METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).
RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50
Methods: Characterization of the synthesized AuNPs was done by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectrum absorption, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.
Results: All the results showed the successful green synthesis of AuNPs from Sx, which induced apoptosis of C666-1 cell line (NPC cell line). There was a decline in both cell viability and colony formation in C666-1 cells upon treatment with Sx-AuNPs. The cell death was proved to be caused by autophagy and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Conclusion: Thus, due to their anticancer potential, these nanoparticles coupled with Sx can be used for in vivo applications and clinical research in future.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five groups of rats (n=6) were administered orally once daily for 7 days with 8% Tween 80 (negative control), 100 mg/kg ranitidine (positive control), or MEMC (100, 250 or 500 mg/kg), followed by the ulcer induction via ligation of the pyloric part of the rat's stomach. This was followed by the macroscopic analysis of the stomach, evaluation of gastric content parameters, and quantification of mucus content. The antioxidant (measured using the superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays), anti-inflammatory (evaluated using the in vitro lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase assays), phytoconstituents and HPLC analysis of MEMC were also carried out.
RESULTS: The MEMC significantly (p<0.05) reduced gastric lesion in this model. Furthermore, the extract also significantly (p<0.01) reduced the volume of gastric content whereas the total acidity was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg MEMC. Moreover, the mucus content increased significantly (p<0.01) in MEMC-treated rats. The extract also showed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in all assays tested, and demonstrated the presence of high tannins and saponins followed by flavonoids.
CONCLUSION: The MEMC exerted gastroprotective effect via several mechanisms including the anti-secretory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities could be attributed to the presence of tannins, saponins and flavonoids (e.g. rutin, quercitrin, fisetin and dihydroquercetin).