Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 160 in total

  1. Aisha AF, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, Siddiqui JM, Ghafar G, Abdul Majid AM
    PMID: 23842450 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-168
    Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  2. Bakhsh A, Mustapha NM, Mohamed S
    Nutrition, 2013 Apr;29(4):667-72.
    PMID: 23290096 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.005
    Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency often causes bone density loss and osteoporosis. This study evaluated the effects of an oral administration of oil palm leaf extract (OPL) on bone calcium content and structure, bone density, ash weights, and serum total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) of estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  3. Samuel AJ, Mohan S, Chellappan DK, Kalusalingam A, Ariamuthu S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 May 7;141(1):396-402.
    PMID: 22421378 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.051
    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  4. Karimian H, Fadaeinasab M, Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Hajrezaei M, Razavi M, Safi SZ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0127434.
    PMID: 25996383 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127434
    Ferulago angulata leaf hexane extract (FALHE) was found to be a potent inducer of MCF7 cell apoptosis. The aims of the present study were to investigate the in vivo chemopreventive effect of FALHE in rats, to identify the contributing anticancer compound in FALHE and to determine its potential mechanism of action against MCF7 cells. Thirty rats harboring LA7-induced breast tumors were divided into five groups: tumor control, low-dose FALHE, high-dose FALHE, treatment control (tamoxifen) and normal control. Breast tissues were then subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. A bioassay-guided investigation on FALHE was performed to identify the cytotoxic compound and its mechanism of action through flow cytometry, real-time qPCR and western blotting analyses. An in vivo study showed that FALHE suppressed the expression of the tumor markers PCNA and Ki67. The tumor size was reduced from 2031 ± 281 mm3 to 432 ± 201 mm3 after FALHE treatment. FALHE administration induced apoptosis in breast tumor cells, and this was confirmed by high expression levels of Bax, p53 and caspase 3. Cell cycle arrest was suggested by the expression of p21 and p27. The in vitro experimental results resulted in the isolation of polycerasoidin as a bioactive ingredient of FALHE with an IC50 value of 3.16 ± 0.31 μg/ml against MCF7 cells. Polycerasoidin induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cells via caspase activation and changes in the mRNA and protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the treated MCF7 cells were arrested at the G1 phase, and this was associated with the up-regulation of p21 and p27 at both the mRNA and protein levels. The results of the present study reinforce further investigations scrutinizing the promising potential of the F. angulata chemical constituents as breast cancer chemopreventive agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  5. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, Pandian A, Kuppamuthu K, Nanjian R, Sabaratam V, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2016 Aug;79:25-34.
    PMID: 27177820 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.010
    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P plant may develop kidney and liver toxicity. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of PAs are necessary to determine the safe dose level of the extract for therapeutic use in traditional medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  6. Giribabu N, Kumar KE, Rekha SS, Muniandy S, Salleh N
    PMID: 25104050 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-291
    We hypothesized that C. borivilianum root, known to improve male reproductive performance, prevents impairment in characteristics, morphology and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetics. We therefore investigated the effect of aqueous root extract of C. borivilianum on these parameters in diabetic rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  7. Ch'ng YS, Loh YC, Tan CS, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Wan Omar WM, et al.
    J Med Food, 2018 Mar;21(3):289-301.
    PMID: 29420109 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2017.4008
    The seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (SM) (Meliaceae) are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension in Malaysia. However, the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of SM seeds are still not widely studied. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the in vivo antihypertensive effects and in vitro mechanism of vasorelaxation of a 50% ethanolic SM seed extract (SM50) and the fingerprint of SM50 was developed through tri-step Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of SM50 were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence of antagonists. The pharmacological effect of SM50 was investigated by oral administration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with three different doses of SM50 (1000, 500, and 250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and their systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values were measured weekly using tail-cuff method. The tri-step FTIR macro-fingerprint of SM50 showed that SM50 contains stachyose, flavonoids, limonoids, and ester, which may contribute to its vasorelaxant effect. The results showed that the vasorelaxant activity of SM50 was mostly attributed to channel-linked receptors pathways through the blockage of voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCC). SM50 also acts as both potassium channels opener and inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, followed by β2-adrenergic pathway, and ultimately mediated through the nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (NO/sGC/cGMP) signaling pathways. The treatment of SM50 also significantly decreased the SBP and DBP in SHRs. In conclusion, the antihypertensive mechanism of SM50 was mediated by VOCC, K+ channels, IP3R, G-protein-coupled β2-adrenergic receptor, and followed by NO/sGC/cGMP signaling mechanism pathways in descending order. The data suggested that SM50 has the potential to be used as a herbal medicament to treat hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  8. Yong YK, Sulaiman N, Hakim MN, Lian GE, Zakaria ZA, Othman F, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:463145.
    PMID: 24224164 DOI: 10.1155/2013/463145
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Bixa orellana (AEBO) leaves and its possible mechanisms in animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using serotonin-induced rat paw edema, increased peritoneal vascular permeability, and leukocyte infiltrations in an air-pouch model. Nitric oxide (NO), indicated by the sum of nitrites and nitrates, and vascular growth endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in paw tissues of rats to determine their involvement in the regulation of increased permeability. Pretreatments with AEBO (50 and 150 mg kg⁻¹) prior to serotonin inductions resulted in maximum inhibitions of 56.2% of paw volume, 45.7% of Evans blue dye leakage in the peritoneal vascular permeability model, and 83.9% of leukocyte infiltration in the air-pouch model. 57.2% maximum inhibition of NO and 27% of VEGF formations in rats' paws were observed with AEBO at the dose of 150 mg kg⁻¹. Pharmacological screening of the extract showed significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity, indicated by the suppressions of increased vascular permeability and leukocyte infiltration. The inhibitions of these inflammatory events are probably mediated via inhibition of NO and VEGF formation and release.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  9. Ramasamy S, Kiew LV, Chung LY
    Molecules, 2014 Feb 24;19(2):2588-601.
    PMID: 24566323 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19022588
    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  10. Sharifudin SA, Fakurazi S, Hidayat MT, Hairuszah I, Moklas MA, Arulselvan P
    Pharm Biol, 2013 Mar;51(3):279-88.
    PMID: 23043505 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2012.720993
    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a rich source of essential minerals and antioxidants; it has been used in human and animal nutrition. The leaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietary importance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  11. Ali RB, Atangwho IJ, Kaur N, Abraika OS, Ahmad M, Mahmud R, et al.
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):4986-5002.
    PMID: 22547320 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17054986
    An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM) fruit indicated methanol extract (ME) as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (NBF) and aqueous (AF) fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (p < 0.05) 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (p < 0.05), similar to metformin (51.11%), glibenclamide (66.67%) and insulin (71.43%) after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI) and II (SFII), and only SFI lowered blood glucose (p < 0.05), in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  12. Akinboro A, Mohamed KB, Asmawi MZ, Othman AS, Ying TH, Maidin SM
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2012 Oct;35(4):412-22.
    PMID: 22149219 DOI: 10.3109/01480545.2011.638300
    The role of diets in causing cancers necessitates the ongoing search for natural antimutagens of promising anticancer therapeutics. This study determined the potential anticancer efficacy of the leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.). Methanol leaf extract of M. fragrans (Houtt.) alone was screened for mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, the Allium cepa, and the mouse in vivo bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antimutagenicity of this extract against benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutations was evaluated. An antioxidant test on the extract was performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the standards, whereas its phytochemicals were elucidated by following the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocol. In S. typhimurium (TA100), the mutagenicity ratio at 200,500 and 1,000 µg/well was >2. Cell division in the A. cepa root tips and mouse bone marrow was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited at 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, whereas the observed chromosomal aberrations and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were non-dose-related and were insignificantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from the negative control. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity by this extract was above 40%. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the extract in the antioxidant test was lower than that of BHA and BHT. Phytochemical compounds, possessing antioxidant activity, may be responsible for the observed effects, suggesting a strong antimutagenic activity of the MeOH leaf extract of M. fragrans, a necessary characteristic of a promising anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  13. Makhadmeh GN, Abdul Aziz A, Abdul Razak K, Abu Noqta O
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2015 Dec;9(6):381-5.
    PMID: 26647815 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2015.0003
    This study analysed the physical effects of Cichorium Pumilum (CP), as a natural photosensitizer (PS), and Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), as a synthetic PS, encapsulated with silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in photodynamic therapy. The optimum concentrations of CP and PpIX, needed to destroy Red Blood Cells (RBC), were determined and the efficacy of encapsulated CP and PpIX were compared with naked CP and PpIX was verified. The results confirmed the applicability of CP and PpIX encapsulated in SiNPs on RBCs, and established a relationship between the encapsulated CP and PpIX concentration and the time required to rupture 50% of the RBCs (t50). The CP and PpIX encapsulated in SiNPs exhibited higher efficacy compared with that of naked CP and PpIX, respectively, and CP had less efficacy compared with PpIX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  14. Yeong LT, Abdul Hamid R, Saiful Yazan L, Khaza'ai H, Mohtarrudin N
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015;15(1):431.
    PMID: 26638207 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0954-3
    Drastic increment of skin cancer incidence has driven natural product-based chemoprevention as a promising approach in anticancer drug development. Apart from its traditional usages against various ailments, Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) specifically its triterpene-quinone fraction (TQF) which was isolated from the root hexane extract (ACRH) was recently reported to exert antitumor promoting activity in vitro. This study aimed at determining chemopreventive effect of TQF against chemically-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis as well as elucidating its possible pathway(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  15. Andriani Y, Tengku-Muhammad TS, Mohamad H, Saidin J, Syamsumir DF, Chew GS, et al.
    Molecules, 2015 Mar 09;20(3):4410-29.
    PMID: 25759957 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20034410
    In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae) leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI) and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6) obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD) and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  16. Dianita R, Jantan I, Amran AZ, Jalil J
    Molecules, 2015 Mar 16;20(3):4746-63.
    PMID: 25786162 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20034746
    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05) in cardiac enzyme activities, i.e., cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05) in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  17. Seow LJ, Beh HK, Umar MI, Sadikun A, Asmawi MZ
    Int. Immunopharmacol., 2014 Nov;23(1):186-91.
    PMID: 25194675 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.08.020
    Gynura segetum, family Compositae, is a cultivated species and can be found growing in the tropical regions of Indonesia and Malaysia. The plant is known for its use for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, diabetes, hypertension and skin afflictions. In the current study, in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract G. segetum leaf and its antioxidant effect in vitro have been investigated for the first time. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract were measured using common methods including total phenolic content; total flavonoid content; scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching assays. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activities were tested using the cotton pellet implanted animal model. The measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1) levels in the blood samples of the rats was carried out by using ELISA kits. The inhibitory activity on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme of methanol extract was also evaluated. The methanol extract exhibited good antioxidant activity which is associated with their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methanol extract strongly inhibited the granuloma tissue formation in rats and the anti-inflammatory potential was mediated through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 enzyme activities. Taken together, the present study suggests that G. segetum's leaf is a natural source of antioxidants and has potential therapeutic benefits against chronic inflammation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  18. Fatima N, Hafizur RM, Hameed A, Ahmed S, Nisar M, Kabir N
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Mar;56(2):591-601.
    PMID: 26593435 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1103-y
    PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to explore the possible anti-diabetic mechanism(s) of Emblica officinalis (EO) and its active constituent, ellagic acid (EA), in vitro and in vivo.

    METHOD: Neonatal streptozotocin-induced non-obese type 2 diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of EO (250 or 500 mg/kg) for 28 days, and blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma antioxidant status were measured. Insulin and glucagon immunostaining and morphometry were performed in pancreatic section, and liver TBARS and GSH levels were measured. Additionally, EA was tested for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance test.

    RESULTS: Treatment with EO extract resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the diabetic rats. It significantly increased serum insulin in the diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. Insulin-to-glucose ratio was also increased by EO treatment. Immunostaining of pancreas showed that EO250 increased β-cell size, but EO500 increased β-cells number in diabetic rats. EO significantly increased plasma total antioxidants and liver GSH and decreased liver TBARS. EA stimulated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated islets and decreased glucose intolerance in diabetic rats.

    CONCLUSION: Ellagic acid in EO exerts anti-diabetic activity through the action on β-cells of pancreas that stimulates insulin secretion and decreases glucose intolerance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
  19. Bakhtiyari E, Ahmadian-Attari MM, Salehi P, Khallaghi B, Dargahi L, Mohamed Z, et al.
    Nutr Neurosci, 2017 Oct;20(8):469-477.
    PMID: 27219682 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1183986
    OBJECTIVES: Although grape has been recently the topic of many investigations, Maviz (a kind of dried one) has remained neglected. The aim of this study was to assess anti-Alzheimer activity of Maviz.

    METHODS: To reach this goal, total phenolic content (TPC) of ethanolic (Eth) and aqueous (Aq) extracts were determined and radical scavenging activity was assayed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Chemical compositions of each extract were also determined via GC-Mass. Behavioral changes were studied via passive avoidance and Morris water maze in Aβ-induced model of Alzheimer's disease. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) determination were also done on rats' hippocampus.

    RESULTS: The results showed that seed Eth extract has a high level of TPC and radical scavenging activity. However, this extract had surprisingly no effect on memory and CAT and SOD activities. In contrast, fruit Aq and Eth extracts (containing furfurals as major compounds) inhibited memory impairment (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage*
  20. Huang D, Guo W, Gao J, Chen J, Olatunji JO
    Molecules, 2015;20(9):17405-28.
    PMID: 26393569 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200917405
    Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established. This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2 also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ⁺ T cells and decreased the number of IL-4⁺ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
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