 Dec;40(1-2):63-72.
    PMID: 25665208
    Acute supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) is known not to impose any significant effect on endurance performance of recreational Malaysian runners, while caffeine augments the ergogenic property of some herbs. The present study was aimed to examine the effects of acute supplementation of caffeine and PG on endurance running performance in a hot and humid condition. Nine heat adapted Malaysian recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 years, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) ingested either placebo or combined dose of 5 mg x kg(-1) of body weight of caffeine and 200 mg of PG one hour before the running on treadmill at 70% of VO2(max) in this placebo-controlled double blind randomised study in a laboratory environment of 31 degrees C and 70% relative humidity. They drank 3 ml x kg(-1) of body weight of cool water every 20 minutes during the exercise to prevent dehydration. Blood samples were withdrawn and oxygen uptake was recorded every 20 minutes while heart rate, core body temperature, skin temperature and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 minutes during the trials. Endurance time was significantly different (P < 0.05) between experimental and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant difference between the trials. Thus, we conclude that combined and acute supplementation of caffeine and PG in the said doses improved the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax*
  5. Donald, Koh Fook Chen, Joon, Wah Mak, Soo, Shen Ooi, Kwai Hoe Chong, Kok, Fee Mak
    MyJurnal
    Background: A number of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparations are being used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some components of these preparations have biochemical effects other than those of lowering blood glucose and indeed have been used for other medical indications in traditional practice. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect of the oral mixture of Traditional Chinese Medicine for diabetes (TCM-D™ complex) on blood glucose level and the biochemical changes if any, on the liver (ALT, AST, gamma-GT, albumin, globulin) and renal (blood creatinine, urea) functions in normal mice. The oral mixture is an aqueous extract of four wellknown traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and consists of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch., and Panax ginseng (red) CA Meyer in the proportion of 36%, 28%, 18%, and 18% respectively of the dry weight. These herbs have
    been shown to have blood glucose lowering activity and have been used for other traditional medicinal purposes.The safety of the combination was evaluated in the present study. Methods: Experimental Balb/c mice were treated orally via gastric tube with the extract at daily doses equivalent to 1 and 10 times the recommended human dose for 8 weeks. Blood glucose and other biochemical profiles were monitored at pre-treatment and monthly posttreatment until killed. Results: When compared to pre-treatment levels, the blood glucose levels were significantly lower in treated animals compared to those in the control group. At the recommended TCM-D™ dose the levels in treated animals were significantly lower than that of control animals and at pre-treatment. When compared with pre-treatment, the glucose levels were lowest at Week 8 of treatment, the mean levels being 111.23%, 83.32% and 70.33% in control, and in animals given 1 x and 10 x the recommended TCM-D™ dosage respectively. The blood glucose lowering effect was also associated with a significant weight loss in treated animals. There were transient increases in AST and ALT levels but these reverted to normal at Week 8 of treatment. The levels of bilirubin, g-GT, albumin, creatinine and blood urea were also not significantly different at Week 8 from pre-treatment levels in all groups. Conclusion: Even at 10 times the dosage recommended for humans, TCM-D™ did not affect the liver and renal functions of treated animals. Treated and control animals remained healthy and normal throughout the period of observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax
  6. Hamid RA, Kee TH, Othman F
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2013 Apr;5(2):129-33.
    PMID: 23798889 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.110544
    Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax
  7. Donald Koh Fook Chen, Joon Wah Mak, Soo Shen Ooi, Kok Fee Mak, Kwai Hoe Chong
    MyJurnal
    We previously evaluated the biochemical changes induced by the local product TCM for diabetes (TCM-D™) on blood glucose levels and other biochemical changes in normal mice fed orally with the recommended human dose (30 ml/kg daily) and ten times this dose for eight weeks. TCM-D™ is an aqueous extract of the roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, Paeonia lactiflora Pall, Glycyrrhiza uranlensis Fisch. and Panax ginseng Meyer (red) combined at the dry weight proportions of 36%, 28%, 18% and 18% respectively. The study showed that at these dosages the blood glucose levels as well as the body weights in treated mice were significantly reduced when compared with pretreatment values and control animals. The present study evaluated the effect of the extract in a mouse model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax
  8. Ong Lai Teik D, Lee XS, Lim CJ, Low CM, Muslima M, Aquili L
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150447.
    PMID: 26938637 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150447
    BACKGROUND: There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/chemistry*
  9. Liu KT, Lee CW
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Aug;39(2):189-192.
    PMID: 28866703
    We report a case of symptomatic bradycardia caused by consumption of a Chinese herbal medicine which was initially undisclosed to the attending emergency physician. The scientific name of the herb is Panax japonicus. Electrocardiogram revealed sinus bradycardia. Laboratory tests were normal except for the detection of a high serum digoxin level. Further interrogation of the patient eventually disclosed ingestion of the herb which, however, did not contain any digoxin. Other active ingredients in the herb include various types of ginsenoside. These are digoxin-like substances that had caused the observed false-positive detection of digoxin by fluorescence polarization immunoassay due to cross-reactivity. Our case-report provides an important insight about a blind-spot in the field of laboratory medicine (clinical pathology), namely, the false positive detection of digoxin due to crossreactivity in the immunoassay when we come across digoxin-like substances in clinical scenarios, which has barely received attention in the medical literature. It also conveys a clear educational message that with full understanding of the laboratory methodology and its mechanistic rationale there are actually some tricks-of-the-trade that allow us to optimize the specificity of the biochemical tests and the treatment of digoxin-like substances overdose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/adverse effects*; Panax/immunology
  10. Fakhria Al-Joufi, Anil K. Saxena, Imad M. Al-Ani, Norlelawati A. Talib, Rafidah H. Mokhtar, Norsidah Ku -Zaifah
    MyJurnal
    Atherosclerosis in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a growing health problem, especially in developing countries. Hyperlipidemia is known as a dominant risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Eurycoma Longifolia (EL) also known as Malaysian Ginseng/ Tongkat Ali on the testosterone level, biochemical changes of lipid profile and intima media thickness (IMT) in rats fed on high-fat diet. Twenty young, adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were housed for 12 weeks. After one week of acclimatization, they were randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals each and treated for 12 weeks as follow: Group ND was given only normal diet, group NDEL was given normal diet and EL extracts (15mg/kg) dissolved in distilled water, group HFD was given only high fat diet and group HFDEL was given high fat diet and EL extracts (15mg/kg). Rats which were treated with EL (NDEL and HFDEL) showed a significant increase (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax
  11. Chen YW, Lee HV
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2018 Feb;107(Pt A):78-92.
    PMID: 28860064 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.08.143
    In the present work, four types of newly chosen municipal solid wastes (Panax ginseng, spent tea residue, waste cotton cloth, and old corrugated cardboard) were studied as the promising sources for nanocellulose, which has efficiently re-engineered the structure of waste products into highly valuable nanocellulose materials. The nanocellulose was produced directly via a facile one-pot oxidative hydrolysis process by using H2O2/Cr(NO3)3 solution as the bleaching agent and hydrolysis medium under acidic condition. The isolated nanocellulose products were well-characterized in terms of chemical composition, product yield, morphological structure and thermal properties. The study has found that the crystallinity index of the obtained nanocellulose products were significantly higher (62.2-83.6%) than that of its starting material due to the successive elimination of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous regions of cellulose, which were in good agreement with the FTIR analysis. The evidence of the successful production of nanocellulose was given by TEM observation which has revealed the fibril widths were ranging from 15.6 to 46.2nm, with high cellulose content (>90%), depending on the cellulosic origin. The physicochemical properties of processed samples have confirmed that the isolation of high purity nanocellulose materials from different daily spent products is possible. The comparative study can help to provide a deep insight on the possibility of revalorizing the municipal solid wastes into nanocellulose via the simple and versatile one-pot isolation system, which has high potential to be used in commercial applications for sustainable development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/chemistry
  12. Lee YY, Saba E, Irfan M, Kim M, Chan JY, Jeon BS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2019 Feb 15;54:169-181.
    PMID: 30668366 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.186
    BACKGROUND: Different processing conditions alter the ginseng bioactive compounds, promoting or reducing its anti-inflammatory effects. We compared black ginseng (BG) - that have been steamed 5 times - with red ginseng (RG).

    HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: To compare the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of RG and BG.

    METHODS: Nitric Oxide (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay, quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema RESULTS: The ginsenoside contents were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and has been altered through increased processing. The highest concentration of these extracts inhibited NO production to near-basal levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at the mRNA level was investigated using qRT-PCR. Comparatively, BG exhibited better inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Protein expression was determined using western blot analysis and BG exhibited stronger inhibition. Xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats were carried out and tested with the effects of ginseng as well as dexamethasone and indomethacin - commonly used drugs. BG is a more potent anti-inflammatory agent, possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency comparable to the NSAIDs.

    CONCLUSION: BG has more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenoside component with increased processing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/chemistry*
  13. Ridzuan NRA, Rashid NA, Othman F, Budin SB, Hussan F, Teoh SL
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019 Mar 20.
    PMID: 30894108 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666190320124438
    Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent for the treatment of metastatic tumors, advanced bladder cancer and many other solid tumors. However, at higher doses, toxicities such as nephrotoxicity may appear. Cisplatin leads to DNA damage and subsequently renal cell death. Besides that, oxidative stress is also implicated as one of the main causes of nephrotoxicity. Several studies showed that numerous natural products: ginseng, curcumin, licorice, honey and pomegranate were able to reduce the oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and also at the same time act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, pre-treatment with vitamin supplementation such as vitamin C, E and riboflavin markedly decreased serum urea and increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes in kidney even after cisplatin induction in cancer patients. These natural products possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory medicinal properties, and they can be safely used as a supplementary regime or combination therapy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The present review focused on the protective role of few natural products which is widely used in folk medicines in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax
  14. Wong FC, Chai TT, Xiao J
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2019;59(6):947-952.
    PMID: 29787299 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1479681
    In our diets, many of the consumed foods are subjected to various forms of heating and thermal processing. Besides enhancing the taste, texture, and aroma of the foods, heating helps to sterilize and facilitate food storage. On the other hand, heating and thermal processing are frequently reported during the preparation of various traditional herbal medicines. In this review, we intend to highlight works by various research groups which reported on changes in phytochemicals and bioactivities, following thermal processing of selected plant-derived foods and herbal medicines. Relevant cases from plant-derived foods (garlic, coffee, cocoa, barley) and traditional herbal medicines (Panax ginseng, Polygonum multiforum, Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, Angelica sinensis Radix) will be presented in this review. Additionally, related works using pure phytochemical compounds will also be highlighted. In some of these cases, the amazing formation of new compounds were being reported. Maillard reaction could be concluded as the predominant pathway leading to the formation of new conjugates, along with other possibilities being suggested (degradation, transglycosylation, deglycosylation and dehydration). With collective efforts from all researchers, it is hoped that more details will be revealed and lead to the possible discovery of new, heat-mediated phytochemical conjugates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax
  15. Lukman SK, Al-Ashwal RH, Sultana N, Saidin S
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2019;67(5):445-451.
    PMID: 31061369 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c18-00847
    Electrodeposition is commonly used to deposit ceramic or metal coating on metallic implants. Its utilization in depositing polymer microcapsule coating is currently being explored. However, there is no encapsulation of drug within polymer microcapsules that will enhance its chemical and biological properties. Therefore, in this study, ginseng which is known for its multiple therapeutic effects was encapsulated inside biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules to be coated on pre-treated medical grade stainless steel 316L (SS316L) using an electrodeposition technique. Polyaniline (PANI) was incorporated within the microcapsules to drive the formation of microcapsule coating. The electrodeposition was performed at different current densities (1-3 mA) and different deposition times (20-60 s). The chemical composition, morphology and wettability of the microcapsule coatings were characterized through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analyses. The changes of electrolyte colors, before and after the electrodeposition were also observed. The addition of PANI has formed low wettability and uniform microcapsule coatings at 2 mA current density and 40 s deposition time. Reduction in the current density or deposition time caused less attachment of microcapsule coatings with high wettability records. While prolonging either one parameter has led to debris formation and melted microcapsules with non-uniform wettability measurements. The color of electrolytes was also changed from milky white to dark yellow when the current density and deposition time increased. The application of tolerable current density and deposition time is crucial to obtain a uniform microcapsule coating, projecting a controlled release of encapsulated drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Panax/chemistry*
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