Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 799 in total

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  1. de Mendonça IC, Porto IC, do Nascimento TG, de Souza NS, Oliveira JM, Arruda RE, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Oct 14;15:357.
    PMID: 26467757 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0888-9
    BACKGROUND: The implementation of new public healthcare models that stimulate the use of natural products from traditional medicine, as a so-called integrated medicine, refers to an approach that use best of both conventional medicine and traditional medicine. Propolis is a widely used natural product by different ancient cultures and known to exhibit biological activities beneficial for health. The large number of studies conducted with propolis had shown that its chemical composition differs as a function of the climate, plant diversity and bee species and plays an important role on its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract of red propolis (EEP) and its fractionation, antioxidant action of EEP and its fractions hexane, cloroform and ethyl acetate and cytotoxic activity of EEP on human tumour cell lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovary) and HCT-116 (colon).

    METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).

    RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  2. Zulkifli SA, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2020 Feb 12;25(4).
    PMID: 32059460 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25040787
    The present study was conducted to optimize extraction process for defatted pitaya seed extract (DPSE) adopting response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level central composite design was used to optimize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) activities. The independent variables included extraction time (30-60 min), extraction temperature (40-80 °C) and ethanol concentration (60%-80%). Results showed that the quadratic polynomial equations for all models were significant at (p < 0.05), with non-significant lack of fit at p > 0.05 and R2 of more than 0.90. The optimized extraction parameters were established as follows: extraction time of 45 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the recovery of TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS were 128.58 ± 1.61 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample, 9.805 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample, 1.23 ± 0.03 mM Fe2+/g sample, and 91.62% ± 0.15, respectively. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis identified seven chemical compounds with flavonoids constituting major composition of the DPSE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  3. Zulkifli NI, Muhamad M, Mohamad Zain NN, Tan WN, Yahaya N, Bustami Y, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 22;25(18).
    PMID: 32971740 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25184332
    A bottom-up approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-GA) phytomediated by Garcinia atroviridis leaf extract is described. Under optimized conditions, the AgNPs-GA were synthesized at a concentration of 0.1 M silver salt and 10% (w/v) leaf extract, 1:4 mixing ratio of reactants, pH 3, temperature 32 °C and 72 h reaction time. The AgNPs-GA were characterized by various analytical techniques and their size was determined to be 5-30 nm. FTIR spectroscopy indicates the role of phenolic functional groups in the reduction of silver ions into AgNPs-GA and in supporting their subsequent stability. The UV-Visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at 450 nm which reflects the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs-GA and further supports the stability of these biosynthesized nanoparticles. SEM, TEM and XRD diffractogram analyses indicate that AgNPs-GA were spherical and face-centered-cubic in shape. This study also describes the efficacy of biosynthesized AgNPs-GA as anti-proliferative agent against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1. Our findings indicate that AgNPs-GA possess significant anti-proliferative effects against both the MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1 cell lines, with inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50 values) of 2.0 and 34.0 µg/mL, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. An induction of apoptosis was evidenced by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Therefore, AgNPs-GA exhibited its anti-proliferative activity via apoptosis on MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1 breast cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, the leaf extract from Garcinia atroviridis was found to be highly capable of producing AgNPs-GA with favourable physicochemical and biological properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  4. Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Karimian H, Rouhollahi E, Paydar M, Fadaeinasab M, Abdul Kadir H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Oct 28;156:277-89.
    PMID: 25195082 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.011
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Annona muricata known as "the cancer killer" has been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anticancer properties of ethyl acetate extract of Annona muricata leaves (EEAM) on HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of EEAM on the cell proliferation of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells was analyzed by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay. High content screening system (HCS) was applied to investigate the cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), nuclear condensation and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to cytosol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 were measured while treatment. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine the cell cycle distribution and phosphatidylserine externalization. The protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was determined using immunofluorescence analysis. In addition, the potential of EEAM to suppress the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells was also examined.
    RESULTS: EEAM exerted significant cytotoxic effects on HCT-116 and HT-29 cells as determined by MTT and LDH assays. After 24 h treatment, EEAM exhibited the IC₅₀ value of 11.43 ± 1.87 µg/ml and 8.98 ± 1.24 µg/ml against HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and phosphatidylserine externalization confirming the induction of apoptosis. EEAM treatment caused excessive accumulation of ROS followed by disruption of MMP, cytochrome c leakage and activation of the initiator and executioner caspases in both colon cancer cells. Immunofluorescence analysis depicted the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 proteins while treated with EEAM. Furthermore, EEAM conspicuously blocked the migration and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of A. muricata leaves in the treatment of cancer, although further in vivo studies are still required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  5. Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Rouhollahi E, Karimian H, Fadaeinasab M, Firoozinia M, Ameen Abdulla M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(4):e0122288.
    PMID: 25860620 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122288
    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the anticancer activity of A. muricata leaves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  6. Zokti JA, Sham Baharin B, Mohammed AS, Abas F
    Molecules, 2016 Jul 26;21(8).
    PMID: 27472310 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21080940
    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  7. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Riaz M, De Feo V, Jaafar HZ, Moga M
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 28;19(8):10998-1029.
    PMID: 25072202 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  8. Zhang X, Tan Z, Jia K, Zhang W, Dang M
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):2171-2178.
    PMID: 31159596 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1620249
    Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging field and is reported to be a promising tool for treating various diseases. Green synthesized nanoparticles are documented to possess a potent anticancer effect. Rabdosia rubescens is a Chinese plant which is also one of the components of PC-SPES and used to treat prostate cancer. In the present study, we synthesized the gold nanoparticles from R. rubescens (RR-AuNP) and analyzed its anticancer activity against the lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. Since lung cancer is reported to be with increased morbidity and decreased survival rate. The biosynthesized RR-AuNP were confirmed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, size and shape of RR-AuNP were assessed by DLS, TEM and EDX. The biomolecules present in RR-AuNP and its topographical structure were detected using FTIR, SAED and AFM analysis. MTT assay was performed to detect the IC50 dose of RR-AuNP and its apoptotic effect was assessed by detecting the caspases activation, ROS generation. The anticancer effect of RR-AuNP was confirmed by DAPI staining, TUNEL assay and its molecular mechanism were confirmed by assessing the apoptotic signalling molecules protein expression. Our results illustrate that RR-AuNP showed a strong absorption peak at 550 nm and the RRAuNP were polydispersed nanospheres with size of 130 nm. RR-AuNP IC50 dose against A549 lung carcinoma cell line was detected to be at 25 µg/ml. The results of DAPI staining, TUNEL and immunoblotting analysis confirms both the 25 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of RR-AuNP possess potent anticancer and apoptotic effect, suggesting that RR-AuNP that it may be a persuasive molecule to treat lung cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  9. Zhang T, Dang M, Zhang W, Lin X
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2020 Jan;202:111705.
    PMID: 31812087 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111705
    The procurance of gold nanoparticles in the plant extracts is an excellent way to attain nanomaterials natural and eco-friendly nanomaterials. The Dehydrated roots of Chinese Euphorbia fischeriana flowering plant are called "Lang-Du". In this study, the retrieving of gold nanoparticles from Euphorbia fischeriana root was amalgamated by standard procedure. Fabricated gold nanoparticles were portrayed through the investigations of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-Vis and FTIR results explicated the obtained particles were sphere-shaped and the terpenoids of Euphorbia fischeriana had strong communications with gold surface. The HRTEM and XRD images exposed the produced gold nanoparticles had an extreme composition of crystal arrangement and excellent uniformed size of particles. In our study, the Isoprenaline induced myocardial damage established the elevation in TBARS, LOOH of heart tissues and notable decline in antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH. This biochemical result was additionally proved by histopathological assessment. Remarkably, the pretreatment with EF-AuNps(50 mg/kg b.w) illustrated stabilized levels of serum creatine and cardiotropins in myocardial infarcted animals. And further we understood the essential function of NF-ƙB, TNF-α, IL-6 signaling molecules and its way progression in the development of vascular tenderness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  10. Zhang P, Wang P, Yan L, Liu L
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:7047-7059.
    PMID: 30464458 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S180138
    Background: Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is one of the subtypes of head and neck cancers. It occurs rarely, and its prevalence depends mainly on geographical location. Modern-day research is focused on coupling nanotechnology and traditional medicine for combating cancers. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized from Solanum xanthocarpum (Sx) leaf extract using reduction method.

    Methods: Characterization of the synthesized AuNPs was done by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectrum absorption, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Results: All the results showed the successful green synthesis of AuNPs from Sx, which induced apoptosis of C666-1 cell line (NPC cell line). There was a decline in both cell viability and colony formation in C666-1 cells upon treatment with Sx-AuNPs. The cell death was proved to be caused by autophagy and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    Conclusion: Thus, due to their anticancer potential, these nanoparticles coupled with Sx can be used for in vivo applications and clinical research in future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  11. Zengin G, Abdallah HH, Dogan A, Mollica A, Aumeeruddy-Elalfi Z, Mahomoodally MF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;111:423-431.
    PMID: 29198858 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.11.055
    The potentiality of bioactive phenolic compounds may result in plant extracts having multiple biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate into the biological activities of the methanolic, ethyl acetate, and water extracts of Tchihatchewia isatidea Boiss, an endemic medicinal plant of Turkey. The phenolic compositions of the extracts were confirmed using RP-HPLC. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant through a panoply of assays; their anti-diabetic potential, and plausible inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase. Molecular modelling methods were also used to assess the docking properties of phenolic compounds on tyrosinase. The major and most abundant compounds were rosmarinic acid (570 ± 14 μg/g extract in the methanolic extract), ferrulic acid (336 ± 6 μg/g extract in the methanolic extract), (+)-catechin (340 ± 4 μg/g extract in the water extract), apigenin (182 ± 4 μg/g extract in the methanolic extract), and epicatechin (188 ± 12 μg/g extract in the water extract). Radical scavenging, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activities were detected in the extracts, with preponderance activity observed in the methanolic extract. In conclusion, the potential clinical applications observed during this study may provide new insights into the molecular aspect particularly for neuroprotective and anti-diabetic mechanisms involving oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  12. Zawawi NK, Ahmat N, Mazatulikhma MZ, Shafiq RM, Wahid NH, Sufian AS
    Nat Prod Res, 2013;27(17):1589-93.
    PMID: 23035830 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.730047
    Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Shorea maxwelliana yielded five oligostilbenoids identified as α-viniferin (1), maximol A (2), vaticanol A (3), suffruticosol A (4) and vaticanol G (5). Chemotaxonomy of isolated compounds was discussed briefly. Major compounds were tested for neurotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Neurotoxicity for all tested compounds did not pose any toxic effect against cultured cell (cell viability range ±100-94%). Compounds 2-5 possessed active cyctotoxic activity against HL60 cell line with IC50 values range of 2.7-78 µg mL(-1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  13. Zandi K, Lim TH, Rahim NA, Shu MH, Teoh BT, Sam SS, et al.
    PMID: 23627436 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-91
    Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) is one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that have been shown to possess many health benefits. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activity of aqueous extract of the roots of S. baicalensis against all the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  14. Zamakshshari NH, Ee GCL, Ismail IS, Ibrahim Z, Mah SH
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2019 Nov;133:110800.
    PMID: 31479710 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110800
    The stem bark of Calophyllum depressinervosum and Calophyllum buxifolium were extracted and examined for their antioxidant activities, together with cytotoxicity towards human cancer cells. The methanol extract of C. depressinervosum exhibited good DPPH and NO scavenging effects. The strongest BCB inhibition and FIC effects were shown by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of both species. Overall, DPPH, FRAP and FIC assays showed strong correlation with TPC. For cytotoxicity, hexane extract of C. depressinervosum possessed the strongest anti-proliferative activities towards SNU-1 cells while the hexane extract of C. buxifolium showed the strongest activity towards LS-174T and K562 cells with the IC50 values ranging from 7 to 17 μg/mL. The purification of plant extracts afforded eight xanthones, ananixanthone (1), caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone I (3), caloxanthone J (4) xanthochymone B (5), thwaitesixanthone (6), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (7) and dombakinaxanthone (8). All the xanthones, except 1 were reported for the first time from both Calophyllum species. The xanthones were examined for their cytotoxic effect against K562 leukemic cells. Compounds 1 and 2 showed strong cytotoxicity with the IC50 values of 2.96 and 1.23 μg/mL, respectively. The molecular binding interaction of 2 was further investigated by performing molecular docking study with promising protein receptor Src kinase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  15. Zakaria ZA, Mohd Sani MH, Cheema MS, Kader AA, Kek TL, Salleh MZ
    PMID: 24555641 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-63
    Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  16. Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Suppaiah V, Ahmad S, Jamaludin F
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Feb 12;151(3):1184-1193.
    PMID: 24380736 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.045
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) is locally known as kerukup siam. Its leaves, flowers, barks and roots have been used traditionally in East Asia and South America to treat various diseases including ulcer-related diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism(s) of gastroprotective effect of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura leaves (MEMC) using the pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration in rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five groups of rats (n=6) were administered orally once daily for 7 days with 8% Tween 80 (negative control), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), or MEMC (100, 250 or 500 mg/kg), followed by the ulcer induction via ligation of the pyloric part of the rat's stomach. This was followed by the macroscopic analysis of the stomach, evaluation of gastric content parameters, and quantification of mucus content. The antioxidant (measured using the superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays), anti-inflammatory (evaluated using the in vitro lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase assays), phytoconstituents and HPLC analysis of MEMC were also carried out.

    RESULTS: The MEMC significantly (p<0.05) reduced gastric lesion in this model. Furthermore, the extract also significantly (p<0.01) reduced the volume of gastric content whereas the total acidity was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg MEMC. Moreover, the mucus content increased significantly (p<0.01) in MEMC-treated rats. The extract also showed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays tested, and demonstrated the presence of high tannins and saponins followed by flavonoids.

    CONCLUSION: The MEMC exerted gastroprotective effect via several mechanisms including the anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities could be attributed to the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids (e.g. rutin, quercitrin, fisetin and dihydroquercetin).

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  17. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Hisam EE, Norhafizah M, Rofiee MS, Othman F, Hasiah AH, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2012;21(5):476-82.
    PMID: 22398984 DOI: 10.1159/000336593
    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  18. Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Mamat SS, Mohtarrudin N, Kek TL, Salleh MZ
    PMID: 25927982 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0638-z
    Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the gastroprotective mechanisms of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  19. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Roosli RAJ, Mohd Sani MH, Omar MH, Mohd Tohid SF, et al.
    Pain Res Manag, 2018;2018:9536406.
    PMID: 29686743 DOI: 10.1155/2018/9536406
    Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been proven to possess antinociceptive activity that works via the opioid and NO-dependent/cGMP-independent pathways. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the possible mechanisms of antinociception of MECN using various nociceptive assays. The antinociceptive activity of MECN was (i) tested against capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged against selective antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes (β-funaltrexamine, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine); (iii) prechallenged against antagonist of nonopioid systems, namely, α2-noradrenergic (yohimbine), β-adrenergic (pindolol), adenosinergic (caffeine), dopaminergic (haloperidol), and cholinergic (atropine) receptors; (iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride). The results demonstrated that the orally administered MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the nociceptive effect of all models in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg MECN was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by (i) antagonists of μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors; (ii) antagonists of α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and (iii) blockers of different K+ channels (voltage-activated-, Ca2+-activated, and ATP-sensitive-K+ channels, resp.). In conclusion, MECN-induced antinociception involves modulation of protein kinase C-, bradykinin-, TRVP1 receptors-, and glutamatergic-signaling pathways; opioidergic, α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and nonopioidergic receptors as well as the opening of various K+ channels. The antinociceptive activity could be associated with the presence of several flavonoid-based bioactive compounds and their synergistic action with nonvolatile bioactive compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  20. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Roosli RAJ, Mohd Sani MH, Marmaya NH, Omar MH, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:6593125.
    PMID: 31467905 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6593125
    Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been reported to exert antinociceptive activity. The present study aimed to elucidate the possible antinociceptive mechanisms of a lipid-soluble fraction of MECN, which was obtained after sequential extraction in petroleum ether. The petroleum ether fraction of C. nutans (PECN), administered orally to mice, was (i) subjected to capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged (intraperitoneal (i.p.)) with 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine, 1 mg/kg pindolol, 3 mg/kg caffeine, 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol, or 10 mg/kg atropine, which were the respective antagonist of α2-adrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, or muscarinic receptors; and (iii) prechallenged (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide, 0.04 mg/kg apamin, 0.02 mg/kg charybdotoxin, or 4 mg/kg tetraethylammonium chloride, which were the respective inhibitor of ATP sensitive-, small conductance Ca2+-activated-, large conductance Ca2+-activated-, or nonselective voltage-activated-K+ channel. Results obtained demonstrated that PECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited all models of nociception described earlier. The antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg PECN was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated when prechallenged with all antagonists or K+ channel blockers. However, only pretreatment with apamin and charybdotoxin caused full inhibition of PECN-induced antinociception. The rest of the K+ channel blockers and all antagonists caused only partial inhibition of PECN antinociception, respectively. Analyses on PECN's phytoconstituents revealed the presence of antinociceptive-bearing bioactive compounds of volatile (i.e., derivatives of γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and lupeol) and nonvolatile (i.e., cinnamic acid) nature. In conclusion, PECN exerts a non-opioid-mediated antinociceptive activity involving mainly activation of adenosinergic and cholinergic receptors or small- and large-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+ channels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
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