Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1208 in total

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  1. Mohamad S, Ismail NN, Parumasivam T, Ibrahim P, Osman H, A Wahab H
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Jan 08;18(1):5.
    PMID: 29310671 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-2077-5
    BACKGROUND: Costus speciosus, Cymbopogon citratus, and Tabernaemontana coronaria are herbal plants traditionally used as remedies for symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) including cough. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of these plants, to identify the phytochemical compounds, and to assess the effects of the most active partitions on the growth kinetics and cellular integrity of the tubercle organism.

    METHODS: The in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of the plant materials was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv using a tetrazolium colorimetric microdilution assay. The phytochemical compounds in the most active partition of each plant were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The effects of these partitions on the growth kinetics of the mycobacteria were evaluated over 7-day treatment period in a batch culture system. Their effects on the mycobacterial cellular integrity were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    RESULTS: The respective n-hexane partition of C. speciosus, C. citratus, and T. coronaria exhibited the highest anti-TB activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 100-200 μg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 200 μg/mL. GC-MS phytochemical analysis of these active partitions revealed that majority of the identified compounds belonged to lipophilic fatty acid groups. The active partitions of C. speciosus and T. coronaria exhibited high cidal activity in relation to time, killing more than 99% of the cell population. SEM observations showed that these active plant partitions caused multiple structural changes indicating massive cellular damages.

    CONCLUSIONS: The n-hexane partition of the plant materials exhibited promising in vitro anti-TB activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Their anti-TB activity was supported by their destructive effects on the integrity of the mycobacterial cellular structure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  2. Khoo LW, Audrey Kow SF, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2018 Sep 05;158:438-450.
    PMID: 29957507 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2018.06.038
    The present study sought to identify the key biomarkers and pathways involved in the induction of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and to elucidate the potential anti-anaphylaxis property of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract, a Southeast Asia herb in an in vivo ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis model evaluated by 1H-NMR metabolomics. The results revealed that carbohydrate metabolism (glucose, myo-inositol, galactarate) and lipid metabolism (glycerol, choline, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are the key requisites for the induction of anaphylaxis reaction. Sensitized rats treated with 2000 mg/kg bw C. nutans extract before ovalbumin challenge showed a positive correlation with the normal group and was negatively related to the induced group. Further 1H-NMR analysis in complement with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) reveals the protective effect of C. nutans extract against ovalbumin-induced anaphylaxis through the down-regulation of lipid metabolism (choline, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), carbohydrate and signal transduction system (glucose, myo-inositol, galactarate) and up-regulation of citrate cycle intermediates (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate), propanoate metabolism (1,2-propanediol), amino acid metabolism (betaine, N,N-dimethylglycine, methylguanidine, valine) and nucleotide metabolism (malonate, allantoin). In summary, this study reports for the first time, C. nutans water extract is a potential anti-anaphylactic agent and 1H-NMR metabolomics is a great alternative analytical tool to explicate the mechanism of action of anaphylaxis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  3. Khoo LW, Kow ASF, Maulidiani M, Ang MY, Chew WY, Lee MT, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2019 Jan;30(1):46-61.
    PMID: 30183131 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2789
    INTRODUCTION: Clinacanthus nutans, a small shrub that is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and as a food source. Its anti-inflammation properties is influenced by the metabolites composition, which can be determined by different binary extraction solvent ratio and extraction methods used during plant post-harvesting stage.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.

    METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.

    RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50  = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  4. Abu Bakar Sajak A, Mediani A, Maulidiani, Mohd Dom NS, Machap C, Hamid M, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2017 Dec 01;36:201-209.
    PMID: 29157816 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.10.011
    BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown.

    PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I. aquatica ethanolic extract.

    METHODS: By using a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with multivariate analysis (MVDA), the changes of metabolites due to I. aquatica ethanolic extract administration in obese diabetic-induced Sprague Dawley rats (OB+STZ+IA) were identified.

    RESULTS: The results suggested 19 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5, which include creatine/creatinine, glucose, creatinine, citrate, carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, hippurate, leucine, 1-methylnicotinamice (MNA), taurine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), tryptophan, lysine, trigonelline, allantoin, formiate, acetoacetate (AcAc) and dimethylamine. From the changes in the metabolites, the affected pathways and aspects of metabolism were identified.

    CONCLUSION: I. aquatica ethanolic extract increases metabolite levels such as creatinine/creatine, carnitine, MNA, trigonelline, leucine, lysine, 3-HB and decreases metabolite levels, including glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates. This implies capabilities of I. aquatica ethanolic extract promoting glycolysis, gut microbiota and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, improving the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reducing the β-oxidation rate. However, the administration of I. aquatica ethanolic extract has several drawbacks, such as unimproved changes in amino acid metabolism, especially in reducing branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways and lipid metabolism.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  5. Abd Ghafar SZ, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Rudiyanto R, Mohd Ghazali H, Ramli NS, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2020 10;136:109312.
    PMID: 32846521 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109312
    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)- and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based analytical tools are frequently used in metabolomics studies. These complementary metabolomics platforms were applied to identify and quantify the metabolites in Phyllanthus acidus extracted with different ethanol concentrations. In total, 38 metabolites were tentatively identified by 1H NMR and 39 via UHPLC-MS, including 30 compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The partial least square analysis (PLS) revealed the metabolites that contributed to α-glucosidase and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities, including kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, phyllanthusol A, phyllanthusol B, chlorogenic, catechin, cinnamic coumaric, caffeic, quinic, citric, ellagic and malic acids. This study shows the significance of combining 1H NMR- and UHPLC-MS-based metabolomics as the best strategies in identifying metabolites in P. acidus extracts and establishing an extract with potent antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  6. Zolkeflee NKZ, Isamail NA, Maulidiani M, Abdul Hamid NA, Ramli NS, Azlan A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2021 Jan;32(1):69-83.
    PMID: 31953888 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2917
    INTRODUCTION: Muntingia calabura from the Muntingiaceae family has been documented for several medicinal uses. The combinations of drying treatment and extracting solvents for a plant species need to be determined and optimised to ensure that the extracts contain adequate amounts of the bioactive metabolites.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the metabolite variations and antioxidant activity among M. calabura leaves subjected to different drying methods and extracted with different ethanol ratios using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics. Methodology The antioxidant activity of M. calabura leaves dried with three different drying methods and extracted with three different ethanol ratios was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assays. The metabolites variation among the extracts and correlation with antioxidant activity were analysed by 1 H-NMR-based metabolomics.

    RESULTS: Muntingia calabura leaves extracted with 50% and 100% ethanol from air-drying and freeze-drying methods had the highest total phenolic content and the lowest IC50 value for the DPPH scavenging activity. Meanwhile, oven-dried leaves extracted with 100% ethanol had the lowest IC50 value for the NO scavenging activity. A total of 43 metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, phytosterols, phenolics and terpene glycoside were tentatively identified. A noticeable discrimination was observed in the different ethanol ratios by the principal component analysis. The partial least-squares analysis suggested that 32 compounds out of 43 compounds identified were the contributors to the bioactivities.

    CONCLUSION: The results established set the preliminary steps towards developing this plant into a high value product for phytomedicinal preparations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  7. Hellal K, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Tan CP, Abas F
    Molecules, 2020 Mar 10;25(5).
    PMID: 32164186 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25051247
    Claims of effective therapy against diabetes using plants including Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllum album, Anacyclus valentinus L., Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Lupinus albus, and Marrubium vulgare in Algerian empirical medicine prompted our interest in evaluating their antidiabetic activity by screening their free radical scavenging (DPPH), α-glucosidase, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities as well as the total phenolic content (TPC). Extracts of the selected plants were prepared using different ratios of ethanol (0, 50, 80, and 100%). In this study, 100%, and 80% ethanol extracts of L. albus were found to be the most potent, in inhibiting α-glucosidase activity with IC50 values of 6.45 and 8.66 μg/mL, respectively. The 100% ethanol extract of A. leucotrichus exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 26.26 μg/mL. Moreover, the highest TPC of 612.84 μg GAE/mg extract was observed in M. vulgare, extracted with 80% ethanol. Metabolite profiling of the active extract was conducted using 1H-NMR metabolomics. Partial least square analysis (PLS) was used to assess the relationship between the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of L. albus and the metabolites identified in the extract. Based on the PLS model, isoflavonoids (lupinoisoflavone G, lupisoflavone, lupinoisolone C), amino acids (asparagine and thiamine), and several fatty acids (stearic acid and oleic acid) were identified as metabolites that contributed to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. The results of this study have clearly strengthened the traditional claim of the antihyperglycemic effects of L. albus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  8. Ado MA, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Ghazali HM, Shaari K, Abas F
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Sep;35(17):2992-2996.
    PMID: 31631709 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1679138
    Phytochemical investigation on the soluble fractions of n-hexane and dichloromethane of methanolic leaves extract of the Callicarpa maingayi K. & G. led to the isolation of three triterpenoids [euscaphic acid (1), arjunic acid (2), and ursolic acid (3)] together with two flavones [apigenin (4) and acacetin (5)], two phytosterols [stigmasterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (6) and sitosterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (7)], and a fatty acid [n-hexacosanoic acid (8)]. Six (6) compounds (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8) are reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated and identified by extensive NMR techniques, GC-MS and comparison with the previously reported literature. Compound 3 was found to displayed good inhibition against acetylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 21.5 ± 0.022 μM, while 1 and 2 exhibited pronounced α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 22.4 ± 0.016 μM and 24.9 ± 0.012 μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  9. Haque MA, Jantan I, Abbas Bukhari SN
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 31;207:67-85.
    PMID: 28629816 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.013
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Studies on the effects of natural immunomodulators to heal various diseases related to the immune system have been a growing interest in recent years. Amongst the medicinal plants, Tinospora species (family; Menispermaceae) have been one of the widely investigated plants for their modulating effects on the immune system due to their wide use in ethnomedicine to treat various ailments related to immune-related diseases. However, their ethnopharmacological uses are mainly with limited or without scientific basis.

    AIM OF THIS REVIEW: In this article, we have reviewed the literature on the phytochemicals of several Tinospora species, which have shown strong immunomodulatory effects and critically analyzed the reports to provide perspectives and instructions for future research for the plants as a potential source of new immunomodulators for use as medicinal agents or dietary supplements.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, ACS Publications Today) was performed to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books, database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, MSc dissertations and herbal classics books written in various languages.

    RESULTS: T. cordifolia, T. crispa, T. sinensis, T. smilacina, T. bakis, and T. sagittata have been reported to possess significant immunomodulatory effects. For a few decades, initiatives in molecular research on the effects of these species on the immune system have been carried out. However, most of the biological and pharmacological studies were carried out using the crude extracts of plants. The bioactive compounds contributing to the bioactivities have not been properly identified, and mechanistic studies to understand the immunomodulatory effects of the plants are limited by many considerations with regard to design, conduct, and interpretation.

    CONCLUSION: The plant extracts and their active constituents should be subjected to more detail mechanistic studies, in vivo investigations in various animal models including pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies, and elaborate toxicity study before submission to clinical trials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  10. Hong SL, Lee GS, Syed Abdul Rahman SN, Ahmed Hamdi OA, Awang K, Aznam Nugroho N, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:397430.
    PMID: 25177723 DOI: 10.1155/2014/397430
    Curcuma purpurascens Bl., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is known as temu tis in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In this study, the hydrodistilled dried ground rhizome oil was investigated for its chemical content and antiproliferative activity against selected human carcinoma cell lines (MCF7, Ca Ski, A549, HT29, and HCT116) and a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5). Results from GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the rhizome oil of temu tis showed turmerone as the major component, followed by germacrone, ar-turmerone, germacrene-B, and curlone. The rhizome oil of temu tis exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HT29 cells (IC50 value of 4.9 ± 0.4 μg/mL), weak cytotoxicity against A549, Ca Ski, and HCT116 cells (with IC50 values of 46.3 ± 0.7, 32.5 ± 1.1, and 35.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.), and no inhibitory effect against MCF7 cells. It exhibited mild cytotoxicity against a noncancerous human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC5), with an IC50 value of 25.2 ± 2.7 μg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of this rhizome's oil and its selective antiproliferative effect on HT29. The obtained data provided a basis for further investigation of the mode of cell death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  11. Ahmed Hamdi OA, Syed Abdul Rahman SN, Awang K, Abdul Wahab N, Looi CY, Thomas NF, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:321943.
    PMID: 25126594 DOI: 10.1155/2014/321943
    Curcuma zedoaria also known as Temu putih is traditionally used in food preparations and treatment of various ailments including cancer. The cytotoxic activity of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and the methanol-soxhlet extracts of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes was tested on two human cancer cell lines (Ca Ski and MCF-7) and a noncancer cell line (HUVEC) using MTT assay. Investigation on the chemical components in the hexane and dichloromethane fractions gave 19 compounds, namely, labda-8(17),12 diene-15,16 dial (1), dehydrocurdione (2), curcumenone (3), comosone II (4), curcumenol (5), procurcumenol (6), germacrone (7), zerumbone epoxide (8), zederone (9), 9-isopropylidene-2,6-dimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[6.2.1.0(1,5)]undec-6-en-8-ol (10), furanodiene (11), germacrone-4,5-epoxide (12), calcaratarin A (13), isoprocurcumenol (14), germacrone-1,10-epoxide (15), zerumin A (16), curcumanolide A (17), curcuzedoalide (18), and gweicurculactone (19). Compounds (1-19) were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using MTT assay against four cancer cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF-7, PC-3, and HT-29). Curcumenone (3) and curcumenol (5) displayed strong antiproliferative activity (IC50 = 8.3 ± 1.0 and 9.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, resp.) and were found to induce apoptotic cell death on MCF-7 cells using phase contrast and Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay. Thus, the present study provides basis for the ethnomedical application of Curcuma zedoaria in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  12. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Banisalam B, Mohajer S, Abd Malek SN
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:410184.
    PMID: 24818141 DOI: 10.1155/2014/410184
    In recent years, the utilization of certain medicinal plants as therapeutic agents has drastically increased. Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl is frequently used in traditional medicine. The present investigation was undertaken with the purpose of developing pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Nutritional values such as ash, fiber, protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents were investigated, and phytochemical screenings with different reagents showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponin glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Our results also revealed that the water fraction had the highest antioxidant activity compared to the methanol extract and other fractions. The methanol and the fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of P. macrocarpa seeds were also investigated for their cytotoxic effects on selected human cancer cells lines (MCF-7, HT-29, MDA-MB231, Ca Ski, and SKOV-3) and a normal human fibroblast lung cell line (MRC-5). Information from this study can be applied for future pharmacological and therapeutic evaluations of the species, and may assist in the standardization for quality, purity, and sample identification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic effect of the crude and fractionated extracts of P. macrocarpa seeds on selected cells lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  13. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Mohajer S, Abd Malek SN
    PMID: 24885709 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-152
    The edible fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl are widely used in traditional medicine in Indonesia. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as - cancer, diabetes mellitus, allergies, liver and heart diseases, kidney failure, blood diseases, high blood pressure, stroke, various skin diseases, itching, aches, and flu. Therefore, it is of great interest to determine the biochemical and cytotoxic properties of the fruit extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  14. Fathy SA, Mohamed MR, Emam MA, Mohamed SS, Ghareeb DA, Elgohary SA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Dec 01;36(4):972-986.
    PMID: 33597467
    Candida is the most frequent common causes of invasive fungal infections and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most of available antifungal agents have side effects. This opened up new avenues to investigate the antifungal efficacy of active extracts from marine algae. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective and the curative effect of Ulva fasciata extract against an invasive candidiasis in mice and to study its underlying mechanism. The active ingredients of Ulva fasciata extract were evaluated using HPLC and GC/MS. Fifty mice were included in current work, and the level of inflammatory markers; Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined using ELISA kits. Hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters were determined using commercial kits. Moreover, the histopathological examinations were carried on liver, kidney and spleen for all groups. The results obtained showed that treatment with U. fasciata either before or after Candida infection significantly improved the hematological, biochemical alterations and antioxidant status caused by this infection. Furthermore, the U. fasciata reduced histopathological changes induced by Candida as well as it could increase the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ while minimized the expression of TNF-α and IL-4 in all infected mice compared to infected untreated mice. These data propose that U. fasciata can ameliorate inflammatory reactions related to Candida albicans cytotoxicity via its ability to augment cellular antioxidant defenses by its active compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  15. Norhaizan ME, Ng SK, Norashareena MS, Abdah MA
    Malays J Nutr, 2011 Dec;17(3):367-75.
    PMID: 22655458 MyJurnal
    Phytic acid (PA) has been shown to have positive nutritional benefits. There are also claims that it is able to prevent cancer through its antioxidant capability. This study investigated antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect of PA extracted from rice bran against selected cancer cell lines (i.e. ovarian, breast and liver cancer).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  16. Karimi E, Mehrabanjoubani P, Keshavarzian M, Oskoueian E, Jaafar HZ, Abdolzadeh A
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Aug;94(11):2324-30.
    PMID: 24415452 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6567
    Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  17. Lim CY, Mat Junit S, Abdulla MA, Abdul Aziz A
    PLoS One, 2013;8(7):e70058.
    PMID: 23894592 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070058
    Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  18. Gooda Sahib Jambocus N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally MF, Abdul Hamid A
    J Diabetes Res, 2016;2016:2391592.
    PMID: 26798649 DOI: 10.1155/2016/2391592
    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  19. Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Karimian H, Rouhollahi E, Paydar M, Fadaeinasab M, Abdul Kadir H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Oct 28;156:277-89.
    PMID: 25195082 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.011
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Annona muricata known as "the cancer killer" has been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anticancer properties of ethyl acetate extract of Annona muricata leaves (EEAM) on HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of EEAM on the cell proliferation of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells was analyzed by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay. High content screening system (HCS) was applied to investigate the cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), nuclear condensation and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to cytosol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 were measured while treatment. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine the cell cycle distribution and phosphatidylserine externalization. The protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was determined using immunofluorescence analysis. In addition, the potential of EEAM to suppress the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells was also examined.
    RESULTS: EEAM exerted significant cytotoxic effects on HCT-116 and HT-29 cells as determined by MTT and LDH assays. After 24 h treatment, EEAM exhibited the IC₅₀ value of 11.43 ± 1.87 µg/ml and 8.98 ± 1.24 µg/ml against HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and phosphatidylserine externalization confirming the induction of apoptosis. EEAM treatment caused excessive accumulation of ROS followed by disruption of MMP, cytochrome c leakage and activation of the initiator and executioner caspases in both colon cancer cells. Immunofluorescence analysis depicted the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 proteins while treated with EEAM. Furthermore, EEAM conspicuously blocked the migration and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of A. muricata leaves in the treatment of cancer, although further in vivo studies are still required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  20. Goh BH, Chan CK, Kamarudin MN, Abdul Kadir H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Apr 28;153(2):375-85.
    PMID: 24613274 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.036
    Swietenia macrophylla King is a traditional herb used to treat various diseases including hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Previous study demonstrated its anti-tumor effect but the potential mechanisms have not been clearly defined. The current study was to further investigate the underlying mechanism of ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla (SMEAF)-induced anti-proliferative effect and apoptosis in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
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