METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.
RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.
CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.
METHODS: Methods involved were MTT assay (cytotoxic activity), morphological cells analysis, flow cytometry and cell cycle analysis and western blot.
RESULTS: MTT assay revealed IC50 concentration was 1.61 µg/mL, 3T3-L1 cell lines were used to determine whether AgNps-CN is cytotoxic to normal cells. At the highest concentration (3 µg/mL), no cytotoxic activity has been observed. Flow cytometry assay revealed AgNps-CN caused apoptosis effects towards HSC-4 cell lines with significant changes were observed at G1 phase when compared with untreated cells. Morphological cells analysis revealed that most of the cells exhibit apoptosis characteristics rather than necrosis. Protein study revealed that ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 increased mainly due to down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.
CONCLUSION: AgNps-CN have shown potential in inhibiting HSC-4 cell lines. IC50 was low compared to few studies involving biosynthesized of silver nanoparticles. Apoptosis effects were shown towards HSC-4 cell lines by the increased in Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Further study such as PCR or in vivo studies are required.