Displaying all 18 publications

  1. Jamila N, Khairuddean M, Yaacob NS, Kamal NN, Osman H, Khan SN, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2014 Jun;54:60-7.
    PMID: 24813683 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2014.04.003
    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13→17)-abeo-3β-acetoxy-9α,13β-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  2. Abdelgawad MA, Bakr RB, Ahmad W, Al-Sanea MM, Elshemy HAH
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 11;92:103218.
    PMID: 31536956 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103218
    To enhance the cytotoxicity of benzimidazole and/or benzoxazole core, the benzimidazole/benzoxazole azo-pyrimidine were synthesized through diazo-coupling of 3-aminophenybenzimidazole (6a) or 3-aminophenylbenzoxazole (6b) with diethyl malonate. The new azo-molanates 6a&b mixed with urea in sodium ethoxide to afford the benzimidazolo/benzoxazolopyrimidine 7a&b. The structure elucidation of new synthesized targets was proved using spectroscopic techniques NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The cytoxicity screening had been carried out against five cancer cell lines: prostate cancer (PC-3), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), pancreas cancer (PaCa-2) and colon cancer (HT-29). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity, phospholipase A2-V and cyclooxygenases inhibitory activities of the target compounds 7a&b were evaluated and the new compounds showed potent activity (cytotoxicity IC50 range from 4.3 to 9.2 µm, antioxidant activity from 40% to 80%, COXs or LOX inhibitory activity from 1.92 µM to 8.21 µM). The docking of 7a&b was made to confirm the mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  3. Kollu U, Avula VKR, Vallela S, Pasupuleti VR, Zyryanov GV, Neelam YS, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2021 06;111:104837.
    PMID: 33812281 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104837
    A new series of urea/thiourea derivatives have been efficiently synthesized from the reaction of L-3-hydroxytyrosine with selective isocyanates/isothiocyanates and characterized by Infra-red, proton & carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral and mass spectrometry studies. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and also studied their molecular docking interaction profiles against 1N8Q and 3NRZ enzymatic proteins. The in vitro antioxidant activity has further supported by quantitative structure activity relationship, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion & toxicity studies, bioactivity studies & enzyme inhibition assay and identified that they were potentially bound to ASP490 & ASP361 aminoacid residue in chain A of 1N8Q protein and GLN1194 aminoacid residue in chain L of 3NRZ protein and are responsible for potential antioxidant activity. It is proved that urea derivatives linked with 4-fluoro & 4-nitro and thiourea derivatives linked with 3-chloro & 4-fluoro have exhibited promising antioxidant activity. In eventual synthesized compounds have been identified as potential blood-brain barrier penetrable compounds and proficient central nervous system active neuro-protective antioxidant agents as they have envisaged as easily penetrable to blood-brain barrier thresholds, a neuroprotective property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  4. Zengin G, Rodrigues MJ, Abdallah HH, Custodio L, Stefanucci A, Aumeeruddy MZ, et al.
    Comput Biol Chem, 2018 Dec;77:178-186.
    PMID: 30336375 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2018.10.005
    The genus Silene is renowned in Turkey for its traditional use as food and medicine. Currently, there are 138 species of Silene in Turkey, amongst which have been several studies for possible pharmacological potential and application in food industry. However, there is currently a paucity of data on Silene salsuginea Hub.-Mor. This study endeavours to access its antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) was used to detect phenolic compounds, and molecular docking was performed to provide new insights for tested enzymes and phenolics. High amounts of apigenin (534 μg/g extract), ferulic acid (452 μg/g extract), p-coumaric acid (408 μg/g extract), and quercetin (336 μg/g extract) were detected in the methanol extract while rutin (506 μg/g extract) was most abundant in the aqueous extract. As for their biological properties, the methanol extract exhibited the best antioxidant effect in the DPPH and CUPRAC assays, and also the highest inhibition against tyrosinase. The aqueous extract was the least active enzyme inhibitor but showed the highest antioxidant efficacy in the ABTS, FRAP, and metal chelating assays. At a concentration of 15.6 μg/mL, the methanol extract resulted in a moderate decrease (25.1%) of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Among the phenolic compounds, epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and kaempferol showed the highest binding affinity towards the studied enzymes in silico. It can be concluded that extracts of S. salsuginea are a potential source of functional food ingredients but need further analytical experiments to explore its complexity of chemical compounds and pharmacological properties as well as using in vivo toxicity models to establish its maximum tolerated dose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  5. Hussain S, Ullah F, Ayaz M, Ali Shah SA, Ali Shah AU, Shah SM, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2019;13:4195-4205.
    PMID: 31849451 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S228971
    Background: Cancer is one of the chronic health conditions worldwide. Various therapeutically active compounds from medicinal plants were the current focus of this research in order to uncover a treatment regimen for cancer. Anchusa arvensis (A. anchusa) (L.) M.Bieb. contains many biologically active compounds.

    Methods: In the current study, new ester 3-hydroxyoctyl -5- trans-docosenoate (compound-1) was isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of A. anchusa using column chromatography. Using MTT assay, the anticancer effect of the compound was determined in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG-2) compared with normal epithelial cell line (Vero). DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were performed to assess the antioxidant potential. The Molecular Operating Environment (MOE-2016) tool was used against tyrosine kinase.

    Results: The structure of the compound was elucidated based on IR, EI, and NMR spectroscopy technique. It exhibited a considerable cytotoxic effect against HepG-2 cell lines with IC50 value of 6.50 ± 0.70 µg/mL in comparison to positive control (doxorubicin) which showed IC50 value of 1.3±0.21 µg/mL. The compound did not show a cytotoxic effect against normal epithelial cell line (Vero). The compound also exhibited significant DPHH scavenging ability with IC50 value of 12 ± 0.80 µg/mL, whereas ascorbic acid, used as positive control, demonstrated activity with IC50 = 05 ± 0.15 µg/mL. Similarly, it showed ABTS radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 130 ± 0.20 µg/mL) compared with the value obtained for ascorbic acid (06 ± 0.85 µg/mL). In docking studies using MOE-2016 tool, it was observed that compound-1 was highly bound to tyrosine kinase by having two hydrogen bonds at the hinge region. This good bonding network by the compound might be one of the reasons for showing significant activity against this enzyme.

    Conclusion: Our findings led to the isolation of a new compound from A. anchusa which has significant cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 cell lines with marked antioxidant potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors*
  6. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Ahmad S, Saad WZ, Omar AR, Ho YW
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5955-70.
    PMID: 22016638 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095955
    Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0-1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) to ferrous ion (Fe(2+)). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  7. Kadhum AA, Al-Amiery AA, Musa AY, Mohamad AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5747-61.
    PMID: 22016624 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095747
    The antioxidant activity of two synthesized coumarins namely, N-(4,7-dioxo-2- phenyl-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H,4H,7H)-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 5 and N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 6 were studied with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical methods and compared with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid. Compounds 5 and 6 were synthesized in a good yield from the addition reaction of maleic anhydride or mercaptoacetic acid to compound 4, namely N'-benzylidene-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide. Compound 4 was synthesized by the condensation of compound 3, namely 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy) acetohydrazide, with benzaldehyde. Compound 3, however, was synthesized from the addition of hydrazine to compound 2, namely ethyl 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetate, which was synthesized from the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with 4-hydroxycoumarin 1. Structures for the synthesized coumarins 2-6 are proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  8. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(11):14828-44.
    PMID: 23203096 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114828
    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10-3 M and 10-5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin) decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS) enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis) and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10-5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10-3 M to 10-5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP) increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL-1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%-72.90% with the 10-5 M SA treatment followed by the 10-3 M SA (52.14%-63.66%) treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%-46.7%). These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10-5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  9. Arumugam B, Palanisamy UD, Chua KH, Kuppusamy UR
    Mol. Vis., 2019;25:47-59.
    PMID: 30820141
    Purpose: Oxidative stress is implicated in the etiology of diabetes and its debilitating complications, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). Various flavonoids have been reported to be useful in reducing DR progression. Myricetin derivatives (F2) isolated from leaf extract of Syzygium malaccense have the potential to serve as functional food as reported previously. The present study was performed with the aim of determining the antioxidant potential and protective effect of myricetin derivatives (F2) isolated from leaf extract of S. malaccense against glucose oxidase (GO)-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production that causes oxidative stress in ARPE-19 (RPE) cells.

    Methods: Antioxidant properties were assessed through various radical (DPPH, ABTS, and nitric oxide) scavenging assays and determination of total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power level. ARPE-19 cells were preincubated with samples before the addition of GO (to generate H2O2). Cell viability, change in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 levels in cell culture supernatant, and gene expression were assessed.

    Results: F2 showed higher antioxidant levels than the extract when assessed for radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power. F2 protected the ARPE-19 cells against GO-H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing the production of H2O2 and intracellular reactive oxygen species. This was achieved by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/NFE2L2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2), as well as downregulation of nitric oxide producer (NOS2) at the transcriptional level.

    Conclusions: The results showed that myricetin derivatives from S. malaccense have the capacity to exert considerable exogenous antioxidant activities and stimulate endogenous antioxidant activities. Therefore, these derivatives have excellent potential to be developed as therapeutic agents for managing DR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  10. Shakir RM, Ariffin A, Abdulla MA
    Molecules, 2014;19(3):3436-49.
    PMID: 24658568 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19033436
    Eleven new 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenols 5a-k were synthesized by reacting aryl hydrazides with 3,5-di-tert butyl 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride. The resulting compounds were characterized based on their IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, and HRMS data. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazide (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to test the antioxidant properties of the compounds. Compounds 5f and 5j exhibited significant free-radical scavenging ability in both assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  11. Alshawsh MA, Abdulla MA, Ismail S, Amin ZA, Qader SW, Hadi HA, et al.
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5385-95.
    PMID: 22569417 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055385
    Orthosiphon stamineus is considered an important traditional folk medicine. In this study ethanol and aqueous extracts of O. stamineus were evaluated in vitro for their antioxidant, antimicrobial as well as for their immunomodulatory properties on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The DPPH radical scavenging method was used for the determination of antioxidant activity, while the antibacterial efficacy was investigated by both disc diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against four bacterial strains (Gram-positive and Gram-negative). Furthermore, the immunomodulatory potential of the extracts was investigated through the MTT assay. Aqueous extract of O. stamineus exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity with IC₅₀ 50 9.6 µg/mL, whereas the IC₅₀ for the ethanol extract was 21.4 µg/mL. The best antimicrobial activity was shown by the aqueous extract of O. stamineus against Staphylococcus aureus, with inhibition zone of 10.5 mm and MIC value 1.56 mg/mL. Moreover, the results observed from the MTT assay showed that both plant extracts stimulated the PBMCs proliferation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, but the aqueous extract has remarkable activity against PBMCs. These findings indicate that O. stamineus showed high antioxidant activity and may be considered as an immunomodulatory agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  12. Karimi E, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 09;16(8):6791-805.
    PMID: 21829154 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086791
    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  13. Mollataghi A, Hadi AH, Awang K, Mohamad J, Litaudon M, Mukhtar MR
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 04;16(8):6582-90.
    PMID: 21818061 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086582
    A new neolignan, 3,4-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-2,9-epoxy-6,7-cyclo-1,8-neolign-11-en-5(5H)-one, which has been named (+)-kunstlerone (1), together with six known alkaloids: (+)-norboldine (2), (+)-N-methylisococlaurine (3), (+)-cassythicine (4), (+)-laurotetanine (5), (+)-boldine (6) and (-)-pallidine (7), were isolated from the leaves of Beilschmiedia kunstleri. The structures were established through various spectroscopic methods notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR and LCMS-IT-TOF. (+)- Kunstlerone (1) showed a strong antioxidant activity, with an SC(50) of 20.0 µg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  14. Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB, Al-Amiery AA, Takriff MS
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 15;16(8):6969-84.
    PMID: 21844844 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086969
    3-Aminocoumarin (L) has been synthesized and used as a ligand for the formation of Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes. The chemical structures were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The elemental analyses revealed that the complexes where M=Ni(II) and Cu(II) have the general formulae [ML(2)Cl(2)], while the Cr(III) complex has the formula [CrL(2)Cl(2)]Cl. The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates, except the Cr(III) one, are non-electrolytes. From the magnetic and UV-Visible spectra, it is found that these complexes have octahedral structures. The stability for the prepared complexes was studied theoretically using Density Function Theory. The total energy for the complexes was calculated and it was shown that the copper complex is the most stable one. Complexes were tested against selected types of microbial organisms and showed significant activities. The free radical scavenging activity of metal complexes have been determined by measuring their interaction with the stable free radical DPPH and all the compounds have shown encouraging antioxidant activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  15. Tsai ML, Lin CD, Khoo KA, Wang MY, Kuan TK, Lin WC, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Dec 05;22(12).
    PMID: 29206180 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22122154
    'Mato Peiyu' pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck 'Mato Peiyu') leaves from pruning are currently an agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from these leaves through steam distillation (SD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and to evaluate their applicability to skin care by analyzing their antimicrobial, antioxidant (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide scavenging assay), anti-inflammatory (5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay), and antityrosinase activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results indicated that the main components of 'Mato Peiyu' leaf essential oils were citronellal and citronellol, with a total percentage of 50.71% and 59.82% for SD and SFME, respectively. The highest bioactivity among all assays was obtained for 5-lipoxygenase inhibition, with an IC50 value of 0.034% (v/v). The MIC90 of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ranged from 0.086% to 0.121% (v/v). Citronellal and citronellol were the main contributors, accounting for at least 54.58% of the essential oil's bioactivity. This paper is the first to report the compositions and bioactivities of 'Mato Peiyu' leaf essential oil, and the results imply that the pomelo leaf essential oil may be applied in skin care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  16. Mohamed Isa SSP, Ablat A, Mohamad J
    Molecules, 2018 Feb 13;23(2).
    PMID: 29438299 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23020400
    Plumeria rubra Linn of the family Apocynaceae is locally known in Malaysia as "Kemboja". It has been used by local traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of arthritis-related disease. The LCMS/MS analysis of the methanol extract of flowers (PR-ME) showed that it contains 3-O-caffeyolquinic acid, 5-caffeoquinic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, citric acid, 3,3-di-O-methylellagic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, kaempferol, quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside, quercetin, quinic acid and rutin. The flower PR-ME contained high amounts of phenol and flavonoid at 184.632 mg GAE/g and 203.2.2 mg QE/g, respectively. It also exhibited the highest DPPH, FRAP, metal chelating, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide superoxide radical scavenging activity. Similarly, the XO inhibitory activity in vitro assay possesses the highest inhibition effects at an IC50 = 23.91 μg/mL. There was no mortality or signs of toxicity in rats at a dose of 4 g/kg body weight. The administration of the flower PR-ME at doses of 400 mg/kg to the rats significantly reduced serum uric acid 43.77%. Similarly, the XO activity in the liver was significantly inhibited by flower PR-ME at doses of 400 mg/kg. These results confirm that the flower PR-ME of P. rubra contains active phytochemical compounds as detected in LCMS/MS that contribute to the inhibition of XO activity in vitro and in vivo in reducing acid uric level in serum and simultaneously scavenging the free radical to reduce the oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  17. Ahmad NA, Jumbri K, Ramli A, Abd Ghani N, Ahmad H, Lim JW
    Molecules, 2018 Dec 05;23(12).
    PMID: 30563037 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23123201
    The antiradical efficiency (AE) and kinetic behavior of a new ferulate-based protic ionic liquids (PILs) were described using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. The reduction of the DPPH free radical (DPPH•) was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorbance at 517 nm. The time to reach steady state for the reaction of parent acid (ferulic acid) and synthesized PILs with DPPH• was continuously recorded for 1 h. Results revealed that the AE of 2-butylaminoethanol ferulate (2BAEF), 3-dimethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DMAPF) and 3-diethylaminopropanol ferulate (3DEAPF) PILs have improved compared to ferulic acid (FA) as the reaction class changes from low to medium. This attributed to the strong hydrogen abstraction occurred in the PILs. Furthermore, these PILs were found to have a good kinetic behavior compared to FA due to the high rate constant (k₂) (164.17, 242.84 and 244.73 M-1 s-1, respectively). The alkyl chain length and more alkyl substituents on the nitrogen atom of cation were believed to reduce the cation-anion interaction and speed up the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and electron transfer (ET) mechanisms; hence, increased rate constant was observed leading to a strong antioxidant activity of the synthesized PILs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors
  18. Hussein SZ, Yusoff KM, Makpol S, Yusof YA
    Molecules, 2011 Jul 27;16(8):6378-95.
    PMID: 21796076 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16066378
    Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Picrates/antagonists & inhibitors*
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