PURPOSE: This study explores the menstrual experiences of people with DSD and sex reassignment in Nigeria.
METHODS: A qualitative approach with a phenomenological study design was employed in this study to explore and describe the experiences of people with DSD at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using NVivo software.
RESULTS: The findings show that the participants experienced menstrual problems: men with menstruation and women with amenorrhea. The female participants generally described amenorrhea as a disappointment and linked menstruation with womanhood. Amenorrhea evinced both emotional and psychological effects. However, some of the female participants considered amenorrhea in a positive light and were happy with their lives without menstruation. The menstrual experiences of male participants included menarche, lower abdominal pain, regular monthly bleeding, and ovulation. The male participants described menstruation as a disaster in their lives and a source of anxiety, suicidal ideation, and depression. Menstruation negatively affected their psychosocial well-being.
CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual experience of individuals with DSD negatively affects their quality of life. The women with DSD in this study showed a generally poor knowledge of menarche, menstruation, and puberty, indicating that their parents had ignored the initial symptoms of DSD. DSD were only recognized at puberty because of the development of ambiguous physical traits and of the onset of menstruation in men and the confirmation of amenorrhea in women.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
METHODS: An online survey in English, Japanese, Chinese and Spanish was disseminated between May and November 2016 via 27 international professional bodies to >30 clinical professions chosen a priori to represent occupations involved in the management of neonatal ankyloglossia.
RESULTS: A total of 1721 responses came from nursing (51%), medical (40%), dental (6%) and allied health (4%) clinicians. Nurses (40%) and allied health (34%) professionals were more likely than doctors (8%) to consider ankyloglossia as important for lactation problems, as were western (83%) compared to Asian (52%) clinicians. Referrals to clinicians for ankyloglossia management originated mainly from parents (38%). Interprofessional referrals were not clearly defined. Frenectomies were most likely to be performed by surgeons (65%) and dentists (35%), who were also less likely to be involved in lactation support. Clinicians performing frenectomies were more likely to consider analgesia as important compared to those not performing frenectomies.
CONCLUSION: The diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia vary considerably around the world and between professions. Efforts to standardise management are required.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the test-retest reliability of the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) questionnaire in Malay language; to determine the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among parents and its associations with parents' socio-demographic characteristics.
METHODS: Forward and backward translation of PACV in Malay language was carried out. The reliability of the Malay-PACV questionnaire was tested among parents with children. The same questionnaire was used to study vaccine hesitancy among parents in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Information pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, sources of information regarding vaccination and vaccine hesitancy were collected. Associations between vaccine hesitancy with socio-demographic factors were tested using Multivariable Logistic Regression.
RESULTS: The Spearman correlation coefficient and Cronbach alpha for total PACV was 0.79 (p<0.001) and 0.79 respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients of the subscales ranged from 0.54 to 0.90 demonstrating fair to excellent reliability. A total of 63 (11.6%) parents were noted to be vaccine hesitant. In the univariate analyses, vaccine hesitancy was associated with unemployed parents, parents who were younger, had fewer children and non-Muslim. In the multivariate model, pregnant mothers expecting their first child were four times more likely to be vaccine hesitant compared to those who already had one or more children (aOR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.74-8.79) and unemployed parents were also more likely to be vaccine hesitant (aOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08-3.59). The internet (65.6%) was the main source of information on vaccination followed by brochures (56.9%).
CONCLUSION: The Malay-PACV questionnaire is reliable to be used. The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among the multi-ethnic Malaysians was comparable with other populations. Pregnant mothers expecting their first child and unemployed parents were found to be more vaccine hesitant.
Methods: In this exploratory qualitative study, two focus group discussion (15 teachers) and 30 individual in-depth interviews were conducted among female adolescents in the eighth grade in Zahedan, Iran. Qualitative content analysis was used for data evaluation.
Results: The views of students and teachers demonstrated nine of needs including: informing students about the schools' health project aims, education and training all dimensions of health with an emphasis on mental health, use of experts in various fields for education from other organisations, employing capable and trusted counselors in schools, utilisation of a variety of teaching methods, activating reward systems for encouraging students' participation in group activities, teaching communication and the ability to establish good relationships with parents and strategies for resolving family conflict, teaching parents and students high-risk behaviours and strategies for handling them as well as reforming wrong attitudes and indigenous sub-culture.
Conclusion: This study found the different needs of Iranian female students compared to other cultures about a health promoting school programme. Therefore, their contribution can provide an insight for formulating policies and intervention in schools.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 caregivers of children with ASD aged between 2 and 17 years old that received treatment at two tertiary care centres in Kelantan. Permission to use the original version of the PSS questionnaire was obtained. The original English version of the PSS was translated into a Malay version following the 10 steps proposed by an established guideline. Pre-testing of the PSS was carried out with 30 caregivers before confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was established using 110 caregivers. They were asked to assess their understanding of the questionnaire. The one-dimensional questionnaire consists of 11 items, including staff attitudes, availability of staff, supportiveness, and helpfulness. The 5-point Likert scale provided ratings from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using a robust maximum likelihood estimator.
RESULTS: The analysis showed model fit data with good reliability.
CONCLUSION: The PSS-M shows overall model fitness based on specific indices, with good construct validity and excellent absolute reliability to determine the satisfaction level of caregivers of children with ASD with respect to health care services.