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  1. Durani LW, Khor SC, Tan JK, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Makpol S
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:6894026.
    PMID: 28596968 DOI: 10.1155/2017/6894026
    Piper betle
    (PB) is a traditional medicine that is widely used to treat different diseases around Asian region. The leaf extracts contain various bioactive compounds, which were reported to have antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In this study, the effect of PB aqueous extracts on replicative senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) was investigated by determining the expressions of senescence-associated genes using quantitative PCR. Our results showed that PB extracts at 0.4 mg/ml can improve cell proliferation of young (143%), presenescent (127.3%), and senescent (157.3%) HDFs. Increased expressions ofPRDX6,TP53,CDKN2A,PAK2, andMAPK14were observed in senescent HDFs compared to young and/or presenescent HDFs. Treatment with PB extracts modulates the transcriptional profile changes in senescent HDFs. By contrast, expressions ofSOD1increased, whereasGPX1,PRDX6,TP53,CDKN2A,PAK2, andMAPK14were decreased in PB-treated senescent HDFs compared to untreated senescent HDFs. In conclusion, this study indicates the modulation of PB extracts on senescence-associated genes expression of replicative senescent HDFs. Further studies warrant determining the mechanism of PB in modulating replicative senescence of HDFs through these signaling pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  2. Sushma R, Sathe TT, Farias A, Sanyal PK, Kiran S
    Ann Afr Med, 2017 Jan-Mar;16(1):6-12.
    PMID: 28300045 DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_43_16
    BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is one of the microorganisms which harbor the oral cavity, especially in elderly. However, the incidence of existence of this increases in patients using removable dental prosthesis. There is therefore a need to test the anticandidal efficacy of these cost-effective, easily available products to be used as routine denture cleansers.
    AIM AND OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate antifungal properties of triphala churna on the heat cure denture base material. (2) To evaluate the antifungal effect of chlorhexidine gluconate on the heat cure denture base material. (3) To compare the antifungal effect of triphala churna and chlorhexidine gluconate with a control. (4) To evaluate which among triphala churna and chlorhexidine gluconate has a better antifungal property on the heat cure denture base material.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study population consisted of sixty dentures wearers from those attending the Outpatient Department of Prosthodontics of the School of Dentistry, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. Swabs were collected from the dentures before and after the use of triphala and chlorhexidine. The swabs were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the total Candida counts were determined.
    CONCLUSION: Triphala as an antifungal is shown to have more efficacy than the conventional chlorhexidine mouthwash. Résumé Arrière-plan: Candida albicans est l'un des micro-organismes qui abritent la cavité buccale surtout chez les personnes âgées. Cependant, l'incidence de l'existence de cette augmentation chez les patients utilisant des prothèses dentaires amovibles. Il est donc nécessaire de tester l'efficacité anticancédique de ces produits rentables et faciles à utiliser pour être utilisés comme nettoyants de routine pour prothèses dentaires. Buts et Objectifs: (1) Évaluer les propriétés antifongiques de Triphala churna sur le matériau de base de la prothèse thermo-durcissable. (2) Évaluer l'effet antifongique du gluconate de chlorhexidine sur le matériau de base de la prothèse thermo-durcissable. (3) Comparer l'effet antifongique de Triphala churna et du gluconate de chlorhexidine avec un témoin. (4) Évaluer lequel parmi Triphala churna et le gluconate de chlorhexidine a une meilleure propriété antifongique sur le matériel de base de la prothèse de durcissement à chaud. Matériaux et Méthode: La population de l'étude était constituée de soixante porteurs de prothèses dentaires de ceux qui fréquentaient le Département de Prosthodontie de l'École des Sciences Dentaires de l'Institut Krishna des Sciences Médicales de l'Université de Karad. Des prélèvements ont été effectués sur les prothèses avant et après l'utilisation de Triphala et de chlorhexidine. On a cultivé les écouvillons sur de l'agar Sabouraud dextrose et on a déterminé le nombre total de candida.
    CONCLUSION: Triphala comme un anti fongique est démontré pour avoir plus d'efficacité que le lavage de la bouche classique chlorhexidine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  3. Mollataghi A, Hadi AH, Cheah SC
    Molecules, 2012 Apr 05;17(4):4197-208.
    PMID: 22481540 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17044197
    A new dienamide, (2E,4E)-7-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-ethyl-6-(R)-hydroxyhepta- 2,4-dienamide, named (-)-kunstleramide (1), were isolated from the bark of Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble together with one neolignan: (+)-kunstlerone (2) and seven known alkaloids: (+)-nornuciferine (3), (-)-isocaryachine (4), (+)-cassythicine (5), (+)-laurotetanine (6), (+)-boldine (7), noratherosperminine (8), (+)-N-demethylphyllocaryptine (9). Their structures were established from spectroscopic techniques, most notably 1D- and 2D-NMR, UV, IR, OR, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and LCMS-IT-TOF. (-)-Kunstleramide (1) exhibited very poor dose-dependent inhibition of DPPH activity, with an IC₅₀ value of 179.5 ± 4.4 μg/mL, but showed a moderate cytotoxic effect on MTT assays of A375, A549, HT-29, PC-3 and WRL-68 with EC₅₀ values of 64.65, 44.74, 55.94, 73.87 and 70.95 µg/mL, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  4. Khoo LW, Kow ASF, Maulidiani M, Ang MY, Chew WY, Lee MT, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2019 Jan;30(1):46-61.
    PMID: 30183131 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2789
    INTRODUCTION: Clinacanthus nutans, a small shrub that is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and as a food source. Its anti-inflammation properties is influenced by the metabolites composition, which can be determined by different binary extraction solvent ratio and extraction methods used during plant post-harvesting stage.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.

    METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.

    RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50  = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  5. In LL, Arshad NM, Ibrahim H, Azmi MN, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    PMID: 23043547 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-179
    Oral cancers although preventable, possess a low five-year survival rate which has remained unchanged over the past three decades. In an attempt to find a more safe, affordable and effective treatment option, we describe here the use of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a component of Malaysian ginger traditionally used for various medicinal purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  6. Hasima N, Aun LI, Azmi MN, Aziz AN, Thirthagiri E, Ibrahim H, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Oct;17(12):935-9.
    PMID: 20729047 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.03.011
    Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  7. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Maulidiani M, Mediani A, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2019 11;125:108565.
    PMID: 31554083 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108565
    Inflammation has been revealed to play a central role in the onset and progression of many illnesses. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics method was adopted to evaluate the effects of Phoenix dactylifera seeds, in particular the Algerian date variety of Deglet on the metabolome of the LPS-IFN-γ-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Variations in the extracellular and intracellular profiles emphasized the differences in the presence of tyrosine, phenylalanine, alanine, proline, asparagine, isocitrate, inosine and lysine. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed noticeable clustering patterns between the treated and induced RAW cells based on the metabolic profile of the extracellular metabolites. However, the effects of treatment on the intracellular metabolites appears to be less distinct as suggested by the PCA and heatmap analyses. A clear group segregation was observed for the intracellular metabolites from the treated and induced cells based on the orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot. Likewise, 11 of the metabolites in the treated cells were significantly different from those in the induced groups, including amino acids and succinate. The enrichment analysis demonstrated that treatment with Deglet seed extracts interfered with the energy and of amino acids metabolism. Overall, the obtained data reinforced the possible application of Deglet seeds as a functional food with anti-inflammatory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  8. Chung LY, Lo MW, Mustafa MR, Goh SH, Imiyabir Z
    Phytother Res, 2009 Mar;23(3):330-4.
    PMID: 18844258 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2627
    A 96-well microplate filtration based 5-HT(2A) receptor-radioligand binding assay was optimized and adopted to carry out a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the leaves of Litsea sessilis. This purification led to the isolation of two compounds identified as (+)-boldine (1) and (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (2). (+)-Boldine binds to 5-HT(2A) receptors at high concentrations with a K(i) value of 2.16 microm. However, (+)-dehydrovomifoliol showed minimal competitive inhibition on the binding of [(3)H]ketanserin to the same receptor with a K(i) value of 2.06 mm. These results suggest that (+)-boldine influences the activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors through competitive binding as an agonist or antagonist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  9. Al-Dualimi DW, Shah Abdul Majid A, Al-Shimary SFF, Al-Saadi AA, Al Zarzour R, Asif M, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;41(1):82-88.
    PMID: 28635332 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2017.1317785
    Herbal products contain a variety of compounds which may be useful in protecting against cellular damage caused by mutagens. Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) also known as Cat whiskers. The herb has been shown anti-oxidative properties and can modulate key cellular proteins that have cytoprotective effect. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) of 50% ethanol extract of O.s (Et. O.s) on micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), Polychromatic to normachromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE), Mitotic index (MI), and Chromosomal aberration (CA) in Bab/c mice. Moreover, these parameters were used to evaluate the anti-genotoxic and clastogenic potencies of (Et. O.s) against mitomycin c (MMC) that interact with biological molecules and induce genotoxic and clastogenic disorders in non-tumor cells. MMC (4 mg kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the mice before and after treatment with three different doses of (Et. O.s). The results indicated that the extract at different doses did not show significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in (MNPCE), (PCE/NCE) ratios, and (CA) values. The higher doses sowed high (MI) values compared with untreated control group. MMC showed significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in (MNPCE), (CA) and reduce (PCE/NCE) and (MI) values compared with untreated control group. Treatment with (Et. O.s) at different doses before and after MMC injection showed to modulate MNPCE, PCE/NCE ratios, CA and MI values in mice bone marrow cells suggesting genoprotective potential of this plant extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  10. Seow SLS, Hong SL, Lee GS, Malek SNA, Sabaratnam V
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 24;17(1):334.
    PMID: 28646880 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1837-6
    BACKGROUND: Ginger is a popular spice and food preservative. The rhizomes of the common ginger have been used as traditional medicine to treat various ailments. 6-Shogaol, a pungent compound isolated from the rhizomes of jahe gajah (Zingiber officinale var officinale) has shown numerous pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 6-shogaol to mimic the neuritogenic activity of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of 6-shogaol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay while the concentration of extracellular NGF in cell culture supernatant was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) in 6-shogaol-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors.

    RESULTS: 6-Shogaol (500 ng/ml) induced neuritogenesis that was comparable to NGF (50 ng/ml) and was not cytotoxic towards PC-12 cells. 6-Shogaol induced low level of NGF biosynthesis in PC-12 cells, showing that 6-shogaol stimulated neuritogenesis possibly by inducing NGF biosynthesis, and also acting as a substitute for NGF (NGF mimic) in PC-12 cells. The inhibitors of Trk receptor (K252a), MEK/ERK1/2 (U0126 and PD98059) and PI3K/AKT (LY294002) attenuated the neuritogenic activity of both NGF and 6-shogaol, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that 6-shogaol induced neuritogenic activity in PC-12 cells via the activation MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. This study suggests that 6-shogaol could act as an NGF mimic, which may be beneficial for preventive and therapeutic uses in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  11. Abiri R, Abdul-Hamid H, Sytar O, Abiri R, Bezerra de Almeida E, Sharma SK, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 24;26(13).
    PMID: 34202844 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26133868
    The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the more general global increase in viral diseases, has led researchers to look to the plant kingdom as a potential source for antiviral compounds. Since ancient times, herbal medicines have been extensively applied in the treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases in different traditional systems. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential antiviral activity of plant compounds as effective and reliable agents against viral infections, especially by viruses from the coronavirus group. Various antiviral mechanisms shown by crude plant extracts and plant-derived bioactive compounds are discussed. The understanding of the action mechanisms of complex plant extract and isolated plant-derived compounds will help pave the way towards the combat of this life-threatening disease. Further, molecular docking studies, in silico analyses of extracted compounds, and future prospects are included. The in vitro production of antiviral chemical compounds from plants using molecular pharming is also considered. Notably, hairy root cultures represent a promising and sustainable way to obtain a range of biologically active compounds that may be applied in the development of novel antiviral agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  12. Hadi H, Razali SN, Awadh AI
    Nat Prod Commun, 2015 Aug;10(8):1483-8.
    PMID: 26434147
    Orchidaceae is the largest family of flowering plants with over 35,000 species and 850 genera. About 3300 species of orchids are found in Malaysia and the diversity is highest in the Main, Keledang, Bintang and Tahan Ranges. Apart from being prized for their beauty, orchids have long been used by humans for medicinal purposes. Today the uses of orchids have been expanded to the food and cosmetics industries. Many cosmeceutical companies use orchid extracts as an active ingredient in their products. Previous studies provide riveting insights into the potential uses of orchid extracts as an active agent in cosmetics. This paper describes the cosmeceutical potential of orchids as an anti-aging, and skin moisturizing agent. Orchid extracts from Vanda coerulea and V. teres delay aging caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) following LV irradiation through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These extracts also show anti-aging properties by stimulating cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), which is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Stimulation of cytochrome c oxidase improves the respiratory function of mitochondria in keratinocytes. The presence of mucilage in orchids enables them to maintain skin hydration. Mucilage functions as a moisturizer and emollient due to its high water binding capacity. Additionally, orchid extracts provide skin hydration by stimulating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and LEKTI protein expression. The presence of AQP3 leads to a five-fold increase in water permeability, which subsequently increases stratum corneum hydration. Increased LEKTI protein expression mediated by orchid extracts reduces the degradation of desmoglein-1 and enhances the structural function of desmosomes, which play important roles in preventing water evaporation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  13. Chin YX, Mi Y, Cao WX, Lim PE, Xue CH, Tang QJ
    Nutrients, 2019 May 21;11(5).
    PMID: 31117266 DOI: 10.3390/nu11051133
    Kappaphycus is a commercially important edible red alga widely cultivated for carrageenan production. Here, we aimed to investigate the anti-obesity mechanism of Kappaphycusalvarezii by comparing the effects of whole seaweed (T), extracted native κ-carrageenan (CGN), and the leftover fraction sans-carrageenan (SCGN) supplementations (5%, w/w) on diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. A high-fat diet induced both a raised body fat percentage and serum cholesterol level, increased adipocytes size, abnormal levels of adipocytokines, and promoted gut dysbiosis. Our results showed that, overall, both CGN and SCGN were more effective in reversing obesity and related metabolic syndromes to normal levels than T. Furthermore, these findings suggested that CGN- and SCGN-modulated gut dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet, which may play an influencing role in adiponectin dysregulation. Our data also showed some evidence that CGN and SCGN have distinct effects on selected genes involved in lipid metabolism. In conclusion, both κ-carrageenan and SCGN have novel anti-obesity potential with possible different mechanisms of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  14. Pavithra K, Saravanan G
    PMID: 32048980 DOI: 10.2174/1871525718666200212095353
    Nature is an amazing source for food, shelter, clothing and medicine. An impressive number of modern drugs are isolated from many sources like plants, animals and microbes. The development of natural products from traditional medicines is of great importance to society. Modern concepts and methodologies with abundant clinical studies, unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities aid the modern drug discovery process. Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn., a traditional medicinal plant of the Cucurbitaceae family, is found in India, Sri Lanka, Ethiopia and Western Malaysia. Almost all parts of the plant are used in traditional systems of medicines and reported having medicinal properties in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In the last few years, extensive research work had been carried out using extracts and isolated phytoconstituents from Kedrostis foetidissima to confirm its pharmacology and biological activities. Many scientific reports show that crude extracts and extensive numbers of phytochemical constituents isolated from Kedrostis foetidissima have activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and various other important medicinal properties. The therapeutic properties of the plants are mainly attributed to the existence of phytoconstituents like phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and steroids. This comprehensive review in various aspects gave a brief overview of phytoconstituents, nutritional values and medicinal property of the plant and might attract the researchers to explore its medicinal activity by discovering novel biologically active compounds that can serve as a lead compound in pharmaceutical and food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  15. Mohammadi Arvanag F, Bayrami A, Habibi-Yangjeh A, Rahim Pouran S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Apr;97:397-405.
    PMID: 30678925 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.058
    Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using the plants' extract and their potential application have driven a tremendous interest in recent years. This study reports a green microwave-assisted method for synthesis of ZnO NPs using Silybum marianum L. seed extract. Characteristics of the as-prepared sample was explored in terms of crystalline phase, morphology, composition, surface area, optical, and thermal properties. The particles of the biosynthesized sample (ZnO/extract) had smaller sizes than the chemically produced one (ZnO). The existence of biomolecules from Silybum marianum L seed extract linked to the ZnO/extract sample was approved by various analyses. The ZnO/extract sample was used for treating alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its efficiency was compared with ZnO, extract, and insulin treatments. For this purpose, the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein were measured before and after treating with the studied treatment agents and compared with each other. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of both ZnO samples were investigated against E. coli to assess their potential antibacterial application. From the results, ZnO/extract NPs represented an outstanding performance in overcoming the diabetic disorders and good antibacterial activity against the studied bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  16. Teoh SL, Latiff AA, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2009;160(4):283-6.
    PMID: 19795081
    Diabetic liver is associated with biochemical, physiological and pathological changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological changes following administration of Momordica charantia (MC) in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  17. Sivasothy Y, Ibrahim H, Paliany AS, Alias SA, Md Nor NR, Awang K
    Planta Med, 2013 Dec;79(18):1775-80.
    PMID: 24356874 DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1351075
    The rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis yielded a new bis-labdanic diterpene for which the name pahangensin C (1) was proposed along with twelve known analogues (2-13). The structure of 1 was elucidated via spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 2 and 12 were isolated for the first time from the genus Alpinia. This is the second occurrence of compounds 2 and 12 in the Zingiberaceae family. Selected analogues exhibited moderate to strong inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  18. Lim SH, Lee HB, Ho AS
    Photochem. Photobiol., 2011 Sep-Oct;87(5):1152-8.
    PMID: 21534974 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00939.x
    In our screening for photosensitizers from natural resources, 15(1)-hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone ethyl methyl diester (compound 1) was isolated for the first time from an Araceae plant. To evaluate the efficacy of compound 1 as a photosensitizer for head and neck cancers, compound 1 was studied in reference to a known photosensitizer pheophorbide-a (Pha), in terms of photophysical properties, singlet oxygen generation and in in vitro experiments (intracellular uptake and phototoxicity assays) in two oral (HSC2 and HSC3) and two nasopharyngeal (HK1 and C666-1) cancer cell lines. In this study, compound 1 exhibited higher intracellular uptake over 24 h compared with Pha in both HSC3 and HK1 cells. When activated by ≥4.8 J cm(-2) of light, compound 1 was slightly more potent as a photosensitizer than Pha by consistently having marginally lower IC(50) values across different cell lines. In flow cytometry experiments to study the mechanism of photoactivated cell death in HSC3, compound 1 was observed to induce more pronounced apoptosis compared with Pha, which may have been driven by the transient G(2)/M cell cycle block which was also observed. These promising results on compound 1 warrant its further investigation as a clinically useful photodynamic therapy agent for head and neck cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  19. Jamil S, Sirat HM, Jantan I, Aimi N, Kitajima M
    J Nat Med, 2008 Jul;62(3):321-4.
    PMID: 18404311 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-008-0226-3
    A new prenylated dihydrochalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone (1), along with two known compounds, 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3'-prenylchalcone (2) and 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4'-(2,2-dimethylchromene)chalcone (3) were isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus lowii. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with data reported in the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed strong free radical scavenging activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  20. Zahidin NS, Saidin S, Zulkifli RM, Muhamad II, Ya'akob H, Nur H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 31;207:146-173.
    PMID: 28647509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.06.019
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications. As this review was being conducted, most of the reports related to ethnomedicinal practices were from Asian and African regions.

    THE AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the current studies on ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, pharmacological studies and a potential study of Acalypha indica in different locations around the world. This review updates related information regarding the potential therapeutic treatments and also discusses the toxicity issue of Acalypha indica.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was performed through a systematic search related to Acalypha indica including the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies around the world. The data was collected from online journals, magazines, and books, all of which were published in English, Malay and Indonesian. Search engine websites such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Researchgate and other online collections were utilized in this review to obtain information.

    RESULTS: The links between ethnomedicinal practices and scientific studies have been discussed with a fair justification. Several pharmacological properties exhibited certain potentials based on the obtained results that came from different related studies. Based on literature studies, Acalypha indica has the capability to serve as anthelmintic, anti-inflammation, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-obesity, anti-venom, hepatoprotective, hypoxia, and wound healing medicine. For the traditional practices, the authors also mentioned several benefits of consuming the raw plant and decoction.

    CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the current studies of Acalypha indica collected from many regions. This review hopefully will provide a useful and basic knowledge platform for anyone interested in gaining information regarding Acalypha indica.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
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