METHOD: M. oleifera leaves, seeds and pods were extracted with 80% of ethanol. Individual compounds were isolated using a column chromatographic technique and elucidated based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESIMS) spectral data. The anti-allergic activity of the extracts, isolated compounds and ketotifen fumarate as a positive control was evaluated using rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells for early and late phases of allergic reactions. The early phase was determined based on the inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine release; while the late phase was based on the inhibition of interleukin (IL-4) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) release.
RESULTS: Two new compounds; ethyl-(E)-undec-6-enoate (1) and 3,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (2) together with six known compounds; quercetin (3), kaempferol (4), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5), oleic acid (6), glucomoringin (7), 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde (8) and stigmasterol (9) were isolated from M. oleifera extracts. All extracts and the isolated compounds inhibited mast cell degranulation by inhibiting beta-hexosaminidase and histamine release, as well as the release of IL-4 and TNF-α at varying levels compared with ketotifen fumarate.
CONCLUSION: The study suggested that M. oleifera and its isolated compounds potentially have an anti-allergic activity by inhibiting both early and late phases of allergic reactions.
METHODS: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.
RESULTS: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.
CONCLUSION: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.