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  1. Tasnuva ST, Qamar UA, Ghafoor K, Sahena F, Jahurul MHA, Rukshana AH, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2019 May;33(10):1495-1499.
    PMID: 29281898 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1419224
    The aim of the study was to isolate digestive enzymes inhibitors from Mimosa pudica through a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Repeated silica gel and sephadex LH 20 column chromatographies of bioactive fractions afforded stigmasterol, quercetin and avicularin as digestive enzymes inhibitors whose IC50 values as compared to acarbose (351.02 ± 1.46 μg mL-1) were found to be as 91.08 ± 1.54, 75.16 ± 0.92 and 481.7 ± 0.703 μg mL-1, respectively. In conclusion, M. pudica could be a good and safe source of digestive enzymes inhibitors for the management of diabetes in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  2. Ramli I, Kamarulzaman NH, Shaari K, Ee GC
    Nat Prod Res, 2004 Aug;18(4):289-94.
    PMID: 15214478
    Leaf extracts of Melicope lunu-ankenda were chemically studied and found to contain mixtures of hydrocarbons and squalene, fatty acids and esters. A geranylated coumaric acid was isolated as the major compound. The crude dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the leaves were found to be strongly larvicidal with LC50 values below 20 microg mL(-1). This is a first isolation of p-O-geranylcoumaric acid from this plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  3. Habib U, Cecilia DW, Maizatul SS
    Se Pu, 2017 Jun 08;35(6):656-664.
    PMID: 29048794 DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1123.2017.02002
    Ionic liquids (ILs) based ultrasonic-assisted extract has been applied for the extraction of essential oil from Persicaria minor leaves. The effects of temperature, sonication time, and particle size of the plant material on the yield of essential oil were investigated. Among the different ILs employed, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was the most effective, providing a 9.55% yield of the essential oil under optimum conditions (70 ℃, 25 min, IL:hexane ratio of 7:10 (v/v), particle size 60-80 mesh). The performance of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate in the extraction was attributed to its low viscosity and ability to disintegrate the structural matrix of the plant material. The ability of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was also confirmed using the conductor like-screening model for realistic solvents. This research proves that ILs can be used to extract essential oils from lignocellulosic biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  4. Hamid A, Ibrahim FW, Ming TH, Nasrom MN, Eusoff N, Husain K, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 20;18(1):101.
    PMID: 29558939 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2161-5
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith belongs to the Zingiberaceae family that is widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. It is locally known as 'Lempoyang' and traditionally used to treat fever, constipation and to relieve pain. It is also known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on these antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl-acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes against ethanol-induced brain damage in male Wistar rats.

    METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups which consist of normal, 1.8 g/kg ethanol (40% v/v), 200 mg/kg Z. zerumbet extract plus ethanol and 400 mg/kg Z. zerumbet plus ethanol. The extract of Z. zerumbet was given once daily by oral gavage, 30 min prior to ethanol exposure via intraperitoneal route for 14 consecutive days. The rats were then sacrificed. Blood and brain homogenate were subjected to biochemical tests and part of the brain tissue was sectioned for histological analysis.

    RESULT: Treatment with ethyl-acetate Z. zerumbet extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  5. Ee GC, Daud S, Taufiq-Yap YH, Ismail NH, Rahmani M
    Nat Prod Res, 2006 Oct;20(12):1067-73.
    PMID: 17127660
    Studies on the stem of Garcinia mangostana have led to the isolation of one new xanthone mangosharin (1) (2,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone) and six other prenylated xanthones, alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), garcinone D (4), 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (5), mangostanol (6) and 5,9-dihydroxy-8- methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano-[3,2-b]-xanthene-6-one (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and by comparison with previous studies. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated very good toxicity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. This article reports the isolation and identification of the above compounds as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. These bioassay data have not been reported before.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  6. Aladdin NA, Husain K, Jalil J, Sabandar CW, Jamal JA
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2020 Oct 27;20(1):324.
    PMID: 33109178 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-020-03119-8
    BACKGROUND: In traditional Malay medicine, Marantodes pumilum (Blume) Kuntze (family Primulaceae) is commonly used by women to treat parturition, flatulence, dysentery, dysmenorrhea, gonorrhea, and bone diseases. Preliminary screening of some Primulaceae species showed that they possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of three varieties of M. pumilum and their phytochemical compounds.

    METHOD: Dichloromethane, methanol, and water extracts of the leaves and roots of M. pumilum var. alata, M. pumilum var. pumila, and M. pumilum var. lanceolata were tested using an in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation were carried out on the most active extract using chromatographic techniques. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using spectroscopic techniques.

    RESULTS: The most active dichloromethane extract of M. pumilum var. pumila leaves (IC50 = 161.6 μg/mL) yielded one new compound, 3,7-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-4,8-dimethyl-isocoumarin (1), and five known compounds, viz. ardisiaquinone A (2), maesanin (3), stigmasterol (4), tetracosane (5), and margaric acid (6). The new compound was found to be the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.66 ± 0.01 μg/mL, which was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from that of the positive control, allopurinol (IC50 = 0.24 ± 0.00 μg/mL).

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the new compound 3,7-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-4,8-dimethyl-isocoumarin (1), which was isolated from the dichloromethane extract of M. pumilum var. pumila leaves, could be a potential xanthine oxidase inhibitor.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  7. Abdulhafiz F, Mohammed A, Kayat F, Bhaskar M, Hamzah Z, Podapati SK, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 08;25(11).
    PMID: 32521624 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112658
    Alocasia longiloba, locally known as 'Keladi Candik', has been used traditionally to treat wounds, furuncle and joint inflammations. A. longiloba can be a new source of herbal medicine against hyperuricemia by inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme, the enzyme which is responsible for the development of hyperuricemia in human. Existing xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI drugs) show several side effects on gout patients. Therefore, an alternative herbal medicine from plants, with high therapeutic property and free of side effects, are greatly needed. This study was conducted to evaluate XO inhibitory activity, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS profile of A. longiloba. Our results showed that ethanolic petiole extract exhibited the highest XO inhibitory activity (70.40 ± 0.05%) with IC50 value of 42.71 μg/mL, followed by ethanolic fruit extracts (61.44 ± 1.24%) with the IC50 value of 51.32 μg/mL. In a parallel study, the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids, glycoside and saponin in petiole and fruit extracts, as well as higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assay. The GC-MS analysis of fruit and petiole extracts revealed the presence of various compounds belonging to different chemical nature, among them are limonen-6-ol, α-DGlucopyranoside, paromomycin, aziridine, phenol, Heptatriacotanol, Phen-1,2,3-dimethyl and Betulin found in ethanolic fruit extract, and Phen-1,4-diol,2,3-dimethyl-, 1-Ethynyl-3,trans(1,1-dimethylethyl), Phenol,2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- and 7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-olacetate found in ethanolic petiole extract. Some compounds were documented as potent anti-inflammatory and arthritis related diseases by other researchers. In this study, the efficiency of solvents to extract bioactives was found to be ethanol > water, methanol > hexane > chloroform. Together, our results suggest the prospective utilization of fruit and petiole of A. longiloba to inhibit the activity of XO enzyme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  8. Sasidharan S, Nilawatyi R, Xavier R, Latha LY, Amala R
    Molecules, 2010 Apr 30;15(5):3186-99.
    PMID: 20657471 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15053186
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats.

    METHODS: A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w). Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups.

    RESULTS: Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  9. Sasidharan S, Logeswaran S, Latha LY
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(1):336-47.
    PMID: 22312255 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010336
    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05), improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  10. Chai TT, Kwek MT, Ong HC, Wong FC
    Food Chem, 2015 Nov 1;186:26-31.
    PMID: 25976787 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.099
    This study aimed to isolate a potent antiglucosidase and antioxidant fraction from Stenochlaena palustris. Extraction was performed with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. Antiglucosidase, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays found methanol extract (ME) to be the most active. Water fraction (WF) of ME was a stronger α-glucosidase inhibitor (EC50 2.9 μg/mL) than quercetin, with weak antiamylase activity. WF was a competitive α-glucosidase inhibitor. DPPH scavenging activity of WF (EC50 7.7 μg/mL) was weaker than quercetin. WF (EC50 364 μg/mL) was a stronger hydrogen peroxide scavenger than gallic acid (EC50 838 μg/mL) and was equally strong as quercetin in scavenging superoxide. WF possessed moderate copper chelating activity. WF was enriched in total phenolics (TP) and hydroxycinnamic acids (THC). TP correlated with antioxidant activity (R(2) > 0.76). Only THC correlated with antiglucosidase activity (R(2) = 0.86). Overall, WF demonstrated concurrent, potent antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  11. Dewanjee S, Dua TK, Khanra R, Das S, Barma S, Joardar S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(10):e0139831.
    PMID: 26473485 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139831
    BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (Convolvulaceae), an aquatic edible plant, is traditionally used against heavy metal toxicity in India. The current study intended to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of I. aquatica (AEIA) against experimentally induced Pb-intoxication.

    METHODS: The cytoprotective role of AEIA was measured on mouse hepatocytes by cell viability assay followed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometric assay. The effect on ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, intracellular redox status were measured after incubating the hepatocytes with Pb-acetate (6.8 μM) along with AEIA (400 μg/ml). The effects on the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins were estimated by western blotting. The protective role of AEIA was measured by in vivo assay in mice. Haematological, serum biochemical, tissue redox status, Pb bioaccumulation and histological parameters were evaluated to estimate the protective role of AEIA (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication.

    RESULTS: Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes showed a gradual reduction of cell viability dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 6.8 μM. Pb-acetate treated hepatocytes exhibited significantly enhanced levels (p < 0.01) of ROS production, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation with concomitant depletion (p < 0.01) of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. However, AEIA treatment could significantly restore the aforementioned parameters in murine hepatocytes near to normalcy. Besides, AEIA significantly reversed (p < 0.05-0.01) the alterations of transcription levels of apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl 2, Bad, Cyt C, Apaf-1, cleaved caspases [caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9], Fas and Bid. In in vivo bioassay, Pb-acetate treatment caused significantly high intracellular Pb burden and oxidative pressure in the kidney, liver, heart, brain and testes in mice. In addition, the haematological and serum biochemical factors were changed significantly in Pb-acetate-treated animals. AEIA treatment restored significantly the evaluated-parameters to the near-normal position.

    CONCLUSION: The extract may offer the protective effect via counteracting with Pb mediated oxidative stress and/or promoting the elimination of Pb by chelating. The presence of substantial quantities of flavonoids, phenolics and saponins would be responsible for the overall protective effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  12. Choo CY, Sulong NY, Man F, Wong TW
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Aug 1;142(3):776-81.
    PMID: 22683902 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.062
    The leaves of Ficus deltoidea are used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  13. Tiong SH, Looi CY, Arya A, Wong WF, Hazni H, Mustafa MR, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2015 Apr;102:182-8.
    PMID: 25665941 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.01.019
    Vindogentianine, a new indole alkaloid together with six known alkaloids, vindoline, vindolidine, vindolicine, vindolinine, perivine and serpentine were isolated from leaf extract (DA) of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods; NMR, MS, UV and IR. Vindogentianine is a dimer containing a vindoline moiety coupled to a gentianine moiety. After 24h incubation, vindogentianine exhibited no cytotoxic effect in C2C12 mouse myoblast and β-TC6 mouse pancreatic cells (IC50>50μg/mL). Real-time cell proliferation monitoring also indicated vindogentianine had little or no effect on C2C12 mouse myoblast cell growth at the highest dose tested (200μg/mL), without inducing cell death. Vindogentianine exhibited potential hypoglycemic activity in β-TC6 and C2C12 cells by inducing higher glucose uptake and significant in vitro PTP-1B inhibition. However, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay showed low inhibition under treatment of vindogentianine. This suggests that hypoglycemic activity of vindogentianine may be due to the enhancement of glucose uptake and PTP-1B inhibition, implying its therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  14. Yusof Z, Ramasamy S, Mahmood NZ, Yaacob JS
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 04;23(6).
    PMID: 29867000 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061345
    This project studied the effect of vermicompost application on the composition of bioactive anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans. The correlation between the bioactive constituents and antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. In this project, a field study was conducted using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatment groups, including control plants (CC), plants supplied with chemical fertilizer (CF), plants supplied with vermicompost (VC), and plants supplied with mixed fertilizer (MF). The leaves of C. nutans from all treatment groups were harvested, subjected to solvent extraction, and used for quantification of total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The initial antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, as well as after two and four weeks of storage at -20 °C and 4 °C. Data analysis showed that CC plants contained the highest TAC (2180.14 ± 338.43 µg/g dry weight) and TFC (276.25 ± 3.09 mg QE/g dry weight). On the other hand, CF plants showed the highest TPC (181.53 ± 35.58 mg GAE/g dry weight). Moreover, we found that CC plants had the highest antioxidant potential against DPPH radicals whereas MF plants showed the lowest antioxidant potential. After four weeks of extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C, the TPC, TFC, TAC, and antioxidant potential of the extracts decreased. Extracts from VC showed the lowest percentage of total phenolic and total flavonoid loss after extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C compared with other plant extracts. At this juncture, it could be deduced that the application of vermicompost had little effect on the expression of phenolics, flavonoids, or anthocyanin in C. nutans. However, the extract from plants treated with vermicompost (VC and MF) showed better stability compared with CC and CF after extract storage at different temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  15. Kam TS, Choo YM
    Phytochemistry, 2004 Jul;65(14):2119-22.
    PMID: 15279982
    Two new venalstonine derivatives, viz., venacarpines A and B, and one new dioxokopsan derivative, kopsorinine, in addition to the kopsifolines A-F, and 11 other known alkaloids, were isolated from a Malayan Kopsia species. The structures of the new alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  16. Tan CS, Loh YC, Ch'ng YS, Ng CH, Yeap ZQ, Ahmad M, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 Mar 25;232:135-144.
    PMID: 30543913 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.12.014
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citrus reticulatae Pericarpium (Chen pi) was widely used as an important ingredient in the prescription of TCM to treat phlegm fluid retention type hypertension. Since Chen pi is involved in treatment as antihypertensive TCM formula, we have reasonable expectation in believing that it might possess vasorelaxant activity.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of Chen pi and to study its pharmacology effects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The vasorelaxant effect of water extract of Chen pi (CRW) were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. The fingerprint of Chen pi and the extracts were developed with quantification of hesperidin content by HPTLC.

    RESULTS: CRW exhibited the strongest vasorelaxant activity. CRW caused the relaxation of the phenylephrine pre-contracted aortic rings in the presence and absence of endothelium as well as in potassium chloride pre-contracted endothelium-intact aortic ring. The incubation of propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor blocker), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NO synthase inhibitor), ODQ (sGC inhibitor), indomethacin (COX inhibitor), 4-aminopyridine (KV blocker), barium chloride (Kir blocker), and glibenclamide (KATP blocker) significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effects of CRW. CRW was also found to be active in reducing Ca2+ releases from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and suppressing the voltage-operated calcium channels.

    CONCLUSION: The vasorelaxant effect of CRW on rat aorta involves NO/sGC, calcium and potassium channels, muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  17. Ch'ng YS, Loh YC, Tan CS, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ, Wan Omar WM, et al.
    J Med Food, 2018 Mar;21(3):289-301.
    PMID: 29420109 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2017.4008
    The seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (SM) (Meliaceae) are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension in Malaysia. However, the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of SM seeds are still not widely studied. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the in vivo antihypertensive effects and in vitro mechanism of vasorelaxation of a 50% ethanolic SM seed extract (SM50) and the fingerprint of SM50 was developed through tri-step Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of SM50 were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence of antagonists. The pharmacological effect of SM50 was investigated by oral administration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with three different doses of SM50 (1000, 500, and 250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and their systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values were measured weekly using tail-cuff method. The tri-step FTIR macro-fingerprint of SM50 showed that SM50 contains stachyose, flavonoids, limonoids, and ester, which may contribute to its vasorelaxant effect. The results showed that the vasorelaxant activity of SM50 was mostly attributed to channel-linked receptors pathways through the blockage of voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCC). SM50 also acts as both potassium channels opener and inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, followed by β2-adrenergic pathway, and ultimately mediated through the nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (NO/sGC/cGMP) signaling pathways. The treatment of SM50 also significantly decreased the SBP and DBP in SHRs. In conclusion, the antihypertensive mechanism of SM50 was mediated by VOCC, K+ channels, IP3R, G-protein-coupled β2-adrenergic receptor, and followed by NO/sGC/cGMP signaling mechanism pathways in descending order. The data suggested that SM50 has the potential to be used as a herbal medicament to treat hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry
  18. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 17;21(6).
    PMID: 27322227 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21060780
    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  19. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
  20. Azman NA, Gordon MH, Skowyra M, Segovia F, Almajano MP
    J Sci Food Agric, 2015 Jul;95(9):1804-11.
    PMID: 25139796 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6878
    Gentiana lutea root is a medicinal herb that contains many active compounds which contribute to physiological effects, and it has recently attracted much attention as a natural source of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the colour, pH, microbial activities, sensory quality and resistance to lipid oxidation (through the thiobarbituric acid method) during storage of beef patties containing different concentrations of G. lutea. Fresh beef patties were formulated with 0-5 g kg(-1) of G. lutea and 0 or 0.5 g kg(-1) of ascorbic acid and packed in two different atmospheres, Modified Atmosphere 1 (MAP1) and Modified Atmosphere 2 (MAP2), and stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. MAP1 contained 20:80 (v/v) O2:CO2 and MAP2 contained 80:20 (v/v) O2:CO2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/chemistry*
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