Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 799 in total

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  1. Abd Elgadir M, Akanda MJ, Ferdosh S, Mehrnoush A, Karim AA, Noda T, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jan 09;17(1):584-97.
    PMID: 22231495 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010584
    A binary mixture of starch-starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influence of their interaction on physicochemical and rheological properties of the starch-based foods. It is evident that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the biopolymers mixture are highly dependent on the type of starch and other biopolymers that make them up mixing ratios, mixing procedure and presence of other food ingredients in the mixture. Understanding these properties will lead to improve the formulation of starch-based foods and minimize the need to resort to chemically modified starch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  2. Abd Gani SS, Basri M, Rahman MB, Kassim A, Abd Rahman RN, Salleh AB, et al.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2010;74(6):1188-93.
    PMID: 20530909
    Formulations containing engkabang fat and engkabang fat esters, F10 and E15 respectively were prepared using a high-shear homogenizer, followed by a high-pressure homogenizer. Both formulations were stable at room temperature, at 45 degrees C, and after undergoing freeze-thaw cycles. The particle sizes of F10 and E15 after high pressure were 115.75 nm and 148.41 nm respectively. The zeta potentials of F10 and E15 were -36.4 mV and -48.8 mV respectively, while, the pH values of F10 and E15 were 5.59 and 5.81 respectively. The rheology of F10 and E15 showed thixotropy and pseudoplastic behavior respectively. There were no bacteria or fungal growths in the samples. The short-term moisturizing effect on 20 subjects analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), gave p-values of 7.35 x 10(-12) and 2.77 x 10(-15) for F10 and E15 respectively. The hydration of the skins increased after application of F10 and E15 with p-value below 0.05.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  3. Abd Ghafar SZ, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Rudiyanto R, Mohd Ghazali H, Ramli NS, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2020 10;136:109312.
    PMID: 32846521 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109312
    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)- and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based analytical tools are frequently used in metabolomics studies. These complementary metabolomics platforms were applied to identify and quantify the metabolites in Phyllanthus acidus extracted with different ethanol concentrations. In total, 38 metabolites were tentatively identified by 1H NMR and 39 via UHPLC-MS, including 30 compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The partial least square analysis (PLS) revealed the metabolites that contributed to α-glucosidase and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities, including kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, phyllanthusol A, phyllanthusol B, chlorogenic, catechin, cinnamic coumaric, caffeic, quinic, citric, ellagic and malic acids. This study shows the significance of combining 1H NMR- and UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics as the best strategies in identifying metabolites in P. acidus extracts and establishing an extract with potent antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  4. Abd Hamid H, Mutazah R, Yusoff MM, Abd Karim NA, Abdull Razis AF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):451-457.
    PMID: 27725206 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.10.004
    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner. According to the IC50 obtained, the ethyl acetate extracts showed significant antiproliferative activity on HepG2 (IC50 11.47 ± 0.280 μg/mL), MCF-7 (IC50 2.68 ± 0.529 μg/mL) and HT 29 (IC50 16.18 ± 0.538 μg/mL) after 72 h of treatment. Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of lupeol. Methanol extracts show significant antioxidant activities in DPPH (EC50 110.25 ± 0.005 μg/ml), CUPRAC (EC50 53.84 ± 0.004) and β-carotene bleaching (EC50 58.62 ± 0.001) due to the presence of high total flavonoid and total phenolic content which were 110.822 ± 0.017 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)/g and 190.467 ± 0.009 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g respectively. Taken together, the results extracts show the R. tomentosa as a potential source of antioxidant and antiproliferative efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  5. Abd Rahman NF, Basri M, Rahman MB, Rahman RN, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Feb;102(3):2168-76.
    PMID: 21050749 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.034
    Engkabang fat esters were produced via alcoholysis reaction between Engkabang fat and oleyl alcohol, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The reaction was carried out in a 500 ml Stirred tank reactor using heptane and hexane as solvents. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-factor-five-level Central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, namely temperature, substrate molar ratio (oleyl alcohol: Engkabang fat), enzyme amount and impeller speed. The optimum yields of 96.2% and 91.4% were obtained for heptane and hexane at the optimum temperature of 53.9°C, impeller speeds of 309.5 and 309.0 rpm, enzyme amounts of 4.82 and 5.65 g and substrate molar ratios of 2.94 and 3.39:1, respectively. The actual yields obtained compared well with the predicted values of 100.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, the properties of the esters show that they are suitable to be used as ingredient for cosmetic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  6. Abd Rani NZ, Lam KW, Jalil J, Mohamad HF, Mat Ali MS, Husain K
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 28;26(3).
    PMID: 33525733 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030695
    Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (Phyllanthaceae) is a medicinal plant that is commonly used to treat diseases such as asthma, diabetes, and anemia. This study aimed to examine the antiallergic activity of P. amarus extract and its compounds. The antiallergic activity was determined by measuring the concentration of allergy markers release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells with ketotifen fumarate as the positive control. As a result, P. amarus did not stabilize mast cell degranulation but exhibited antihistamine activity. The antihistamine activity was evaluated by conducting a competition radioligand binding assay on the histamine 1 receptor (H1R). Four compounds were identified from the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis which were phyllanthin (1), hypophyllanthin (2), niranthin (3), and corilagin (4). To gain insights into the binding interactions of the most active compound hypophyllanthin (2), molecular docking was conducted and found that hypophyllanthin (2) exhibited favorable binding in the H1R binding site. In conclusion, P. amarus and hypophyllanthin (2) could potentially exhibit antiallergic activity by preventing the activation of the H1 receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  7. Abd Rani NZ, Kumolosasi E, Jasamai M, Jamal JA, Lam KW, Husain K
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Dec 11;19(1):361.
    PMID: 31829185 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2776-1
    BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera Lam. is a commonly used plant in herbal medicine and has various reported bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and antidiabetes. It is rich in nutrients and polyphenols. The plant also has been traditionally used for alleviating allergic conditions. This study was aimed to examine the anti-allergic activity of M. oleifera extracts and its isolated compounds.

    METHOD: M. oleifera leaves, seeds and pods were extracted with 80% of ethanol. Individual compounds were isolated using a column chromatographic technique and elucidated based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESIMS) spectral data. The anti-allergic activity of the extracts, isolated compounds and ketotifen fumarate as a positive control was evaluated using rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells for early and late phases of allergic reactions. The early phase was determined based on the inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine release; while the late phase was based on the inhibition of interleukin (IL-4) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) release.

    RESULTS: Two new compounds; ethyl-(E)-undec-6-enoate (1) and 3,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (2) together with six known compounds; quercetin (3), kaempferol (4), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5), oleic acid (6), glucomoringin (7), 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde (8) and stigmasterol (9) were isolated from M. oleifera extracts. All extracts and the isolated compounds inhibited mast cell degranulation by inhibiting beta-hexosaminidase and histamine release, as well as the release of IL-4 and TNF-α at varying levels compared with ketotifen fumarate.

    CONCLUSION: The study suggested that M. oleifera and its isolated compounds potentially have an anti-allergic activity by inhibiting both early and late phases of allergic reactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  8. Abdallah Q, Al-Deeb I, Bader A, Hamam F, Saleh K, Abdulmajid A
    Mol Med Rep, 2018 Aug;18(2):2441-2448.
    PMID: 29901194 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9155
    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in malignant tumor progression and development. The present study aimed to identify lead plants with selective anti-angiogenic properties. A total of 26 methanolic extracts obtained from 18 plants growing in Saudi Arabia and Jordan that belong to the Lamiaceae family were screened for their cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activities using MTT and rat aortic ring assays, respectively. Four novel extracts of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Phlomis viscosa Poir, Salvia samuelssonii Rech.f., and Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer were identified for their selective anti-angiogenic effects. These extracts did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) indicating the involvement of indirect anti-angiogenic mechanisms. The active extracts are potential candidates for further phytochemical and mechanistic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  9. Abdel-Rahman RF, Ezzat SM, Ogaly HA, Abd-Elsalam RM, Hessin AF, Fekry MI, et al.
    J Nutr Sci, 2020 01 20;9:e2.
    PMID: 32042410 DOI: 10.1017/jns.2019.40
    Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. In vivo, 4 weeks' administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene (Slc2a2) expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  10. Abdelwahab SI, Hassan LE, Sirat HM, Yagi SM, Koko WS, Mohan S, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2011 Dec;82(8):1190-7.
    PMID: 21871542 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2011.08.002
    The in vivo and in vitro mechanistic anti-inflammatory actions of cucurbitacin E (CE) (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) were examined. The results showed that LPS/INF-γ increased NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas L-NAME and CE curtailed it. CE did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 and WRL-68 cells. CE inhibited both COX enzymes with more selectivity toward COX-2. Intraperitoneal injection of CE significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema. ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  11. Abdelwahab SI, Zaman FQ, Mariod AA, Yaacob M, Abdelmageed AH, Khamis S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Dec;90(15):2682-8.
    PMID: 20945508 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4140
    Plant essential oils are widely used as fragrances and flavours. Therefore, the essential oils from the leaves of Cinnamomum pubescens Kochummen (CP) and the whole plant of Etlingera elatior (EE) were investigated for their antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  12. Abdul Hamid NA, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Abas F, Park YS, Leontowicz H, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 May 10;138:80-91.
    PMID: 28189049 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.01.046
    It is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. This study describes a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. A total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data Chenomx database and 2D NMR. The binding properties of the extracted polyphenols against HSA showed higher reactivity of studied two cultivars in comparison with the common Hayward. The results showed that the fluorescence of HSA was quenched by Bidan as much as twice than by other fruits. The correlation between the binding properties of polyphenols in the investigated fruits, their relative quantification and suggested metabolic pathway was established. These results can provide possible application of fruit extracts in pharmaceutical industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  13. Abdul Karim A, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Sep;15(3):283-95.
    PMID: 27041391 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12218
    OBJECTIVE: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles.

    METHODS: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.

    RESULTS: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.

    CONCLUSION: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  14. Abdul-Hamid NA, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Abas F, Ismail IS, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Oct 28;21(11).
    PMID: 27801841
    This study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different Ajwa grades and farm origins. It is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. Identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. The NO inhibitory activity was determined using a Griess assay. Multivariate data analysis, for both supervised and unsupervised approaches, showed clusters among different grades of Ajwa dates obtained from different farms. The compounds that contribute towards the observed separation between Ajwa samples were suggested to be phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and phenylalanine. Ajwa dates were shown to have different metabolite compositions and exhibited a wide range of NO inhibitory activity. It is also revealed that Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm exhibited more than 90% NO inhibitory activity compared to the other grades and origins. Phenolic compounds were among the compounds that played a role towards the greater capacity of NO inhibitory activity shown by Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  15. Abdulhafiz F, Mohammed A, Kayat F, Bhaskar M, Hamzah Z, Podapati SK, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 08;25(11).
    PMID: 32521624 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112658
    Alocasia longiloba, locally known as 'Keladi Candik', has been used traditionally to treat wounds, furuncle and joint inflammations. A. longiloba can be a new source of herbal medicine against hyperuricemia by inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme, the enzyme which is responsible for the development of hyperuricemia in human. Existing xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI drugs) show several side effects on gout patients. Therefore, an alternative herbal medicine from plants, with high therapeutic property and free of side effects, are greatly needed. This study was conducted to evaluate XO inhibitory activity, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS profile of A. longiloba. Our results showed that ethanolic petiole extract exhibited the highest XO inhibitory activity (70.40 ± 0.05%) with IC50 value of 42.71 μg/mL, followed by ethanolic fruit extracts (61.44 ± 1.24%) with the IC50 value of 51.32 μg/mL. In a parallel study, the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids, glycoside and saponin in petiole and fruit extracts, as well as higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assay. The GC-MS analysis of fruit and petiole extracts revealed the presence of various compounds belonging to different chemical nature, among them are limonen-6-ol, α-DGlucopyranoside, paromomycin, aziridine, phenol, Heptatriacotanol, Phen-1,2,3-dimethyl and Betulin found in ethanolic fruit extract, and Phen-1,4-diol,2,3-dimethyl-, 1-Ethynyl-3,trans(1,1-dimethylethyl), Phenol,2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- and 7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-olacetate found in ethanolic petiole extract. Some compounds were documented as potent anti-inflammatory and arthritis related diseases by other researchers. In this study, the efficiency of solvents to extract bioactives was found to be ethanol > water, methanol > hexane > chloroform. Together, our results suggest the prospective utilization of fruit and petiole of A. longiloba to inhibit the activity of XO enzyme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  16. Abdullah AS, Mohammed AS, Abdullah R, Mirghani ME, Al-Qubaisi M
    PMID: 24962691 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-199
    Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  17. Abdullah N, Sahibul-Anwar H, Ideris S, Hasuda T, Hitotsuyanagi Y, Takeya K, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2013 Jul;88:1-6.
    PMID: 23570840 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.03.028
    Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thoms. is a plant widely distributed in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify compounds from the roots of G. macrophyllus. The ground roots were extracted with aqueous methanol and partitioned sequentially with n-hexane, chloroform and butanol. Purification from this extracts afforded six compounds with two new compounds, namely goniolandrene-A (1), -B (2). The absolute configuration of goniolandrene B (2) was established by circular dichrosim. The compounds were cytotoxic against the P388 cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.42 to 160 μM. Goniothalamin (3) exhibited the highest inhibition of 0.42 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  18. Abdullah NH, Salim F, Ahmad R
    Molecules, 2016 Apr 27;21(5).
    PMID: 27128898 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21050525
    Continuing our interest in the Uncaria genus, the phytochemistry and the in-vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Malaysian Uncaria cordata var. ferruginea were investigated. The phytochemical study of this plant, which employed various chromatographic techniques including recycling preparative HPLC, led to the isolation of ten compounds with diverse structures comprising three phenolic acids, two coumarins, three flavonoids, a terpene and an iridoid glycoside. These constituents were identified as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid or salicylic acid (1), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3), scopoletin or 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin (5), quercetin (6), kaempferol (7), taxifolin (8), loganin (9) and β-sitosterol (10). Structure elucidation of the compounds was accomplished with the aid of 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In the α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, the crude methanolic extract of the stems of the plant and its acetone fraction exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibition activity of 87.7% and 89.2%, respectively, while its DCM fraction exhibited only moderate inhibition (75.3%) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The IC50 values of both fractions were found to be significantly lower than the standard acarbose suggesting the presence of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors. Selected compounds isolated from the active fractions were then subjected to α-glucosidase assay in which 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin showed strong inhibitory effects against the enzyme with IC50 values of 549 and 556 μg/mL compared to acarbose (IC50 580 μg/mL) while loganin and scopoletin only showed weak α-glucosidase inhibition of 44.9% and 34.5%, respectively. This is the first report of the isolation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and loganin from the genus and the first report of the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  19. Abdullah NH, Thomas NF, Sivasothy Y, Lee VS, Liew SY, Noorbatcha IA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Feb 14;17(2):143.
    PMID: 26907251 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17020143
    The mammalian hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid by the cleavage of the β-1,4-glycosidic bond furnishing a tetrasaccharide molecule as the main product which is a highly angiogenic and potent inducer of inflammatory cytokines. Ursolic acid 1, isolated from Prismatomeris tetrandra, was identified as having the potential to develop inhibitors of hyaluronidase. A series of ursolic acid analogues were either synthesized via structure modification of ursolic acid 1 or commercially obtained. The evaluation of the inhibitory activity of these compounds on the hyaluronidase enzyme was conducted. Several structural, topological and quantum chemical descriptors for these compounds were calculated using semi empirical quantum chemical methods. A quantitative structure activity relationship study (QSAR) was performed to correlate these descriptors with the hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The statistical characteristics provided by the best multi linear model (BML) (R² = 0.9717, R²cv = 0.9506) indicated satisfactory stability and predictive ability of the developed model. The in silico molecular docking study which was used to determine the binding interactions revealed that the ursolic acid analog 22 had a strong affinity towards human hyaluronidase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  20. Abdullahi SA, Unyah NZ, Nordin N, Basir R, Nasir WM, Alapid AA, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2020;20(9):739-753.
    PMID: 31660810 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666191029105736
    Identification of drug target in protozoan T. gondii is an important step in the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Likewise, exploring phytochemical compounds effective against the parasite can lead to the development of new drug agent that can be useful for prophylaxis and treatment of toxoplasmosis. In this review, we searched for the relevant literature on the herbs that were tested against T. gondii either in vitro or in vivo, as well as different phytochemicals and their potential activities on T. gondii. Potential activities of major phytochemicals, such as alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids and tannins on various target sites on T. gondii as well as other related parasites was discussed. It is believed that the phytochemicals from natural sources are potential drug candidates for the treatment of toxoplasmosis with little or no toxicity to humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
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