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  1. Dolzhenko MM, Barnett OY, Grassos C, Dragomiretska NV, Goloborodko BI, Ilashchuk TO, et al.
    Adv Ther, 2020 11;37(11):4549-4567.
    PMID: 32979190 DOI: 10.1007/s12325-020-01490-z
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of premature deaths globally and in Ukraine. Dyslipidemia is a recognized risk factor for the development of CVD. Therefore, early detection and appropriate management of dyslipidemia are essential for the primary prevention of CVDs. However, currently, there is a lack of Ukraine-specific guideline recommendations focusing on the management of dyslipidemia in individuals with low-to-moderate CV risk, thus creating an urgent need for structured and easily implementable clinical recommendations/guidelines specific to the country. An expert panel of cardiologists, endocrinologists, and family physicians convened in Ukraine in March 2019. The expert panel critically reviewed and analyzed the current literature and put forth the following recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia in individuals with low-to-moderate risk of CVDs specific to Ukraine: (1) family physicians have the greatest opportunities in carrying out primary prevention; (2) lipid-lowering interventions are essential for primary prevention as per guidelines; (3) a number of nutraceuticals and nutraceutical combinations with clinically established lipid-lowering properties can be considered for primary prevention; they also have a suggested role as an alternative therapy for statin-intolerant patients; (4) on the basis of clinical evidence, nutraceuticals are suggested by guidelines for primary prevention; (5) red yeast rice has potent CV-risk-lowering potential, in addition to lipid-lowering properties; (6) in patients with low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk, a nutraceutical combination of low-dose red yeast rice and synergic lipid-lowering compounds can be used as integral part of guideline-recommended lifestyle interventions for effective primary prevention strategy; (7) nutraceutical combination can be used in patients aged 18 to 75+ years; its use is particularly appropriate in the age group of 18-44 years; (8) it is necessary to attract the media (websites, etc.) to increase patient awareness on the importance of primary prevention; and (9) it is necessary to legally separate nutraceuticals from dietary supplements. These consensus recommendations will help physicians in Ukraine effectively manage dyslipidemia in individuals with low-to-moderate CV risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  2. Mohd Fauzi MF, Mohd Yusoff H, Mat Saruan NA, Muhamad Robat R, Abdul Manaf MR, Ghazali M
    BMJ Open, 2020 09 25;10(9):e036849.
    PMID: 32978189 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036849
    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to estimate the level of acute fatigue, chronic fatigue and intershift recovery among doctors working at public hospitals in Malaysia and determine their inter-relationship and their association with work-related activities during non-work time.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Seven core clinical disciplines from seven tertiary public hospitals in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Study was conducted among 330 randomly-sampled doctors. Response rate was 80.61% (n=266).

    RESULTS: The mean score of acute fatigue, chronic fatigue and intershift recovery were 68.51 (SD=16.549), 54.60 (SD=21.259) and 37.29 (SD=19.540), respectively. All these scores were out of 100 points each. Acute and chronic fatigue were correlated (r=0.663), and both were negatively correlated with intershift recovery (r=-0.704 and r=-0.670, respectively). Among the work-related activities done during non-work time, work-related ruminations dominated both the more frequent activities and the association with poorer fatigue and recovery outcomes. Rumination on being scolded/violated was found to be positively associated with both acute fatigue (adjusted regression coefficient (Adj.b)=2.190, 95% CI=1.139 to 3.240) and chronic fatigue (Adj.b=5.089, 95% CI=3.876 to 6.303), and negatively associated with recovery (Adj.b=-3.316, 95% CI=-4.516 to -2.117). Doing work task at workplace or attending extra work-related activities such as locum and attending training were found to have negative associations with fatigue and positive associations with recovery. Nevertheless, doing work-related activities at home was positively associated with acute fatigue. In terms of communication, it was found that face-to-face conversation with partner did associate with higher recovery but virtual conversation with partner associated with higher acute fatigue and lower recovery.

    CONCLUSIONS: Work-related ruminations during non-work time were common and associated with poor fatigue and recovery outcomes while overt work activities done at workplace during non-work time were associated with better fatigue and recovery levels. There is a need for future studies with design that allow causal inference to address these relationships.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  3. Mohd Hanafiah AN, Johari MZ, Azam S
    BMC Fam Pract, 2020 08 09;21(1):162.
    PMID: 32772931 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-020-01217-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia has committed to the global call to achieve universal health coverage, and with the adoption of Sustainable Development Goals, is further strengthening the health system through the primary health care services, particularly the family doctor concept. The Enhanced Primary Health Care (EnPHC) initiative was implemented to address the worrying upward trend of non-communicable disease prevalence, and incorporates the Family Health Team (FHT) concept. The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of the FHT as part of the EnPHC intervention.

    METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with the intervention design team, healthcare providers and patients in two rounds during the implementation period. A total of 121 individuals in the two rounds, split into different groups, where some of the participants of the FGD were also interviewed individually. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis, with codes being organised into larger themes.

    RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the data were around the process of FHT implementation and the advantages of the FHT, which included continuity of health care and improved quality of care. Patients and health care providers were receptive to the FHT concept, and took the effort to adapt the concept in the local settings.

    CONCLUSIONS: The FHT concept implemented at 20 public primary health clinics has benefits appreciated by health care providers and patients. Addressing the viable shortcomings would better prepare the current primary healthcare system to scale up the FHT concept nationwide and enhance its feasibility and sustainability.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with the National Medical Research Register, Ministry of Health Malaysia ( NMRR-17-295-34711 ).

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  4. Kassai R, van Weel C, Flegg K, Tong SF, Han TM, Noknoy S, et al.
    Aust J Prim Health, 2020 Aug 04.
    PMID: 32746962 DOI: 10.1071/PY19194
    Primary health care is essential for equitable, cost-effective and sustainable health care. It is the cornerstone to achieving universal health coverage against a backdrop of rising health expenditure and aging populations. Implementing strong primary health care requires grassroots understanding of health system performance. Comparing successes and barriers between countries may help identify mutual challenges and possible solutions. This paper compares and analyses primary health care policy in Australia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Data were collected at the World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA) Asia-Pacific regional conference in November 2017 using a predetermined framework. The six countries varied in maturity of their primary health care systems, including the extent to which family doctors contribute to care delivery. Challenges included an insufficient trained and competent workforce, particularly in rural and remote communities, and deficits in coordination within primary health care, as well as between primary and secondary care. Asia-Pacific regional policy needs to: (1) focus on better collaboration between public and private sectors; (2) take a structured approach to information sharing by bridging gaps in technology, health literacy and interprofessional working; (3) build systems that can evaluate and improve quality of care; and (4) promote community-based, high-quality training programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  5. Samsiah A, Othman N, Jamshed S, Hassali MA
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2020 Aug;42(4):1118-1127.
    PMID: 32494990 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-020-01041-0
    Background Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors that occur in health care organisations; however, these errors are largely underreported. Objective This study assessed knowledge on medication error reporting, perceived barriers to reporting medication errors, motivations for reporting medication errors and medication error reporting practices among various health care practitioners working at primary care clinics. Setting This study was conducted in 27 primary care clinics in Malaysia. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers. Main outcome measures Health care practitioners' knowledge, perceived barriers and motivations for reporting medication errors. Results Of all respondents (N = 376), nurses represented 31.9% (n = 120), followed by doctors (n = 87, 23.1%), pharmacists (n = 63, 16.8%), assistant medical officers (n = 53, 14.1%), pharmacist assistants (n = 46, 12.2%) and family medicine specialists (n = 7, 1.9%). Of the survey respondents who had experience reporting medication errors, 56% (n = 62) had submitted medication error reports in the preceding 12 months. Results showed that 41.2% (n = 155) of respondents were classified as having good knowledge on medication error and medication error reporting. The mean score of knowledge was significantly higher among prescribers and pharmacists than nurses, pharmacist assistants and assistant medical officers (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  6. Abdul Aziz AF, Tan CE, Ali MF, Aljunid SM
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2020 Jun 20;18(1):193.
    PMID: 32563246 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-020-01450-9
    BACKGROUND: Satisfaction with post stroke services would assist stakeholders in addressing gaps in service delivery. Tools used to evaluate satisfaction with stroke care services need to be validated to match healthcare services provided in each country. Studies on satisfaction with post discharge stroke care delivery in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are scarce, despite knowledge that post stroke care delivery is fragmented and poorly coordinated. This study aims to modify and validate the HomeSat subscale of the Dutch Satisfaction with Stroke Care-19 (SASC-19) questionnaire for use in Malaysia and in countries with similar public healthcare services in the region.

    METHODS: The HomeSat subscale of the Dutch SASC-19 questionnaire (11 items) underwent back-to-back translation to produce a Malay language version. Content validation was done by Family Medicine Specialists involved in community post-stroke care. Community social support services in the original questionnaire were substituted with equivalent local services to ensure contextual relevance. Internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was done to validate the factor structure of the Malay version of the questionnaire (SASC10-My™). The SASC10-My™ was then tested on 175 post-stroke patients who were recruited at ten public primary care healthcentres across Peninsular Malaysia, in a trial-within a trial study.

    RESULTS: One item from the original Dutch SASC19 (HomeSat) was dropped. Internal consistency for remaining 10 items was high (Cronbach alpha 0.830). Exploratory factor analysis showed the SASC10-My™ had 2 factors: discharge transition and social support services after discharge. The mean total score for SASC10-My™ was 10.74 (SD 7.33). Overall, only 18.2% were satisfied with outpatient stroke care services (SASC10-My™ score ≥ 20). Detailed analysis revealed only 10.9% of respondents were satisfied with discharge transition services, while only 40.9% were satisfied with support services after discharge.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SASC10-My™ questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool to measure caregiver or patient satisfaction with outpatient stroke care services in the Malaysian healthcare setting. Studies linking discharge protocol patterns and satisfaction with outpatient stroke care services should be conducted to improve care delivery and longer-term outcomes.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.: ACTRN12616001322426 (Registration Date: 21st September 2016.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  7. Ng CJ, Teo CH, Ang KM, Kok YL, Ashraf K, Leong HL, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(1):6-14.
    PMID: 32284799
    Introduction: This study aimed to determine the views and practices of healthcare providers and barriers they encountered when implementing the national health screening program for men in a public primary care setting in Malaysia.

    Methods: An online survey was conducted among healthcare providers across public health clinics in Malaysia. All family medicine specialists, medical officers, nurses and assistant medical officers involved in the screening program for adult men were invited to answer a 51-item questionnaire via email or WhatsApp. The questionnaire comprised five sections: participants' socio-demographic information, current screening practices, barriers and facilitators to using the screening tool, and views on the content and format of the screening tool.

    Results: A total of 231 healthcare providers from 129 health clinics participated in this survey. Among them, 37.44% perceived the implementation of the screening program as a "top-down decision." Although 37.44% found the screening tool for adult men "useful," some felt that it was "time consuming" to fill out (38.2%) and "lengthy" (28.3%). In addition, 'adult men refuse to answer' (24.1%) was cited as the most common patient-related barrier.

    Conclusions: This study provided useful insights into the challenges encountered by the public healthcare providers when implementing a national screening program for men. The screening tool for adult men should be revised to make it more user-friendly. Further studies should explore the reasons why men were reluctant to participate in health screenings, thus enhancing the implementation of screening programs in primary care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  8. Gharibi F, Dadgar E
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(2):19-29.
    PMID: 32843941
    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the challenges faced in the implementation of the pay-for-performance system in Iran's family physician program.

    Study design: Qualitative.

    Place and duration of study: The study was conducted with 32 key informants at the family physician program at the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences between May 2018 and June 2018. Method: This is a qualitative study. A purposeful sampling method was used with only one inclusion criterion for participants: five years of experience in the family physician program. The researchers conducted 17 individual and group non-structured interviews and examined participants' perspectives on the challenges faced in the implementation of the pay-for-performance system in the family physician program. Content analysis was conducted on the obtained data.

    Results: This study identified 7 themes, 14 sub-themes, and 46 items related to the challenges in the implementation of pay-for-performance systems in Iran's family physician program. The main themes are: workload, training, program cultivation, payment, assessment and monitoring, information management, and level of authority. Other sub-challenges were also identified.

    Conclusion: The study results demonstrate some notable challenges faced in the implementation of the pay-for-performance system. This information can be helpful to managers and policymakers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  9. Dowrick C, Kassai R, Lam CLK, Lam RW, Manning G, Murphy J, et al.
    J Multidiscip Healthc, 2020;13:1693-1704.
    PMID: 33268991 DOI: 10.2147/JMDH.S271070
    Mental ill health affects individual well-being and national economic prosperity and makes up a substantial portion of the burden of disease globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Integrating mental health into primary care is widely considered a key strategy to improve access to mental health care. Integration, however, is a complex process that needs to be addressed at multiple levels. A collaboration between the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Digital Hub for Mental Health and the World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA) is described in this paper, which outlines a framework and next steps to improve the mental health of communities in APEC economies. This paper notes gaps related to the integration of mental health into primary care across the region and identifies enablers and current best practices from several APEC economies. The potential of digital technology to benefit primary mental health care for populations in the APEC region, including delivery of training programs for healthcare staff and access to resources for patients, is described. Finally, key next steps are proposed to promote enhanced integration into primary care and improve mental health care throughout the APEC region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  10. Chu ECP, Lo FS, Bhaumik A
    J Family Med Prim Care, 2019 Nov;8(11):3742-3744.
    PMID: 31803683 DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_839_19
    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by progressive muscle weakness and pathognomonic skin eruptions. Systemic corticosteroid with or without an immunosuppressive agent is the current treatment of choice in most cases. Cutaneous disease in DM is often refractory and can become the most challenging component to manage effectively. Here, we report a case of recalcitrant DM in a 66-year-old female who sought chiropractic attention for recent episodes of pain and paresthesia in the neck and exacerbation of joint pain. As expected, the musculoskeletal complaints including neck pain, peripheral arthralgia, and muscle weakness that resolved within 1 month after starting treatment. Unexpectedly, dramatic remission of the characteristic skin rashes occurred concurrently. The underlying therapeutic mechanisms of chiropractic remain elusive. This case highlights the importance of family physicians becoming familiar with diagnosing the condition and using a multidisciplinary team approach to treat recalcitrant DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  11. Muhamad R, Horey D, Liamputtong P, Low WY
    Arch Sex Behav, 2019 04;48(3):949-960.
    PMID: 30238183 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-018-1236-1
    Recognizing barriers to managing sexual issues makes it more likely that effective ways to overcome them will be found. In Malaysia, where discussion of sexual issues is taboo, sociocultural factors may influence how physicians manage patients with these types of problems. This article focuses on the challenges encountered by 21 Malay family physicians when women experiencing sexual problems and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) attended their clinics, an uncommon occurrence in Malaysia, despite their high prevalence. This qualitative study employed a phenomenological framework and conducted face-to-face in-depth interviews. Three main barriers to managing women with sexual problems were identified that can hinder assessment and treatment: insufficient knowledge and training; unfavorable clinic environments; and personal embarrassment. Some barriers were associated with physician characteristics but many were systemic. These were further evaluated using social cognitive theory. Professional attitudes appear important as those physicians with an interest in managing women's health seemed to make greater effort to explore issues further and work to gain trust. Physicians who appeared indifferent to the impact of FSD showed greater reluctance to find solutions. Systemic issues included unfavorable clinical settings, lack of training, and lack of local evidence. Any strategy to address FSD needs to be underpinned by appropriate policies and resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family/psychology*
  12. Cahir C, Wallace E, Cummins A, Teljeur C, Byrne C, Bennett K, et al.
    Ann Fam Med, 2019 Mar;17(2):133-140.
    PMID: 30858256 DOI: 10.1370/afm.2359
    PURPOSE: To evaluate a patient-report instrument for identifying adverse drug events (ADEs) in older populations with multimorbidity in the community setting.

    METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 859 community-dwelling patients aged ≥70 years treated at 15 primary care practices. Patients were asked if they had experienced any of a list of 74 symptoms classified by physiologic system in the previous 6 months and if (1) they believed the symptom to be related to their medication, (2) the symptom had bothered them, (3) they had discussed it with their family physician, and (4) they required hospital care due to the symptom. Self-reported symptoms were independently reviewed by 2 clinicians who determined the likelihood that the symptom was an ADE. Family physician medical records were also reviewed for any report of an ADE.

    RESULTS: The ADE instrument had an accuracy of 75% (95% CI, 77%-79%), a sensitivity of 29% (95% CI, 27%-31%), and a specificity of 93% (95% CI, 92%-94%). Older people who reported a symptom had an increased likelihood of an ADE (positive likelihood ratio [LR+]: 4.22; 95% CI, 3.78-4.72). Antithrombotic agents were the drugs most commonly associated with ADEs. Patients were most bothered by muscle pain or weakness (75%), dizziness or lightheadedness (61%), cough (53%), and unsteadiness while standing (52%). On average, patients reported 39% of ADEs to their physician. Twenty-six (3%) patients attended a hospital outpatient clinic, and 32 (4%) attended an emergency department due to ADEs.

    CONCLUSION: Older community-dwelling patients were often not correct in recognizing ADEs. The ADE instrument demonstrated good predictive value and could be used to differentiate between symptoms of ADEs and chronic disease in the community setting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  13. ISBN: 978-967-0538-17-4
    Citation: Teng CL, Khoo EM, Ng CJ (editors). Family Medicine, Healthcare & Society: Essays By Dr M K Rajakumar, Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 2019

    First edition: 2008

    Contents of second edition:
    Preface to the Second Edition iii
    Acknowledgements iv
    Contents vi
    Foreword by Dr Harbaskh Singh vii
    Foreword by Professor Chris van Weel (in the First Edition) viii
    Foreword by Datuk Dr D M Thuraiappah (in the First Edition) ix
    Section 1: Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 1
    1 Put not New Wine into Old Bottles 3
    2 The Importance of Primary Care 6
    3 Primary Health for all the People 11
    4 The Evolution of General Practice 16
    5 Future of Family Medicine in Developing Countries 23
    6 Family Practice: Uniting Across Frontiers 27
    Section 2: Training for Family Medicine 31
    7 Specialisation in Primary Healthcare training for the new General Practice in Malaysia [summary] 32
    8 A Proposal for the Training of Physicians in Primary Care for the Rural Areas of Malaysia 34
    9 The Family Physician in Asia: Looking to the 21st Century 40
    10 Training Family Doctors in a Developing Country 46
    Section 3: Family Medicine journals 51
    11 Family Physician [inaugural issue of Family Physician] 52
    12 Our journal [inaugural issue of Malaysian Family Physician] 56
    Section 4: Healthcare Improvement 58
    13 The Future of the Health Services in Malaysia. [summary] 59
    14 Quality in Family Practice 68 15 Foreword, In: Chee HL, Barraclough S (ed). Health Care in Malaysia 75 Section 5: Ethics and Professionalism 81
    16 Ethical Consequences of Technological Change 83
    17 Dr Sun Yat Sen Oration. Between Faith and Reason 91
    18 Ethics, Professionalism and the “Trade” 99
    19 Rural Health and Global Equity: Am I My Brother’s Keeper? 103
    20 Achieving Equity Through a Primary Care-Led Health System 108 Section 6: Civil Society 112
    21 Looking Back, Looking Forward 113
    Appendix 1: Dr M K Rajakumar: A brief curriculum vitae 120
    Appendix 2: Books and articles about Dr M K Rajakumar 124
    Appendix 3: Reflections and comments 125
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  14. Kabir MJ, Hassanzadeh-Rostami Z, Ashrafian Amiri H, Nasrollapour Shirvani SD, Keshavarzi A, Hosseini S
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):28-36.
    PMID: 32175038
    Background and objective: A successful family physician program needs ongoing and full cooperation between people and the organizations in charge. Ensuring the satisfaction of family physicians through improvement of the underlying factors could motivate them to provide high-quality services. This study aimed to determine the family physicians' satisfaction level with the factors affecting the dynamism of the urban family physicians program in the Fars and Mazandaran provinces of Iran.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out in urban areas in the Fars and Mazandaran provinces in 2016. The sample consisted of 143 and 96 family physicians, respectively, in Fars and Mazandaran provinces and was selected using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire and included both sociodemographic variables and factors assessing the family physicians' satisfaction levels. Each factor was scored based on a Likert scale from 0 to 5 points, and any satisfaction level higher than 3 out of 5 was equated with being satisfied.

    Results: The overall satisfaction levels among family physicians in Fars and Mazandaran provinces were 2.77±0.53 and 3.37±0.56, respectively, revealing a statistically significant difference between provinces (p<0.001). Moreover, the mean satisfaction scores for the performances of healthcare centers, insurance companies, specialists, healthcare workers, and the population covered were 2.78±0.1, 2.54±0.9, 2.52±0.8, 4.24±0.07, and 2.96±0.8, respectively. The family physicians' levels of satisfaction were significantly correlated with population size (p=0.02, r= -0.106), and willingness to stay in an urban family physician program (p<0.001, r= +0.398).

    Conclusion: This study revealed that family physicians exhibited a low level of satisfaction with the urban family physician program. Given the direct association between family physicians' satisfaction levels and retention in the program, it is expected that family physicians will no longer stay in the program, and it is likely to have subsequent executive problems.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  15. Akram Z, Abduljabbar T, Hanif A, Khan A, Vohra F
    Niger J Clin Pract, 2017 05;20(5):595-599.
    PMID: 28513519 DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.197017
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners (FMPs) towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed and a 13-item survey questionnaire was given to FMPs practicing in 12 different teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The questions were aimed at exploring the knowledge of FMP's regarding the association of obesity and periodontal disease and their attitude towards the association of obesity and periodontal disease. Chi-square and Spearman co-efficient were conducted to compare subgroups and correlate factors with the knowledge score of FMPs.

    RESULTS: A total of 314 questionnaires were completed (response rate = 92%). Median age of participants was 41 years and 57% were females. Almost 61% of FMPs answered all the knowledge questions correctly and 64% reported moderate understanding of the association between periodontal health and obesity. Nearly 73% FMPs inquired from obese patients regarding the periodontal disease and more than half (58%) refer patients to a dentist for evaluation. More than half of FMPs perform periodontal disease screening. Nearly all FMPs considered informing obese patients regarding periodontal disease as one of their roles.

    CONCLUSIONS: FMP's play an important role in the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal conditions in obese patients. More than two thirds of FMPs showed good knowledge of the association of obesity and periodontal disease. The attitudes of FMPs towards assessing and referring obese patients at a risk of having periodontal disease were reassuring.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Che Ibrahim NH, Md Shukri N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2017;12(1):35-36.
    PMID: 28503274 MyJurnal
    A common bony protrusion that occurs over the hard palate is sometimes mistaken for a malignancy especially when it is large. This bony growth is a torus palatinus (TP), which is a benign bony prominence over the hard palate. It occurs most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and is often located at the canine to premolar area. A basic knowledge of the assessment and management of TP is important, particularly for the first-line family physician to ensure that the correct information is given to the patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  17. Sharifah Nurul Aida Syed Ghazaili, Norwati Daud
    MyJurnal
    Job satisfaction is defined as pleasurable or positive emotional state which results from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. It is often determined by how well outcome meet or exceed expectations. There are many factors which are related to job satisfaction among family physicians. Data on satisfaction among family physicians varies from country to country. This study aimed to determine the level of job satisfaction among family physicians in Malaysia and its associated factors. A cross sectional study was performed among 117 family physicians in Malaysia between July 2012 and December 2012. A questionnaire consists of socio-demographic characteristic, professional and health clinic characteristics and Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale was used. The results showed that 85% of Malaysian family physicians are satisfied with their job. They are mostly satisfied with hours of work, colleagues and fellow workers, and freedom to choose own method of working. They are least satisfied with physical working condition, rate of pay and recognition. Female gender and less number of health clinics in-charged were associated with increased in overall job satisfaction. Most of the family physicians in Malaysia are satisfied with their job. However there are certain areas that should be looked into which are physical working condition, rate of pay and recognition. Malaysian family physicians should receive equal career opportunity, promotion and salary scale like other specialties
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family*
  18. Chan SC, Mohd Amin S, Lee TW
    Malays Fam Physician, 2016;11(2-3):2-8.
    PMID: 28461851
    BACKGROUND: The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP)/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP) examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent.

    OBJECTIVE: This paper discusses the process and issues encountered in implementing standard setting to the Conjoint Part 1 examination.

    DISCUSSION: Critical to success in standard setting were judges' understanding of the process of the modified Angoff method, defining the borderline candidate's characteristics and the composition of judges. These were overcome by repeated hands-on training, provision of detailed guidelines and careful selection of judges. In December 2013, 16 judges successfully standard set the Part 1 Conjoint examinations, with high inter-rater reliability: Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.926 (Applied Knowledge Test), 0.921 (Key Feature Problems).
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  19. Wong SL, Lee PY, Ng CJ, Hanafi NS, Chia YC, Lai PS, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Sep;56(9):518-22.
    PMID: 26451055 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015137
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which primary care doctors assessed patients newly diagnosed with hypertension for the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the patients' first clinic visit for hypertension. The study also aimed to examine the trend of assessment for CVD risk factors over a 15-year period.
    METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between January and May 2012. Data was extracted from the paper-based medical records of patients with hypertension using a 1:4 systematic random sampling method. Data collected included CVD risk factors and a history of target organ damage (TOD), which were identified during the patient's first visit to the primary care doctor for hypertension, as well as the results of the physical examinations and investigations performed during the same visit.
    RESULTS: A total of 1,060 medical records were reviewed. We found that assessment of CVD risk factors during the first clinic visit for hypertension was poor (5.4%-40.8%). Assessments for a history of TOD were found in only 5.8%-11.8% of the records, and documented physical examinations and investigations for the assessment of TOD and secondary hypertension ranged from 0.1%-63.3%. Over time, there was a decreasing trend in the percentage of documented physical examinations performed, but an increasing trend in the percentage of investigations ordered.
    CONCLUSION: There was poor assessment of the patients' CVD risk factors, secondary causes of hypertension and TOD at their first clinic visit for hypertension. The trends observed in the assessment suggest an over-reliance on investigations over clinical examinations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
  20. Chew BH, Yasin MM, Cheong AT, Rashid MR, Hamzah Z, Ismail M, et al.
    Springerplus, 2015;4:213.
    PMID: 25992310 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-015-1004-9
    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians, Family
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