Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 619 in total

  1. Mohamad Idris F
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):70-2.
    PMID: 27547117
    The emerging threat of Zika virus outbreak with associated neurological abnormalities needs to be assessed in perspective in terms of its ability to cause a pandemic. This article attempts to throw some light on the issue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  2. Ramachandran V, Marimuthu RR, Chinnambedu RS
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 05;75(3):314-315.
    PMID: 32467555
    No abstract provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/prevention & control*
  3. Kumar P, Kumar N, Aggarwal P, Yeap JAL
    Curr Psychol, 2021 Mar 14.
    PMID: 33746462 DOI: 10.1007/s12144-021-01567-0
    Background & aim: In the wake of COVID-19, organizations all over India have closed their premises and shifted to work from home policy to curb the further spread of the virus. This has led to increased stress and anxiety among employees, which explicably affects their satisfaction with life. Thus, the present study analyses the effect of COVID-19 induced stressors (role overload, lifestyle choices, family distraction, and occupational discomfort) on employees' distress levels and job performance. Subsequently, the impact of such distress and job performance on the employees' life satisfaction is analyzed during the lockdown period.

    Methodology: Data was collected from 433 working professionals of private and public organizations in the Delhi and NCR region of India during India's third and fourth phase of lockdown via a survey, which was distributed online. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was applied first to establish the validity of this study's model (measurement model validity) and subsequently test the hypothesized relationships in the model (structural model).

    Results: The COVID-19 induced stressors, i.e., role overload, lifestyle choices, and occupational discomfort, were significant predictors of distress during the lockdown. It has been found that role overload and change in lifestyle choice did not significantly affect job performance. Family distraction, occupational discomfort, and distress were significant in impacting job performance, with distress being the most significant one. During the COVID-19 pandemic, life satisfaction has reduced due to a significant increase in distress levels and lowered job performances.

    Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-01567-0.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  4. Muhammad Nur Amir AR, Binti Amer Nordin A, Lim YC, Binti Ahmad Shauki NI, Binti Ibrahim NH
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:574135.
    PMID: 33643985 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.574135
    The COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in 2019 has inflicted numerous clinical and public health challenges worldwide. It was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization and activated response teams at almost all Malaysian healthcare facilities. Upon activation of the National Crisis Preparedness and Response Center in January 2020, the National Institutes of Health Malaysia established a COVID-19 operation room at the facility level to address the rise in COVID-19 infection cases each day. The National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room committee formed a workforce mobilization team for an effective and efficient mobilization system to fulfill requests received for human resource aid within the Ministry of Health Malaysia facilities. Selected personnel would be screened for health and availability before mobilization letters and logistics arrangements if necessary. The workforce from the National Institutes of Health, consisting of various job positions, were mobilized every week, with each deployment cycle lasting 2 weeks. A total of 128 personnel from the six institutes under the National Institutes of Health were mobilized: tasks included fever screening, active case detection, health management at quarantine centers, and management of dead bodies. A well-organized data management system with a centralized online system integration could allow more rapid deployment and answer some of the key questions in managing a similar pandemic in the future. With improving infected COVID-19 cases throughout the country, the National Institutes of Health COVID-19 operation room was effectively closed on June 15, 2020, following approval from the Deputy Director-General of Health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/prevention & control*
  5. Cheah WL, Francis Wing CB, Zahari AN, Idris AS, Maksul NAA, Yusman NAL, et al.
    Ethics Med Public Health, 2021 Jun;17:100651.
    PMID: 33754125 DOI: 10.1016/j.jemep.2021.100651
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in many changes in the delivery of health service which not only affect the public as well as healthcare workers, and also among medical and nursing students who are currently undergoing their training. This study aims to determine the commitment and willingness of medical and nursing students in Sarawak in treating patients with COVID-19 and its associated factors.

    Methods: It was a cross-sectional study using online questionnaire, carried out in a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. All medical and nursing students were invited to participate in this study. Data was entered and analysed using IBM SPSS version 22.

    Result: A total of 304 respondents participated in the study, with 81.6% female and 69.4% medical students. Majority of the respondents were most willing to take a medical history, do a physical examination, throat swabbing, draw blood and perform IV drip insertion. There was a high commitment among respondents to treat COVID-19 patients regardless of personal risks. Majority of the respondents also agreed that medical staff who are involved in treating COVID-19 patients should be receiving a salary increase and compensation should be given to affected healthcare families, and all non-medical staff should be involved in treating COVID-19 patients. About 71% agreed about a law mandating medical staffs to treat patient.

    Conclusion: The willingness and commitment of medical and nursing students to treat COVID-19 patients was high, indicating their potential work force as healthcare providers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  6. Tatum M
    BMJ, 2020 07 10;370:m2677.
    PMID: 32651180 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m2677
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/economics
  7. Ng BH, Nik Abeed NN, Abdul Hamid MF, Soo CI, Low HJ, Ban YA
    Respirol Case Rep, 2020 Aug;8(6):e00604.
    PMID: 32607242 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.604
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. We have since seen its fast spread worldwide. A likely contributing factor was the lack of symptoms of some of the carriers, making them unaware of their risk of spreading to other more vulnerable individuals. The other important finding has been the reported cases of infectivity despite lack of symptoms. We describe the SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patterns in asymptomatic individuals. The common computed tomography (CT) thorax patterns found are peripheral ground-glass opacification (GGO) with upper or lower lobe predominance. We believe screening for 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in high-risk individuals may help identify the patients needing longer follow-up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  8. Nanda P, Tandon S, Khanna A
    Sex Reprod Health Matters, 2020 12;28(1):1831136.
    PMID: 33073718 DOI: 10.1080/26410397.2020.1831136
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  9. Ibrahim A, Chong MC, Khoo S, Wong LP, Chung I, Tan MP
    Geriatrics (Basel), 2021 Mar 22;6(1).
    PMID: 33810155 DOI: 10.3390/geriatrics6010031
    Social isolation, magnified by the restriction of movement order during the COVID-19 pandemic, may lead to negative psychosocial health impacts among community-dwelling older adults. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate recruitment rates, data collection, and group exercises conducted through virtual technology among individuals aged 60 years and over in Malaysia. Participants were recruited from the Promoting Independence in Seniors with Arthritis (PISA) pilot cohort through social media messaging. A four-week course of virtual group exercise was offered. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during the last attended follow-up of the cohort study (pre-pandemic), pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using diaries with daily entries and attendance to the virtual group exercise sessions were also captured electronically daily. The outcomes of interest were changes in anxiety and depression scores from baseline to pre-intervention (pandemic-related) and post-intervention (virtual exercise related). Forty-three individuals were recruited. A significant increase in anxiety scores from baseline to pre-intervention was observed. Comparisons using repeated-measures analysis of variance between those who attendance ≥14 and <14 group exercise sessions revealed no between-within subject differences in depression scores. There was a 23% dropout rate in the post intervention survey and 60.5% of diaries were returned. Virtual group exercises could be conducted among older adults residing in a middle-income country, though recruitment would have been limited to those with internet access.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  10. Roychoudhury S, Das A, Sengupta P, Dutta S, Roychoudhury S, Choudhury AP, et al.
    PMID: 33333995 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17249411
    The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/history*
  11. Tham HW, Balasubramaniam V, Ooi MK, Chew MF
    Front Microbiol, 2018;9:1040.
    PMID: 29875751 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01040
    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a new global health threat. Since its first discovery in Zika forest in Uganda, this virus has been isolated from several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The geographical distribution of these mosquito species across tropical and subtropical regions has led to several outbreaks, including the recent pandemic in Brazil, followed by the Pacific islands and other areas of North and South America. This has gained attention of the scientific community to elucidate the epidemiology and transmission of ZIKV. Despite its strong attention on clinical aspects for healthcare professionals, the relationships between ZIKV and its principal vectors, A. aegypti and A. albopictus, have not gained substantial interest in the scientific research community. As such, this review aims to summarize the current knowledge on ZIKV tropism and some important mechanisms which may be employed by the virus for effective strategies on viral survival in mosquitoes. In addition, this review identifies the areas of research that should be placed attention to, for which to be exploited for novel mosquito control strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  12. Hayat K, Rosenthal M, Xu S, Arshed M, Li P, Zhai P, et al.
    PMID: 32408528 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17103347
    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a deadly disease that is affecting most of the countries worldwide. Public understanding, including knowledge about signs and symptoms, mode of transmission, and hygiene of COVID-19, is vital for designing effective control strategies during a public health crisis. The current study is aimed at investigating the public's perspective about COVID-19, including their knowledge, attitude, and practices.

    METHODS: A rapid online survey comprising 22 items was administered during the rapid outbreak of COVID-19 in Pakistan. Questions were focused on the prevention, transmission, clinical features, and control of COVID-19. In addition, the attitudes and practices of the participants were explored. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and regression analysis were carried out during data analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 1257 respondents participated in this study. Most of the respondents had good knowledge (good = 64.8%, average = 30.5%, poor = 4.7%) of COVID-19. Gender, marital status, education, and residence were observed to have a significant association with the knowledge score. A vast majority of the survey respondents (77.0%) believed that COVID-19 would be controlled successfully in Pakistan. The practices of wearing a mask (85.8%) and handwashing (88.1%) were common among the participants.

    CONCLUSION: The participants demonstrated good knowledge and reasonable attitudes and practices toward most aspects of the COVID-19 outbreak. Improvements in certain areas could be made by mass-level education.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/prevention & control*
  13. Norhayati MN, Che Yusof R, Azman MY
    PLoS One, 2021;16(6):e0252603.
    PMID: 34086747 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252603
    BACKGROUND: In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline healthcare providers who are engaged in the direct diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients face a high risk of infection yet receive inadequate protection from contamination and minimal support to cope with overwork, frustration, and exhaustion. These problems have created significant psychological and mental health concerns for frontline healthcare providers. This study aimed to compare the levels of vicarious traumatization between frontline and non-frontline healthcare providers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    METHODOLOGY: All the subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this comparative cross-sectional study, which was conducted from May to July 2020 in two hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire, namely, the Malay-version Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey were utilized. A descriptive analysis, independent t-test, and analysis of covariance were performed using SPSS Statistics version 26.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 frontline and 146 non-frontline healthcare providers were recruited. Vicarious traumatization was significantly higher among the non-frontline healthcare providers (estimated marginal mean [95% CI]: 79.7 [75.12, 84.30]) compared to the frontline healthcare providers (estimated marginal mean [95% CI]: 74.3 [68.26, 80.37]) after adjusting for sex, duration of employment, and social support.

    CONCLUSION: The level of vicarious traumatization was higher among non-frontline compared to frontline healthcare providers. However, the level of severity may differ from person to person, depending on how they handle their physical, psychological, and mental health. Hence, support from various resources, such as colleagues, family, the general public, and the government, may play an essential role in the mental health of healthcare providers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  14. Norhayati MN, Mofreh SAM, Azman YM
    PMID: 34066534 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18094949
    Frontline healthcare providers are exposed to indirect trauma through dealing with traumatized patients. This puts them at risk of vicarious traumatization. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, this study seeks to establish the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire among healthcare providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The translated Malay version of the Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire was completed by 352 healthcare providers in Kelantan, Malaysia. The data was entered using IBM SPSS Statistics version 26.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, 2019), and descriptive analysis was performed. The psychometric properties of the scale were assessed in two phases. The Rasch model to assess the validity and reliability was performed using Winsteps version 3.72.3. The confirmatory factor analysis using the structural equation modeling was performed using AMOS version 23.0. The Rasch analysis showed that the 38 items, in two constructs, had high item reliability and item separation at 0.97 and item separation at 5.36, respectively, while good person reliability and person separation were at 0.95 and 4.58, respectively. The correlations of all persons and items are greater than 0.20. There are no misfitting or overfitting items in the outfit MNSQ. There are four items that are challenging in answering the scale. The final model of the confirmatory factor analysis shows two constructs with 38 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 4.73; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.94; comparative fit index = 0.94; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.10). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains were higher than 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. The Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire tested among healthcare providers has been shown to valid and reliable to assess vicarious traumatization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  15. Satija S, Mehta M, Sharma M, Prasher P, Gupta G, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Future Med Chem, 2020 09;12(18):1607-1609.
    PMID: 32589055 DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2020-0149
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  16. Hasan SS, Radford S, Kow CS, Zaidi STR
    J Thromb Thrombolysis, 2020 Nov;50(4):814-821.
    PMID: 32748122 DOI: 10.1007/s11239-020-02235-z
    Many aspects of care such as management of hypercoagulable state in COVID-19 patients, especially those admitted to intensive care units is challenging in the rapidly evolving pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We seek to systematically review the available evidence regarding the anticoagulation approach to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) among COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units. Electronic databases were searched for studies reporting venous thromboembolic events in patients admitted to the intensive care unit receiving any type of anticoagulation (prophylactic or therapeutic). The pooled prevalence (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) of VTE among patients receiving anticoagulant were calculated using the random-effects model. Subgroup pooled analyses were performed with studies reported prophylactic anticoagulation alone and with studies reported mixed prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation. We included twelve studies (8 Europe; 2 UK; 1 each from the US and China) in our systematic review and meta-analysis. All studies utilized LMWH or unfractionated heparin as their pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, either prophylactic doses or therapeutic doses. Seven studies reported on the proportion of patients with the previous history of VTE (range 0-10%). The pooled prevalence of VTE among ICU patients receiving prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation across all studies was 31% (95% CI 20-43%). Subgroup pooled analysis limited to studies reported prophylactic anticoagulation alone and mixed (therapeutic and prophylactic anticoagulation) reported pooled prevalences of VTE of 38% (95% CI 10-70%) and 27% (95% CI 17-40%) respectively. With a high prevalence of thromboprophylaxis failure among COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units, individualised rather than protocolised VTE thromboprophylaxis would appear prudent at interim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  17. Su G, Ong HC, Ibrahim S, Fattah IMR, Mofijur M, Chong CT
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jun 15;279:116934.
    PMID: 33744627 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116934
    The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted great shocks and challenges to the environment, society and economy. Simultaneously, an intractable issue appeared: a considerable number of hazardous medical wastes have been generated from the hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities, constituting a serious threat to public health and environmental sustainability without proper management. Traditional disposal methods like incineration, landfill and autoclaving are unable to reduce environmental burden due to the issues such as toxic gas release, large land occupation, and unsustainability. While the application of clean and safe pyrolysis technology on the medical wastes treatment to produce high-grade bioproducts has the potential to alleviate the situation. Besides, medical wastes are excellent and ideal raw materials, which possess high hydrogen, carbon content and heating value. Consequently, pyrolysis of medical wastes can deal with wastes and generate valuable products like bio-oil and biochar. Consequently, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of the pyrolysis of medical wastes. It demonstrates the feasibility of pyrolysis, which mainly includes pyrolysis characteristics, product properties, related problems, the prospects and future challenges of pyrolysis of medical wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  18. McLean RK, Graham SP
    Front Vet Sci, 2019;6:16.
    PMID: 30778392 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00016
    Nipah virus (NiV) causes a severe and often fatal neurological disease in humans. Whilst fruit bats are considered the natural reservoir, NiV also infects pigs and may cause an unapparent or mild disease. Direct pig-to-human transmission was responsible for the first and still most devastating NiV outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-99, with nearly 300 human cases and over 100 fatalities. Pigs can therefore play a key role in the epidemiology of NiV by acting as an "amplifying" host. The outbreak in Singapore ended with the prohibition of pig imports from Malaysia and the Malaysian outbreak was ended by culling 45% of the country's pig population with costs exceeding US$500 million. Despite the importance of NiV as an emerging disease with the potential for pandemic, no vaccines, or therapeutics are currently approved for human or livestock use. In this mini-review, we will discuss current knowledge of NiV infection in pigs; our ongoing work to develop a NiV vaccine for use in pigs; and the pig as a model to support human vaccine development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
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