MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire.
RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8).
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.
METHODS: The cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted at five primary schools in central of Peninsular Malaysia. Each family consisted of a Malay child, aged 8-12 years, and their main caregiver(s). Information on socio-demographics, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected. Correlations and regression analyses were used to assess dietary relationships within family dyads.
RESULTS: Approximately 29.6% of the children and 75.0% parents were categorised as being overweight or obese. Intakes of nutrients and food groups were below the national recommended targets for majority of children and adults. A large proportion of energy intake mis-reporters were identified: mothers (55.5%), fathers (40.2%) and children (40.2%). Children's body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with parental BMI (fathers, r = 0.37; mothers, r = 0.34; P < 0.01). For dietary intakes, moderate-to-strong (0.35-0.72) and weak-to-moderate (0.16-0.35) correlations were found between mother-father and child-parent dyads, respectively. Multiple regression revealed that maternal percentage energy from fat (β = 0.09, P < 0.01) explained 81% of the variation in children's fat intake.
CONCLUSIONS: Clear parental dietary relationships, especially child-mother dyads, were found. Despite a significant proportion of families with members who were overweight or obese, the majority reported dietary intakes below recommended levels, distorted by energy mis-reporting. The findings of the present study can inform interventions targeting parent-child relationships to improve family dietary patterns in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of short-term intravenous magnesium on the length of hospital stay and quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease. To determine the effects of long-term oral magnesium therapy on the frequency of painful crises and the quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books.Date of last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 01 December 2016.Date of last search of other resources (clinical trials registries): 29 March 2017.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled studies of oral or intravenous magnesium compared to placebo or no magnesium.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data using standard Cochrane methodologies.
MAIN RESULTS: We included five randomized placebo-controlled studies with a total of 386 participants (aged three to 53 years). Two shorter parallel studies (n = 306) compared intravenous magnesium sulphate to placebo (normal saline) for admission to hospital due to a vaso-occlusive crisis, for which we were able to analyse data. The quality of evidence was moderate for studies presenting this comparison mainly due to limitations due to risk of bias and imprecision. Two of the three longer-term studies comparing oral magnesium pidolate to placebo had a cross-over design. The third was a parallel factorial study which compared hydroxyurea and oral magnesium to each other and to placebo over a longer period of time; we only present the comparison of oral magnesium to placebo from this study. The quality of evidence was very low with uncertainty of the estimation.The eight-hourly dose levels in the two studies of intravenous magnesium were different; one used 100 mg/kg while the second used 40 mg/kg. Only one of these studies (n = 104) reported the mean daily pain score while hospitalised (a non-significant difference between groups, moderate quality evidence). The second study (n = 202) reported a number of child- and parent-reported quality of life scores. None of the scores showed any difference between treatment groups (low quality evidence). Data from one study (n = 106) showed no difference in length of stay in hospital between groups (low quality evidence). Both studies reported on adverse events, but not defined by severity as we had planned. One study showed significantly more participants receiving intravenous magnesium experienced warmth at infusion site compared to placebo; there were no differences between groups for other adverse events (low quality evidence).Three studies (n = 80) compared oral magnesium pidolate to placebo. None of them reported data which we were able to analyse. One study (n = 24) reported on the number of painful days and stated there was no difference between two groups (low quality evidence). None of the studies reported on quality of life or length of hospital stay. Two studies (n = 68) reported there were no differences in levels of magnesium in either plasma or red blood cells (moderate quality evidence). Two studies (n = 56) reported adverse events. One reported episodes of mild diarrhoea and headache, all of which resolved without stopping treatment. The second study reported adverse events as gastrointestinal disorders, headache or migraine, upper respiratory infections and rash; which were all evenly distributed across treatment groups (moderate quality evidence).
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to low quality evidence showed neither intravenous magnesium and oral magnesium therapy has an effect on reducing painful crisis, length of hospital stay and changing quality of life in treating sickle cell disease. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding its clinical benefit. Further randomized controlled studies, perhaps multicentre, are necessary to establish whether intravenous and oral magnesium therapies have any effect on improving the health of people with sickle cell disease.
METHOD: Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep.
RESULTS: For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful.
CONCLUSION: Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment.
METHODS: A total of 2406 Malaysian children aged 5 to 12 years, who had participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS), were included in this study. Cognitive performance [non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)] was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices, while socioeconomic characteristics were determined using parent-report questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured weight and height, while BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) were determined using WHO 2007 growth reference.
RESULTS: Overall, about a third (35.0%) of the children had above average non-verbal IQ (high average: 110-119; superior: ≥120 and above), while only 12.2% were categorized as having low/borderline IQ ( 3SD), children from very low household income families and children whose parents had only up to primary level education had the highest prevalence of low/borderline non-verbal IQ, compared to their non-obese and higher socioeconomic counterparts. Parental lack of education was associated with low/borderline/below average IQ [paternal, OR = 2.38 (95%CI 1.22, 4.62); maternal, OR = 2.64 (95%CI 1.32, 5.30)]. Children from the lowest income group were twice as likely to have low/borderline/below average IQ [OR = 2.01 (95%CI 1.16, 3.49)]. Children with severe obesity were twice as likely to have poor non-verbal IQ than children with normal BMI [OR = 2.28 (95%CI 1.23, 4.24)].
CONCLUSIONS: Children from disadvantaged backgrounds (that is those from very low income families and those whose parents had primary education or lower) and children with severe obesity are more likely to have poor non-verbal IQ. Further studies to investigate the social and environmental factors linked to cognitive performance will provide deeper insights into the measures that can be taken to improve the cognitive performance of Malaysian children.
METHODS: Out of 105 patients with IHD, 76 completed self-administration of HeartQoL at the clinic followed by at home within a 2-week interval. In retest, patients responded using non-interview methods (phone messaging, email, fax, and post). Phone interviewing was reserved for non-respondents to reminder.
RESULTS: Reliability of HeartQoL was good (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.78-0.82), was supported in the Bland-Altman plot, and was comparable to five studies on MacNew of similar retest interval (MacNew-English = 0.70-0.75; translated MacNew = 0.72-0.91). Applicability of its standard error of measurement (0.20-0.25) and smallest detectable change (0.55-0.70) will depend on availability of normative data in future.
CONCLUSION: The reliability of HeartQoL is comparable to its parent instrument, the MacNew. The HeartQoL is a potentially reliable core IHD-specific HRQoL instrument in measuring group change.