Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 154 in total

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  1. Saleem H, Zengin G, Locatelli M, Ahmad I, Khaliq S, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Sep;131:110535.
    PMID: 31154083 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.043
    This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  2. Muhammad H, Maslan SF, Md Saad WM, Thani NSIA, Ibnu Rasid EN, Mahomoodally MF, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Sep;131:110538.
    PMID: 31152790 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.05.046
    Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill (DH), also known a tropical yam or intoxicating yam is a bitter wild tuber which is consumed as a staple food and traditionally used as a remedy in Malaysia. However, DH is also notorious for its intoxicating effects and there is currently a dearth of study of possible effects of DH on liver and placental tissues and hence its safe consumption warrants in-depth investigation. This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  3. Tan NAS, Giribabu N, Karim K, Nyamathulla S, Salleh N
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 May 23;236:9-20.
    PMID: 30771519 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.027
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Marantodes pumilum (MP) (Kacip Fatimah) is used to maintain the well-being of post-menopausal women. However, its role in ameliorating post menopause-related vaginal atrophy (VA) is unknown.

    AIMS: To investigate the ability of intravaginal MP gel treatment to ameliorate VA in sex-steroid deficient condition, mimicking post-menopause.

    METHODS: Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats received MP (100 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml) and estriol (E) gels intravaginally for seven consecutive days. Rats were then euthanized and vagina was harvested and subjected for histological and protein expression and distribution analyses. Vaginal ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

    RESULTS: Thickness of vaginal epithelium increased with increasing intravaginal MP doses. Additionally, increased in expression and distribution of proliferative protein i.e. PCNA, tight junction protein i.e. occludin, water channel proteins i.e. AQP-1 and AQP-2 and proton extruder protein i.e. V-ATPase A1 were observed in the vagina following intravaginal MP and E gels treatment. Intravaginal MP and E gels also induced desmosome formation and approximation of the intercellular spaces between the vaginal epithelium.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intravaginal MP was able to ameliorate features associated with VA; thus, it has potential to be used as an agent to treat this condition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  4. Fateh AH, Mohamed Z, Chik Z, Alsalahi A, Md Zain SR, Alshawsh MA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 May 10;235:88-99.
    PMID: 30738113 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.007
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, Verbena officinalis L. has been used for reproductive and gynaecological purposes. However, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of V. officinalis have not been extensively investigated.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the in vitro mutagenicity and in vivo genotoxicity of aqueous extract of V. officinalis leaves using a modified Ames test and rat bone marrow micronucleus assay according to OECD guidelines.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro Ames test was carried out using different strains of Salmonella (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA (pKM101) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 mixture). For micronucleus experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were received a single oral daily dose of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of V. officinalis extract for three days. Negative and positive control rats were received distilled water or a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, respectively. Following dissection, femurs were collected and bone marrow cells were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa solution for micronucleus assessment.

    RESULTS: Ames test results demonstrated that 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of V. officinalis extract induced a significant mutagenic effect against TA100 and TA98 strains (with and without metabolic activation). Findings of the animal study showed there were no significant increase in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) and no significant alterations in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) ratio of treated rats as compared with their negative control. Meanwhile, significantly increased in the MNPEs was seen in the cyclophosphamide-treated group only.

    CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of V. officinalis has mutagenic effect against TA98 and TA100 strains as demonstrated by Ames test, however, there is no in vivo clastogenic and myelotoxic effect on bone marrow micronucleus of rats indicating that the benefits of using V. officinalis in traditional practice should outweigh risks.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  5. Hassani A, Hussain SA, Abdullah N, Kamarudin S, Rosli R
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2019 Jan 07;20(2):53.
    PMID: 30617521 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1238-2
    Orotic acid (OA) nanoparticles were prepared using the freeze-drying method. The antihypertensive activity and antioxidant capacity of OA and orotic acid-loaded gum arabic nanoparticles (OAGANPs) were examined using the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and β-carotene assays, as well as the quantification of total phenolic content (TPC). The DPPH and NO scavenging activities of OAGANPs were significantly higher than those of the OA solution. The β-carotene bleaching assay of OAGANPs showed a dose-dependent trend, while 500 μg/ml was significantly more effective than the other concentrations, which exerted 63.4% of the antioxidant activity. The in vitro antihypertensive assay revealed that the OAGANPs exhibited the most potent ACE inhibition activity, when compared to the OA solution. Hence, results revealed the potential of preparing the OA as a nanoparticle formulation in enhancing the antioxidant and antihypertensive properties compared to the OA solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  6. Cheurfa M, Abdallah HH, Allem R, Noui A, Picot-Allain CMN, Mahomoodally F
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2019 Jan;123:98-105.
    PMID: 30292622 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.002
    Aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect. The result of administration of O. europaea leaf extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in hypercholesterolaemic mice was evaluated. In addition, rutin and luteolin, reported to occur naturally in O. europaea leaves, were docked against HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol metabolism. Mice treated with both extracts showed reduced total cholesterol (246.6 and 163.4 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) and LDL (150.16 and 81.28 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) levels as compared to the hypercholesterolaemic group (total cholesterol 253.00 mg/dl and LDL 160.00 mg/dl). Mice treated with aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) showed significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL levels as compared to the group treated with atorvastatine. HDL level of mice administered with O. europaea aqueous extract was comparable to the atorvastatine-treated group. The ethanol extract of O. europeae leaves was a potent antioxidant (IC50 69.15 mg/ml, % inhibition 54.98, 82.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract, 7.53 mol of Fe2+/g extract, and % inhibition 49.71, for the DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, total antioxidant capacity, FRAP, and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively). Docking studies revealed that rutin showed higher binding affinity with HMG-CoA reductase as compared to luteolin. Data gathered from this study support the development of a prophylactic biomedicine from O. europaea leaves for the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  7. Ali MA, Yusof YA, Chin NL, Ibrahim MN, Muneer S
    J Diet Suppl, 2019;16(1):66-85.
    PMID: 29469600 DOI: 10.1080/19390211.2018.1429517
    Moringa oleifera leaves were selected as a model due to their hundreds of health benefits. On the other hand, the powder of these leaves has exhibited poor flowability, low tensile strength, bitter taste, poor dissolution rate, and lack of information regarding dosage. These are the common hurdles and limitations in the adaptation of herbal-based medications. Therefore, a comprehensive study was planned to introduce herbal-based medicines into mainstream medicines by standardization according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and international pharmaceutical standards. A Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) of Design Expert 8.0 software was used to formulate different concentrations of superdisintegrant, binder/diluent, and sweeteners. An Instron Universal Testing machine coupled with a 13 mm stainless cylindrical die was used to manufacture tablets by means of direct compression method at 20 kN applied force. Therefore, selection of excipients was made on the basis of their tensile strength, flowability, and taste-masking properties. Optimum formulation was tested on rabbits for toxicity and growth rate. All formulated tablets were evaluated on standard parameters for orally disintegrating tablets described by the Food and Drug Authority (U.S.). The optimum formulation fulfills all standard parameters such as hardness, disintegration time, friability, and dissolution rate. The present formulation showed no toxicity when tested on rabbits. The present study provides a fundamental understanding of the tableting characteristics of natural medicines. The present study provides information that will help to overcome the challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  8. Wong SK, Chin KY, Suhaimi FH, Ahmad F, Ima-Nirwana S
    Bone, 2018 11;116:8-21.
    PMID: 29990585 DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.07.003
    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with osteoporosis due to the underlying inflammatory and hormonal changes. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve medical complications associated with MetS or bone loss in animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of annatto tocotrienol as a single treatment for MetS and osteoporosis in high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced MetS animals. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. The baseline group was euthanized at the onset of the study. The normal group received standard rat chow and tap water. The remaining groups received HCHF diet and treated with three different regimens orally daily: (a) tocopherol-stripped corn oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol), (b) 60 mg/kg annatto tocotrienol, and (c) 100 mg/kg annatto tocotrienol. At the end of the study, measurements of MetS parameters, body compositions, and bone mineral density were performed in animals before sacrifice. Upon euthanasia, blood and femur of the rats were harvested for the evaluations of bone microstructure, biomechanical strength, remodelling activities, hormonal changes, and inflammatory response. Treatment with annatto tocotrienol improved all MetS parameters (except abdominal obesity), trabecular bone microstructure, bone strength, increased osteoclast number, normalized hormonal changes and inflammatory response in the HCHF animals. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol is a potential agent for managing MetS and osteoporosis concurrently. The beneficial effects of annatto tocotrienol may be attributed to its ability to prevent the hormonal changes and pro-inflammatory state in animals with MetS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  9. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  10. Khoo LW, Foong Kow AS, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 29;23(9).
    PMID: 30158427 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092172
    The present study aims for the first time to provide the in vivo acute toxicological profile of the highest dose of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract according to the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 guidelines through conventional toxicity and advanced proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) serum and urinary metabolomics evaluation methods. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water extract was administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Conventional toxicity evaluation methods (physical observation, body and organ weight, food and water consumption, hematology, biochemical testing and histopathological analysis) suggested no abnormal toxicity signs. Serum ¹H-NMR metabolome revealed no significant metabolic difference between untreated and treated groups. Urinary ¹H-NMR analysis, on the other hand, revealed alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism in extract-treated rats after 2 h of extract administration, but the metabolic expression collected after 24 h and at Day 5, Day 10 and Day 15 indicated that the extract-treated rats did not accumulate any toxicity biomarkers. Importantly, the outcomes further suggest that single oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water leaf extract is safe for consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  11. Bokhari RA, Tantowi NACA, Lau SF, Mohamed S
    Inflammopharmacology, 2018 Aug;26(4):939-949.
    PMID: 29380171 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-017-0432-2
    The effect of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous (OSA) extract against osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated in explant cartilage culture and in postmenopausal OA rat model. Female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Osteoarthritis was induced after surgical recovery, by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee. Rats were grouped (n = 8) into: healthy sham control; non-treated OA; OA + diclofenac (positive control 5 mg/kg); and two doses OSA (150-300 mg/kg). After 4 weeks' treatment, rats were evaluated for OA-related parameters and biomarkers. The OSA reduced proteoglycan and ROS release from the cartilage explants under inflammatory (IL-1b) conditions. In the OA-induced rats' cartilages, the OSA downregulated the mRNA expressions for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, NF-κβ, NOS2, PTGS2, PTGER2, ACAN, COL2A1, MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5 and TIMP1, mostly dose-dependently. The OSA reduced the OA rats' serum levels for PGE2, CTX-II, TNF-α, MMP1, MMP13, PIINP, OPG, RANKL, OC and BALP, but not dose-dependently. The OSA contained polyphenols and flavonoids (tetramethoxyflavone). The OSA alleviated articular cartilage degradation, inflammation, collagenase/aggrecanase activities, to improve joint and subchondral bone structure. O. stamineus mitigated osteoarthritis by downregulating inflammation, peptidases and aggrecanases, at a dose equivalent to about 30 mg/kg for humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  12. Abdallah Q, Al-Deeb I, Bader A, Hamam F, Saleh K, Abdulmajid A
    Mol Med Rep, 2018 Aug;18(2):2441-2448.
    PMID: 29901194 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9155
    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in malignant tumor progression and development. The present study aimed to identify lead plants with selective anti-angiogenic properties. A total of 26 methanolic extracts obtained from 18 plants growing in Saudi Arabia and Jordan that belong to the Lamiaceae family were screened for their cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activities using MTT and rat aortic ring assays, respectively. Four novel extracts of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Phlomis viscosa Poir, Salvia samuelssonii Rech.f., and Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer were identified for their selective anti-angiogenic effects. These extracts did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) indicating the involvement of indirect anti-angiogenic mechanisms. The active extracts are potential candidates for further phytochemical and mechanistic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  13. Singh D, Murugaiyah V, Hamid SBS, Kasinather V, Chan MSA, Ho ETW, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Jul 15;221:30-36.
    PMID: 29626673 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.005
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.

    METHODS: A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.

    RESULTS: We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.

    CONCLUSION: Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  14. Singh D, Müller CP, Murugaiyah V, Hamid SBS, Vicknasingam BK, Avery B, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Mar 25;214:197-206.
    PMID: 29248450 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.12.017
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 77 subjects (n=58 regular kratom users, and n=19 healthy controls) participated in this cross-sectional study. All the surveys were conducted through face-to-face interview to elicit subject's socio-demographic characteristics and kratom use history. A full-blood test was also administered. Laboratory analysis was conducted using GC-MS to determine mitragynine content in the acquired kratom samples in order to relate mitragynine consumption with possible alterations in the blood parameters of kratom users.

    RESULTS: Findings showed that there were no significant differences in the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of traditional kratom users and healthy controls, except for HDL and LDL cholesterol values; these were found to be above the normal reference range for the former. Similarly, long-term kratom consumption (>5 years), and quantity of daily kratom use (≥3 ½ glasses; mitragynine content 76.3-114.8mg) did not appear to alter the hematological and biochemical parameters of kratom users.

    CONCLUSION: These data suggest that even long-term and heavy kratom consumption did not significantly alter the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of kratom users in a traditional setting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  15. Subramaniyan V, Shaik S, Bag A, Manavalan G, Chandiran S
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Mar;31(2):509-516.
    PMID: 29618442
    To determine the ameliorative potential of the active fraction from different extracts of Rumex vesicarius against potassium dichromate and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats and its possible mechanism of action. Both sex wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) were fed with a control, potassium dichromate and gentamicin supplemented with different extracts at the doses of 200 and 400mg/kg respectively. Oral administration of EERV offered a significant (p<0.01 and p<0.001) dose dependent protection against PD and GN induced nephrotoxicity. Potassium dichromate and gentamicin nephrotoxicity assessed in terms of body weight, kidney weight, creatinine, urea, uric acid, BUN, albumin and total protein. Thus the present study revealed that EERV phytochemical constituents play an important role in protection against kidney damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  16. Ch'ng YS, Loh YC, Tan CS, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Wan Omar WM, et al.
    J Med Food, 2018 Mar;21(3):289-301.
    PMID: 29420109 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2017.4008
    The seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (SM) (Meliaceae) are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension in Malaysia. However, the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of SM seeds are still not widely studied. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the in vivo antihypertensive effects and in vitro mechanism of vasorelaxation of a 50% ethanolic SM seed extract (SM50) and the fingerprint of SM50 was developed through tri-step Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of SM50 were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence of antagonists. The pharmacological effect of SM50 was investigated by oral administration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with three different doses of SM50 (1000, 500, and 250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and their systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values were measured weekly using tail-cuff method. The tri-step FTIR macro-fingerprint of SM50 showed that SM50 contains stachyose, flavonoids, limonoids, and ester, which may contribute to its vasorelaxant effect. The results showed that the vasorelaxant activity of SM50 was mostly attributed to channel-linked receptors pathways through the blockage of voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCC). SM50 also acts as both potassium channels opener and inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, followed by β2-adrenergic pathway, and ultimately mediated through the nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (NO/sGC/cGMP) signaling pathways. The treatment of SM50 also significantly decreased the SBP and DBP in SHRs. In conclusion, the antihypertensive mechanism of SM50 was mediated by VOCC, K+ channels, IP3R, G-protein-coupled β2-adrenergic receptor, and followed by NO/sGC/cGMP signaling mechanism pathways in descending order. The data suggested that SM50 has the potential to be used as a herbal medicament to treat hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  17. Chay SY, Salleh A, Sulaiman NF, Zainal Abidin N, Hanafi MA, Zarei M, et al.
    Food Funct, 2018 Mar 01;9(3):1657-1671.
    PMID: 29469915 DOI: 10.1039/c7fo01769c
    Winged bean seed (WBS) is an underutilized tropical crop. The current study evaluates its potential to reduce blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats and finds that it reduces BP significantly, in a dose-dependent manner. Five peptides with the sequences, RGVFPCLK, TQLDLPTQ, EPALVP, MRSVVT and DMKP, have been characterized in terms of their stability against ACE via in vitro and in silico modelling. All peptides exhibited IC50 values between 0.019 and 6.885 mM and various inhibitory modes, including substrate, prodrug and true inhibitor modes. The toxicity status of non-Current Good Manufacturing Practice (non-CGMP) peptides is evaluated and the results show that such peptides are toxic, and thus are not suitable to be tested in animals, particularly in repeated-dose studies. In short, WBS hydrolysate demonstrated in vitro ACE inhibitory properties and in vivo blood pressure lowering efficacy in rat models, fostering its potential as a functional food ingredient. Non-CGMP grade peptides are toxic and unfit for testing in animal models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  18. Aziz TA, Hussain SA, Mahwi TO, Ahmed ZA, Rahman HS, Rasedee A
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2018;12:735-742.
    PMID: 29670330 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S157113
    Background and aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major diseases confronting the health care systems. In diabetes mellitus (DM), combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications has been shown to be more effective than metformin (Met) alone in glycemic control. This study determined the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as an adjuvant to Met in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

    Subjects and methods: Sixty T2DM patients were recruited in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and multicenter trial. The patients, currently using Met, were randomly grouped into those treated with either GKB extract (120 mg/day) or placebo (starch, 120 mg/day) for 90 days. Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum glucose, serum insulin, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), insulin resistance, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were determined before (baseline) and after 90 days of GKB extract treatment.

    Results: GKB extract significantly decreased blood HbA1c (7.7%±1.2% vs baseline 8.6%±1.6%, P<0.001), fasting serum glucose (154.7±36.1 mg/dL vs baseline 194.4±66.1 mg/dL, P<0.001) and insulin (13.4±7.8 μU/mL vs baseline 18.5±8.9 μU/mL, P=0.006) levels, BMI (31.6±5.1 kg/m2 vs baseline 34.0±6.0 kg/m2, P<0.001), waist WC (102.6±10.5 cm vs baseline 106.0±10.9 cm, P<0.001), and VAI (158.9±67.2 vs baseline 192.0±86.2, P=0.007). GKB extract did not negatively impact the liver, kidney, or hematopoietic functions.

    Conclusion: GKB extract as an adjuvant was effective in improving Met treatment outcomes in T2DM patients. Thus, it is suggested that GKB extract is an effective dietary supplement for the control of DM in humans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  19. Chongmelaxme B, Sruamsiri R, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, Saokaew S, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2017 Dec;35:70-77.
    PMID: 29154071 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.09.009
    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. known locally as "Plai" in Thai, has been used for treating bruise, sprain and musculoskeletal pain. Several pre-clinical studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Plai. However, current evidence of clinical effects of Plai is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of Plai among all identified indications. Of the 808 articles identified by a systematic review, six studies were included. Four studies were randomized controlled trials, while two studies were quasi-experimental studies involving 178 patients in intervention group and 177 patients in control group. Duration of treatment ranged from 7days to 2 months. Our findings showed that 14% Plai cream had a strong trend of benefits in pain reduction for muscle pain and ankle sprain. However, evidence supporting the effects of Plai on acne vulgaris treatment and anti-histamine effect are still unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  20. Bakhtiyari E, Ahmadian-Attari MM, Salehi P, Khallaghi B, Dargahi L, Mohamed Z, et al.
    Nutr Neurosci, 2017 Oct;20(8):469-477.
    PMID: 27219682 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1183986
    OBJECTIVES: Although grape has been recently the topic of many investigations, Maviz (a kind of dried one) has remained neglected. The aim of this study was to assess anti-Alzheimer activity of Maviz.

    METHODS: To reach this goal, total phenolic content (TPC) of ethanolic (Eth) and aqueous (Aq) extracts were determined and radical scavenging activity was assayed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Chemical compositions of each extract were also determined via GC-Mass. Behavioral changes were studied via passive avoidance and Morris water maze in Aβ-induced model of Alzheimer's disease. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) determination were also done on rats' hippocampus.

    RESULTS: The results showed that seed Eth extract has a high level of TPC and radical scavenging activity. However, this extract had surprisingly no effect on memory and CAT and SOD activities. In contrast, fruit Aq and Eth extracts (containing furfurals as major compounds) inhibited memory impairment (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
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