METHODS: In this work, the biochemical potential of M. buxifolia (Falc.) A. DC was explored and linked with its biological activities. Methanol and chloroform extracts from leaves and stems were investigated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was used to determine secondary-metabolite composition, while high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) was used for polyphenolic quantification. In addition, we carried out in vitro assays to determine antioxidant potential and the enzyme-inhibitory response of M. buxifolia extracts.
RESULTS: Phenolics (91 mg gallic-acid equivalent (GAE)/g) and flavonoids (48.86 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g) exhibited their highest concentration in the methanol extract of stems and the chloroform extract of leaves, respectively. UHPLC-MS analysis identified a number of important phytochemicals, belonging to the flavonoid, phenolic, alkaloid, and terpenoid classes of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of leaves contained a diosgenin derivative and polygalacin D, while kaempferol and robinin were most abundant in the chloroform extract. The methanol extract of stems contained a greater peak area for diosgenin and kaempferol, whereas this was true for lucidumol A and 3-O-cis-coumaroyl maslinic acid in the chloroform extract. Rutin, epicatechin, and catechin were the main phenolics identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. The methanol extract of stems exhibited significant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities (145.18 and 279.04 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, respectively). The maximum cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) (361.4 mg TE/g), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (247.19 mg TE/g), and total antioxidant potential (2.75 mmol TE/g) were depicted by the methanol extract of stems. The methanol extract of leaves exhibited stronger inhibition against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucosidase, while the chloroform extract of stems was most active against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (4.27 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g). Similarly, the highest tyrosinase (140 mg kojic-acid equivalent (KAE)/g) and amylase (0.67 mmol acarbose equivalent (ACAE)/g) inhibition was observed for the methanol extract of stems.
CONCLUSIONS: UHPLC-MS analysis and HPLC-PDA quantification identified a number of bioactive secondary metabolites of M. buxifolia, which may be responsible for its antioxidant potential and enzyme-inhibitory response. M. buxifolia can be further explored for the isolation of its active components to be used as a drug.
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to inspect the ameliorative action of A. chinensis synthesized ZnONPs against M. pneumoniae infected pneumonia mice model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnO NPs was synthesized from Albizia chinensis bark extract and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analyses. The antibacterial effectual of synthesized ZnONPs were examined against clinical pathogens. The pneumonia was induced to BALB/c mice via injecting the M. pneumoniae and treated with synthesized ZnONPs, followed by the total protein content, total cell counts and inflammatory mediators level was assessed in the BALF of experimental animals. The Histopathological investigation was done in the lung tissues of test animals.
RESULTS: The outcomes of this work revealed that the formulated ZnONPs was quasi-spherical, radial and cylindrical; the size was identified as 116.5 ± 27.45 nm in diameter. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of formulated ZnO-NPs displayed noticeable inhibitory capacity against the tested fungal and bacterial strains. The administration of synthesized ZnO-NPs in MP infected mice model has significantly reduced the levels of total protein, inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and transforming growth factor (TGF). Besides, the histopathological examination of MP infected mice lung tissue showed the cellular arrangements were effectively retained after administration of synthesized ZnO-NPs.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, synthesized ZnO-NPs alleviate pneumonia progression via reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cells in MP infected mice model.