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  1. Aabideen ZU, Mumtaz MW, Akhtar MT, Mukhtar H, Raza SA, Touqeer T, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Oct 26;25(21).
    PMID: 33114490 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25214935
    The naturopathic treatment of obesity is a matter of keen interest to develop efficient natural pharmacological routes for disease management with low or negligible toxicity and side effects. For this purpose, optimized ultrasonicated hydroethanolic extracts of Taraxacum officinale were evaluated for antiobesity attributes. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method was adopted to evaluate antioxidant potential. Porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory assay was conducted to assess the in vitro antiobesity property. Ultra-high performance chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometer was utilized to profile the secondary metabolites in the most potent extract. The 60% ethanolic extract exhibited highest extract yield (25.05 ± 0.07%), total phenolic contents (123.42 ± 0.007 mg GAE/g DE), total flavonoid contents (55.81 ± 0.004 RE/g DE), DPPH-radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 81.05 ± 0.96 µg/mL) and pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties (IC50 = 146.49 ± 4.24 µg/mL). The targeted metabolite fingerprinting highlighted the presence of high-value secondary metabolites. Molecular-binding energies computed by docking tool revealed the possible contribution towards pancreatic lipase inhibitory properties of secondary metabolites including myricetin, isomangiferin, icariside B4, kaempferol and luteolin derivatives when compared to the standard drug orlistat. In vivo investigations revealed a positive impact on the lipid profile and obesity biomarkers of obese mice. The study presents Taraxacum officinale as a potent source of functional bioactive ingredients to impart new insights into the existing pool of knowledge of naturopathic approaches towards obesity management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  2. Ab Rahman NS, Abd Majid FA, Abd Wahid ME, Zainudin AN, Zainol SN, Ismail HF, et al.
    Drug Metab Lett, 2018;12(1):62-67.
    PMID: 29542427 DOI: 10.2174/1872312812666180314112457
    BACKGROUND: SynacinnTM contains five standardized herbal extracts of Orthosiphon Stamineus (OS), Syzygium polyanthum (SZ), Curcuma xantorrizza (CX), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) and is standardized against phytochemical markers of rosmarinic acid, gallic acid, curcumin, catechin and andrographolide respectively. This herbal medicine has been used as health supplement for diabetes. SynacinnTM is recommended to be consumed as supplement to the diabetic drugs. However, herb-drug interaction of SynacinnTM polyherbal with present drugs is unknown.

    METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the effect of SynacinnTM and its individual biomarkers on drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam), CYP3A4 (Testosteron)), to assess its herb-drug interaction potential through cytochrome P450 inhibition assay. This study was conducted using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) using probe substrates using human liver microsomes against CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron).

    RESULTS: Result showed that SynacinnTM at maximum concentration (5000 µg/ml) 100% inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron). IC50 values determined were 0.23, 0.60, 0.47, 0.78, 1.23, 0.99, 1.01, and 0.91 mg/ml for CYP 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4 (midazolam) and 3A4 (testosterone), respectively. Meanwhile, all individual biomarkers showed no, less or moderate inhibitory effect towards all the tested CYP450 except for curcumin that showed inhibition of CYP2C8 (91%), CYP2C9 (81%) and CYP2C19 (72%) at 10µM.

    CONCLUSION: Curcumin was found to be an active constituent that might contribute to the inhibition of SynacinnTM against CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. It can be suggested that SynacinnTM can be consumed separately from a drug known to be metabolized by all tested CYP450 enzymes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  3. Abas R, Othman F, Thent ZC
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2014;2014:429060.
    PMID: 25371774 DOI: 10.1155/2014/429060
    In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6) into control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC), and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met). Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione contents (GSH), and catalase (CAT) was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  4. Abd Gani SS, Basri M, Rahman MB, Kassim A, Abd Rahman RN, Salleh AB, et al.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2010;74(6):1188-93.
    PMID: 20530909
    Formulations containing engkabang fat and engkabang fat esters, F10 and E15 respectively were prepared using a high-shear homogenizer, followed by a high-pressure homogenizer. Both formulations were stable at room temperature, at 45 degrees C, and after undergoing freeze-thaw cycles. The particle sizes of F10 and E15 after high pressure were 115.75 nm and 148.41 nm respectively. The zeta potentials of F10 and E15 were -36.4 mV and -48.8 mV respectively, while, the pH values of F10 and E15 were 5.59 and 5.81 respectively. The rheology of F10 and E15 showed thixotropy and pseudoplastic behavior respectively. There were no bacteria or fungal growths in the samples. The short-term moisturizing effect on 20 subjects analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), gave p-values of 7.35 x 10(-12) and 2.77 x 10(-15) for F10 and E15 respectively. The hydration of the skins increased after application of F10 and E15 with p-value below 0.05.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  5. Abd Ghafar SZ, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Rudiyanto R, Mohd Ghazali H, Ramli NS, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2020 10;136:109312.
    PMID: 32846521 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109312
    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)- and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based analytical tools are frequently used in metabolomics studies. These complementary metabolomics platforms were applied to identify and quantify the metabolites in Phyllanthus acidus extracted with different ethanol concentrations. In total, 38 metabolites were tentatively identified by 1H NMR and 39 via UHPLC-MS, including 30 compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The partial least square analysis (PLS) revealed the metabolites that contributed to α-glucosidase and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities, including kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, phyllanthusol A, phyllanthusol B, chlorogenic, catechin, cinnamic coumaric, caffeic, quinic, citric, ellagic and malic acids. This study shows the significance of combining 1H NMR- and UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics as the best strategies in identifying metabolites in P. acidus extracts and establishing an extract with potent antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  6. Abd Hamid H, Mutazah R, Yusoff MM, Abd Karim NA, Abdull Razis AF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):451-457.
    PMID: 27725206 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.10.004
    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner. According to the IC50 obtained, the ethyl acetate extracts showed significant antiproliferative activity on HepG2 (IC50 11.47 ± 0.280 μg/mL), MCF-7 (IC50 2.68 ± 0.529 μg/mL) and HT 29 (IC50 16.18 ± 0.538 μg/mL) after 72 h of treatment. Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of lupeol. Methanol extracts show significant antioxidant activities in DPPH (EC50 110.25 ± 0.005 μg/ml), CUPRAC (EC50 53.84 ± 0.004) and β-carotene bleaching (EC50 58.62 ± 0.001) due to the presence of high total flavonoid and total phenolic content which were 110.822 ± 0.017 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)/g and 190.467 ± 0.009 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g respectively. Taken together, the results extracts show the R. tomentosa as a potential source of antioxidant and antiproliferative efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  7. Abd Kadir SL, Yaakob H, Mohamed Zulkifli R
    J Nat Med, 2013 Oct;67(4):677-89.
    PMID: 23591999 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-013-0767-y
    Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  8. Abd Rani NZ, Lam KW, Jalil J, Mohamad HF, Mat Ali MS, Husain K
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 28;26(3).
    PMID: 33525733 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030695
    Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (Phyllanthaceae) is a medicinal plant that is commonly used to treat diseases such as asthma, diabetes, and anemia. This study aimed to examine the antiallergic activity of P. amarus extract and its compounds. The antiallergic activity was determined by measuring the concentration of allergy markers release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells with ketotifen fumarate as the positive control. As a result, P. amarus did not stabilize mast cell degranulation but exhibited antihistamine activity. The antihistamine activity was evaluated by conducting a competition radioligand binding assay on the histamine 1 receptor (H1R). Four compounds were identified from the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis which were phyllanthin (1), hypophyllanthin (2), niranthin (3), and corilagin (4). To gain insights into the binding interactions of the most active compound hypophyllanthin (2), molecular docking was conducted and found that hypophyllanthin (2) exhibited favorable binding in the H1R binding site. In conclusion, P. amarus and hypophyllanthin (2) could potentially exhibit antiallergic activity by preventing the activation of the H1 receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  9. Abd Rani NZ, Kumolosasi E, Jasamai M, Jamal JA, Lam KW, Husain K
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Dec 11;19(1):361.
    PMID: 31829185 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2776-1
    BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera Lam. is a commonly used plant in herbal medicine and has various reported bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and antidiabetes. It is rich in nutrients and polyphenols. The plant also has been traditionally used for alleviating allergic conditions. This study was aimed to examine the anti-allergic activity of M. oleifera extracts and its isolated compounds.

    METHOD: M. oleifera leaves, seeds and pods were extracted with 80% of ethanol. Individual compounds were isolated using a column chromatographic technique and elucidated based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESIMS) spectral data. The anti-allergic activity of the extracts, isolated compounds and ketotifen fumarate as a positive control was evaluated using rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells for early and late phases of allergic reactions. The early phase was determined based on the inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine release; while the late phase was based on the inhibition of interleukin (IL-4) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) release.

    RESULTS: Two new compounds; ethyl-(E)-undec-6-enoate (1) and 3,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (2) together with six known compounds; quercetin (3), kaempferol (4), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5), oleic acid (6), glucomoringin (7), 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzaldehyde (8) and stigmasterol (9) were isolated from M. oleifera extracts. All extracts and the isolated compounds inhibited mast cell degranulation by inhibiting beta-hexosaminidase and histamine release, as well as the release of IL-4 and TNF-α at varying levels compared with ketotifen fumarate.

    CONCLUSION: The study suggested that M. oleifera and its isolated compounds potentially have an anti-allergic activity by inhibiting both early and late phases of allergic reactions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  10. Abdel-Rahman RF, Abd-Elsalam RM, Amer MS, El-Desoky AM, Mohamed SO
    Food Funct, 2020 Sep 23;11(9):7960-7972.
    PMID: 32839804 DOI: 10.1039/d0fo01297a
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease characterized by degeneration of cartilage, intra-articular inflammation, remodeling of subchondral bone and joint pain. The present study was designed to assess the therapeutic effects and the possible underlying mechanism of action of Manjarix, a herbal combination composed of ginger and turmeric powder extracts, on chemically induced osteoarthritis in rats. An OA model was generated by intra-articular injection of 50 μL (40 mg mL-1) of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee joint of rats. After one week of osteoarthritis induction, a comparison of the anti-inflammatory efficacy of indomethacin at an oral dose of 2 mg kg-1 daily for 4 successive weeks versus five decremental dose levels of Manjarix (1000, 500, 250, 125, and 62.5 mg kg-1) was performed. Serum inflammatory cytokines, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were measured, along with weekly assessment of the knee joint swelling. Pain-like behavior was assessed and knee radiographic and histological examination were performed to understand the extent of pain due to cartilage degradation. Manjarix significantly reduced the knee joint swelling, decreased the serum levels of IL6, TNF-α, CTX-II and HA, and reduced the pathological injury in joints, with no evidence of osteo-reactivity in the radiographic examination. Manjarix also significantly prevented MIA-induced pain behavior. These results demonstrate that Manjarix exhibits chondroprotective effects and can inhibit the OA pain induced by MIA, and thus it can be used as a potential therapeutic product for OA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  11. Abdel-Rahman RF, Ezzat SM, Ogaly HA, Abd-Elsalam RM, Hessin AF, Fekry MI, et al.
    J Nutr Sci, 2020 01 20;9:e2.
    PMID: 32042410 DOI: 10.1017/jns.2019.40
    Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. In vivo, 4 weeks' administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene (Slc2a2) expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  12. Abdelwahab SI, Hassan LE, Sirat HM, Yagi SM, Koko WS, Mohan S, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2011 Dec;82(8):1190-7.
    PMID: 21871542 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2011.08.002
    The in vivo and in vitro mechanistic anti-inflammatory actions of cucurbitacin E (CE) (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) were examined. The results showed that LPS/INF-γ increased NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages, whereas L-NAME and CE curtailed it. CE did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 and WRL-68 cells. CE inhibited both COX enzymes with more selectivity toward COX-2. Intraperitoneal injection of CE significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema. ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  13. Abdelwahab SI, Zaman FQ, Mariod AA, Yaacob M, Abdelmageed AH, Khamis S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Dec;90(15):2682-8.
    PMID: 20945508 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4140
    Plant essential oils are widely used as fragrances and flavours. Therefore, the essential oils from the leaves of Cinnamomum pubescens Kochummen (CP) and the whole plant of Etlingera elatior (EE) were investigated for their antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  14. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  15. Abdul Hamid Z, Lin Lin WH, Abdalla BJ, Bee Yuen O, Latif ES, Mohamed J, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:258192.
    PMID: 25405216 DOI: 10.1155/2014/258192
    Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1(+) cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  16. Abdul Hamid Z, Budin SB, Wen Jie N, Hamid A, Husain K, Mohamed J
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2012 Mar;13(3):176-85.
    PMID: 22374609 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1100133
    Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause nephrotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event. In this study, the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome [200 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and 400 mg/kg] on PCM-induced nephrotoxicity were examined. Rats were divided into five groups containing 10 rats each. The control group received distilled water while other groups were treated with extract alone (400 mg/kg), PCM alone (750 mg/kg), 750 mg/kg PCM+200 mg/kg extract (PCM+200-extract), and 750 mg/kg PCM+400 mg/kg extract (PCM+400-extract), respectively, for seven consecutive days. The Z. zerumbet extract was given intraperitoneally concurrent with oral administration of PCM. Treatment with Z. zerumbet extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg prevented the PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative impairments of the kidney, as evidenced by a significantly reduced (P<0.05) level of plasma creatinine, plasma and renal malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma protein carbonyl, and renal advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP). Furthermore, both doses were also able to induce a significant increment (P<0.05) of plasma and renal levels of glutathione (GSH) and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The nephroprotective effects of Z. zerumbet extract were confirmed by a reduced intensity of renal cellular damage, as evidenced by histological findings. Moreover, Z. zerumbet extract administered at 400 mg/kg was found to show greater protective effects than that at 200 mg/kg. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome has a protective role against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and the process is probably mediated through its antioxidant properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  17. Abdul Kadir NA, Rahmat A, Jaafar HZ
    J Obes, 2015;2015:846041.
    PMID: 26171246 DOI: 10.1155/2015/846041
    This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg(-1)), medium dose (200 mg kg(-1)), or high dose (300 mg kg(-1)) or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p < 0.05). Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS) (p < 0.05). Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  18. Abdul Karim A, Azlan A, Ismail A, Hashim P, Abd Gani SS, Zainudin BH, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2016 Sep;15(3):283-95.
    PMID: 27041391 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12218
    OBJECTIVE: Cocoa pods are abundant waste materials of cocoa plantation, which are usually discarded onto plantation floors. However, due to poor plantation management, the discarded cocoa pods can create suitable breeding ground for Phytophthora palmivora, which is regarded as the causal agent of the black pod disease. On the other hand, cocoa pods potentially contain antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant compounds are related to the protection of skin from wrinkles and can be used as functional cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, in this study, cocoa pods were extracted and to be used as active ingredients for antiwrinkles.

    METHODS: The active compounds in cocoa pod extracts (CPE) were screened using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Fibroblast cells were used to determine the effective concentration of CPE to maintain the viability for at least 50% of the cells (EC50 ). The gel was tested by 12 panelists to determine the efficacy of CPE in gel form using Visioscan to reduce skin wrinkles and improve skin condition.

    RESULTS: CPE was detected to contain malic acid, procyanidin B1, rosmarinic acid, procyanidin C1, apigenin, and ellagic acid, all of which may contribute to functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The EC50 value of cocoa pod extracts was used to calculate the amount of CPE to be incorporated into gel so that the formulated product could reach an effective concentration of extract while being nonintoxicant to the skin cell. The results showed that CPE is potential ingredient to reduce wrinkles. Skin wrinkles reduced at 6.38 ± 1.23% with the application of the CPE gel within 3 weeks and significantly improved further (12.39 ± 1.59%) after 5 weeks. The skin hydration increased (3.181 ± 1.06%) after 3 weeks of the CPE gel application.

    CONCLUSION: Flavonoid compounds in CPE contributed to the functional cosmetic properties of CPE. The CPE which is nontoxic to skin cells help to reduce wrinkles on skin after 3 weeks of application. CPE can be used as the active ingredients in antiwrinkle products, and prolonged application may result in significant visual changes to the naked eyes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  19. Abdul Rahim R, Jayusman PA, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, Lim V, Ahmad NH, et al.
    PMID: 33805420 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073532
    Oxidative stress and inflammation are two common risk factors of various life-threatening disease pathogenesis. In recent years, medicinal plants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were extensively studied for their potential role in treating and preventing diseases. Spilanthes acmella (S. acmella), which has been traditionally used to treat toothache in Malaysia, contains various active metabolites responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anesthetic bioactivities. These bioactivities were attributed to bioactive compounds, such as phenolic, flavonoids, and alkamides. The review focused on the summarization of in vitro and in vivo experimental reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of S. acmella, as well as how they contributed to potential health benefits in lowering the risk of diseases that were related to oxidative stress. The molecular mechanism of S. acmella in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory targets, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB family (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were discussed. Besides, the antioxidant potential of S. acmella was measured by total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide anion radical scavenging (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. This review revealed that S. acmella might have a potential role as a reservoir of bioactive agents contributing to the observed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and health beneficial effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  20. Abdul Rahim ZH, Shaikh S, Hasnor Wan Ismail WN, Wan Harun WH, Razak FA
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2014 Nov;24(11):796-801.
    PMID: 25404435 DOI: 11.2014/JCPSP.796801
    To determine the effect of a mixture of plant extracts on the adherence and retention of bacteria in dental biofilm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
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