Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 441 in total

  1. Bhuiyan ZA, Zilfalil BA, Hennekam RC
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Aug;47(8):724-7.
    PMID: 16865217
    The Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterised by dysmorphic facial features, hirsutism, severe growth and developmental delays, and malformed upper limbs. The prevalence is estimated to be one per 10,000. Recently, several independent groups proved that Cornelia de Lange syndrome is caused by mutations in the NIPBL gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila Nipped-B gene. Here, we present the first clinical case report of a Malay child, a 9-year-old boy with the Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We also report the molecular investigation of the NIPBL gene in this patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  2. Zahari Z, Salleh MR, Zahri Johari MK, Musa N, Ismail R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Oct;18(4):44-57.
    PMID: 22589672 MyJurnal
    The dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) plays a role in many diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and addictive behaviour. Methods currently available for the detection of DRD2 polymorphisms are costly and cannot detect all 8 polymorphisms of our research interest simultaneously (Val96Ala, Leu141Leu, Val154Ile, Pro310Ser, Ser311Cys, TaqI A, A-241G, and -141C Ins/Del). Therefore, we developed a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for simultaneous detection of these polymorphisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  3. Yan P, Eng OC, Yu CJ
    Curr Drug Metab, 2018;19(11):917-929.
    PMID: 29804525 DOI: 10.2174/1389200219666180528090237
    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2S1 (CYP2S1) is one of the 'orphan' CYPs, which is expressed primarily among extra-hepatic tissues and it is inducible by dioxin. Although the contribution of extra-hepatic CYPs in drug metabolism is considered less significant, they play more important roles in leading to in situ toxicity in organs with higher expression.

    METHOD: A non-systemic search was performed to review articles relevant to CYP2S1 in literature. This review will update the findings related to the expression and regulation of CYP2S1 gene and protein, substrate profiles and metabolism mechanisms, genetic polymorphisms, and their association with diseases.

    RESULTS: The expression of CYP2S1 was mainly in the epithelium of portal of entry organs such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is believed to be partly involved in the induction of CYP2S1. CYP2S1 was found to activate and deactivate pro-drugs which resulted in toxicity and detoxification of carcinogens. The current knowledge of the endogenous functions of CYP2S1 is largely related to cell proliferation and lipid metabolisms. Several polymorphic alleles of CYP2S1 have been reported and documented to date.

    CONCLUSION: Molecular-based investigations should be performed to better understand the regulation mechanism of CYP2S1 in various cells and tissues. It is pivotal to establish optimum expression and incubation systems in vitro to elucidate the substrate specificity of CYP2S1 and characterise the genetic consequences of variant CYP2S1 in vitro.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  4. Perera D, Shimizu H, Yoshida H, Tu PV, Ishiko H, McMinn PC, et al.
    J Med Virol, 2010 Apr;82(4):649-57.
    PMID: 20166171 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21652
    The VP4, VP2, and VP1 gene regions were evaluated for their usefulness in typing human enteroviruses. Three published RT-PCR primers sets targeting separately these three gene regions were used. Initially, from a total of 86 field isolates (36 HEV-A, 40 HEV-B, and 10 HEV-C) tested, 100% concordance in HEV-A was identified from all three gene regions (VP4, VP2, and VP1). However, for HEV-B and HEV-C viruses, only the VP2 and VP1 regions, and not VP4, showed 100% concordance in typing these viruses. To evaluate further the usefulness of VP4 in typing HEV-A enteroviruses, 55 Japanese and 203 published paired VP4 and VP1 nucleotide sequences were also examined. In each case, typing by VP4 was 100% in concordance with typing using VP1. Given these results, it is proposed that for HEV-A enteroviruses, all three gene regions (VP4, VP2, and VP1), would be useful for typing these viruses. These options would enhance the capability of laboratories in identifying these viruses and would greatly help in outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  5. Idris ZM, Yazdanbakhsh M, Adegnika AA, Lell B, Issifou S, Noordin R
    Genet Test Mol Biomarkers, 2012 Jun;16(6):488-92.
    PMID: 22288822 DOI: 10.1089/gtmb.2011.0209
    Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma haematobium, characterized by accumulation of eggs in the genitourinary tract. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) can play an important role in parasitic infection due to its major role as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and proliferation. This study was performed in patients with schistosomiasis and healthy controls to analyze the allele and genotype frequencies of four CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms. The CTLA-4 gene was amplified using Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction, and allele and genotypes of 49 patients with schistosomiasis were analyzed using allelic discrimination analysis followed by subsequent direct sequencing. The results were compared with healthy control subjects. The frequencies of CTLA-4 rs733618 A allele at position -1722 (p=0.001), rs11571316 C allele at position -1577 (p<0.001), and rs231775 A allele at position +49 (p=0.002) in the patient group were significantly higher than the control group. The rs733618 AA genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CC genotype (p<0.001), and rs231775 AA genotype (p=0.007) were also significantly overrepresented. Meanwhile, rs733618 AG genotype (p=0.001), rs11571316 CT genotype (p=0.02), and rs231775 GG genotype (p=0.029) were significantly decreased in the patients with schistosomiasis, as compared with the controls. No significant difference was observed in both allele and genotype of rs16841252. The results of this study suggest that the rs733618, rs11571316, and rs231775 polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene may influence susceptibility to schistosomiasis infection in the Gabonese children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  6. C Thambiah S, Meor Anuar Shuhaili MFR, Chew BH, Samsudin IN, Abdul Rahman H, Stanslas J, et al.
    Biomarkers, 2019 Nov;24(7):659-665.
    PMID: 31342800 DOI: 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1648554
    Introduction: Statin, the first-line treatment for dyslipidaemia, may have suboptimal adherence due to its associated muscle adverse events. These data, however, remain limited. Aim: To determine the association of serum creatine kinase (CK) and SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism with statin-associated muscle adverse events (SAMAE) among dyslipidaemia participants.
    Methods: This was a prospective cohort study at government health clinics involving newly diagnosed adults with dyslipidaemia. SAMAE were recorded based on the patient's complaint after a month on statin. CK was taken at baseline and follow-up. Genetic profiling was performed for SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism.
    Results: Among 118 participants, majority were Malay (72%) males (61%) with a mean age of 49 ± 12.2 years old and prescribed lovastatin (61.9). There was a significant association between statin types (lovastatin and simvastatin) and SAMAE (p = 0.0327); no significant association noted between CK and SAMAE (p = 0.5637). The SLCO1B1 rs4363657 polymorphism was significantly associated SAMAE (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  7. Terauchi R
    Jpn. J. Genet., 1994 Oct;69(5):567-76.
    PMID: 7999373
    Di-nucleotide microsatellites were isolated from a genomic library of a tropical tree species, Dryobalanops lanceolata, in Sarawak, for the purpose of using them as hypervariable genetic markers to study the pollen-mediated gene flow. Among 1600 recombinant clones, in total 20 clones gave positive signals when hybridized with oligonucleotides with the three different repeat motifs, GT, CA and CT. Estimations of abundance of (GT)n/(CA)n and (GA)n/(CT)n dinucleotide repeats in D. lanceolata genome revealed to be one in every 84 kb and 80 kb, respectively. Among six sequenced microsatellite loci, one was selected to synthesize PCR primers to amplify the microsatellite. PCR product size of the locus was variable among different individuals, which is attributed to the different number of di-nucleotide repeats. The same microsatellite genotype was detected in the trunk and canopy of a single large tree, indicating the utility of trunk tissue as the source of DNA for the population genetic study of tropical tree species, the canopy of which is usually difficult to approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  8. Lim KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69 Suppl A:23-32.
    PMID: 25417948 MyJurnal
    105 articles related to colorectal cancer(CRC) were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. 56 articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Research into the genetic basis for colorectal cancer included studies in germline mutations of known syndromes as well as polymorphisms that conferred individuals a higher odds ratio for developing CRC. Several studies also documented the variety of somatic mutations seen in cases of sporadic CRC in Malaysia. Studies into the knowledge and attitudes of Malaysians regarding CRC revealed poor appreciation of the common symptoms, risk factors and available measures for its early detection. This may explain the observed facts that more Malaysians present with late stage CRC than seen in developed countries. The small amount of data recorded concerning the outcome of treatment also suggests overall survival of Malaysian CRC patients for comparable stage of CRC is lower than achieved in developed countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  9. Norliza C, Norni A, Anandjit S, Mohd Fazli MI
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69 Suppl A:55-8.
    PMID: 25417952 MyJurnal
    This is a review of research done in the area of substance abuse in Malaysia. There were 109 articles related to substance abuse found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Only 39 articles were reviewed, and case series, case report, reviews and reports were excluded. Research reviewed include the epidemiology of substance abuse, genetics, treatment and its relation to health behaviour, and health management. Studies have shown that more males than females use drugs. There was also a high prevalence of blood-bourne virus diseases and sexually transmitted diseases among drug users. Two studies showed some genetic polymorphism (Cyp 3a4 gene and FAAH Pro129Thr) among heroin and amphetamine users respectively that may contribute to drug dependence. Study on pharmacological treatment for substance abuse were limited to methadone and it was shown to improve the quality of life of heroin dependant patients. Alternative treatments such as acupunture and spiritual approach play a role in the management of substance abuse. Data also showed that treatment centres for substance abuse are lacking facilities for screening, assessment and treatment for medical illness related to substance use, e.g. Hepatitis C and tuberculosis. Studies on the effectiveness of current drug rehabilitation centres were inconclusive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  10. Romaino SM, Teh LK, Zilfalil BA, Thong CP, Ismail AA, Amir J, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Feb;29(1):47-52.
    PMID: 14748897 DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00535.x
    Polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2 AR) gene is an important determinant of the function of this receptor. It affects receptor down-regulation and beta2-agonist responses. It has also been a focus of interest in attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of asthma, hypertension, obesity and cystic fibrosis. Several different techniques have been established to determine beta2 AR genotypes but none of these methods are simple enough to detect simultaneously all the five alleles of our research interest (Arg16/Gly16, -20T/C, Gln27/Glu27, -47T/C and Thr164/Ile164).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  11. Zainuddin Z, Teh LK, Suhaimi AW, Salleh MZ, Ismail R
    Clin Chim Acta, 2003 Oct;336(1-2):97-102.
    PMID: 14500040 DOI: 10.1016/s0009-8981(03)00319-x
    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9), a principle drug-metabolizing enzyme is polymorphic in humans and is responsible for important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations of CYP2C9 substrates. We developed an allele-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the detection of common CYP2C9 alleles.
    METHOD: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood obtained from 40 unrelated healthy Malaysian Indian volunteers. The DNA was subjected to a first PCR that was used to amplify both exons 3 and 7 simultaneously in one reaction tube and a second PCR that was used to detect the polymorphic sites of CYP2C9 alleles using allele-specific primers. Sequencing was performed to validate the test results.
    RESULTS: We were successful in amplifying the fragments of interest from the DNA samples. The method was also reproducible and specific. The amplified sequences showed 100% homology to CYP2C9 sequence.
    CONCLUSION: This is the first nested allele-specific multiplex PCR method reported to allow for the simultaneously detection of five CYP2C9 alleles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  12. Muthiah YD, Lee WL, Teh LK, Ong CE, Salleh MZ, Ismail R
    Clin Chim Acta, 2004 Nov;349(1-2):191-8.
    PMID: 15469873 DOI: 10.1016/j.cccn.2004.06.024
    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 is a principle enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many clinically important drugs as well as endogenous compounds such as arachidonic acid. The enzyme is genetically polymorphic but a simple method is not available to study its genetic polymorphism. We developed and optimized a variant-specific PCR techniques to detect CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C8*4.
    METHOD: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood using standard extraction methods. A two-step PCR method was developed to detect simultaneously three CYP2C8 variants. In the first PCR (PCR1), specific regions from exons 3, 5 and 8 of the CYP2C8 gene were amplified. The products were used as templates in parallel alleles-specific PCR (PCR2). This method was tested against DNA samples obtained from 57 healthy Malaysian volunteers.
    RESULT: The bands of interest were successfully amplified. This method showed specific and reproducible results when tested on healthy volunteers. DNA sequencing further confirmed genotype results obtained from current method.
    CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed and optimized a multiplex PCR method suitable for use in population studies of CYP2C8 polymorphism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  13. Tan JH, Low PS, Tan YS, Tong MC, Saha N, Yang H, et al.
    Hum Genet, 2003 Jul;113(2):106-17.
    PMID: 12709788
    Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 underlie Tangier disease and familial hypoalphaliproteinemia (FHA), disorders that are characterised by reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and cholesterol efflux, and increased coronary artery disease (CAD). We explored if polymorphisms in the ABCA1 gene are associated with CAD and variations in plasma lipid levels, especially HDL-C, and whether the associations may depend on ethnicity. Male cases and controls from the Singapore Chinese, Malay and Indian populations were genotyped for five ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Various single-locus frequency distribution differences between cases and controls were detected in different ethnic groups: the promoter -14C>T in Indians, exon 18 M883I in Malays, and 3'-untranslated (UTR) region 8994A>G in Chinese. For the Malay population, certain haplotypes carrying the I825- A (exon 17) and M883- G alleles were more frequent among cases than controls, whereas the converse was true for the alternative configuration of V825- G and I883- A, and this association was reinforced in multi-locus disequilibrium analysis that utilized genotypic data. In the healthy controls, associations were found for -14C>T genotypes with HDL-C in Chinese; 237indelG (5'UTR) with apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) in Malays and total cholesterol (TC) in Indians; M883I with lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in Malays and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in Chinese; and 8994A>G with Lp(a) in Malays, and TC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as apoB in Indians. While genotype-phenotype associations were not reproduced across populations and loci, V825I and M883I were clearly associated with CAD status in Malays with no effects on HDL-C or apoA1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  14. Haerian BS, Roslan H, Raymond AA, Tan CT, Lim KS, Zulkifli SZ, et al.
    Seizure, 2010 Jul;19(6):339-46.
    PMID: 20605481 DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2010.05.004
    The C3435T, a major allelic variant of the ABCB1 gene, is proposed to play a crucial role in drug-resistance in epilepsy. The C/C genotype carriers reportedly are at higher risk of pharmacoresistance to AEDs, but only in some studies. The hypothesis of the C-variant associated risk and resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been hampered by conflicting results from inadequate power in case-control studies. To assess the role of C3435T polymorphism in drug-resistance in epilepsy, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  15. Tan CE, Tai ES, Tan CS, Chia KS, Lee J, Chew SK, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Oct;170(2):253-60.
    PMID: 14612205
    BACKGROUND: Serum lipid concentrations are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, alcohol intake, smoking, obesity and dietary intake and genetic factors. Polymorphisms at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus have consistently shown a significant association with total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). However, their impact on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be population dependent. Having three major ethnic groups within a similar social environment allows us to study the role of genetics and their interactions with lifestyle factors on the serum lipid profile and coronary risk in Asians.

    METHODS: This study included 1740 males (1146 Chinese, 327 Malays and 267 Asian Indians) and 1950 females (1329 Chinese, 360 Malays and 261 Asian Indians) with complete data on anthropometric indices, fasting lipids, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise frequency and genotype at the APOE locus.

    RESULTS: Malays and Asian Indians were more obese compared with the Chinese. Smoking was uncommon in all females but Malay males had significantly higher prevalence of smokers. Malays had the highest LDL-C whilst Indians had the lowest HDL-C, The epsilon 3 allele was the most frequent allele in all three ethnic groups. Malays had the highest frequency of epsilon 4 (0.180 and 0.152) compared with Chinese (0.085 and 0.087) and Indians (0.108 and 0.075) in males and females, respectively. The epsilon 2 allele was the least common in Asian Indians. Total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was highest in epsilon 4 carriers and lowest in epsilon 2 carriers. The reverse was seen in HDL-C with the highest levels seen in epsilon 2 subjects. The association between ethnic group and HDL-C differed according to APOE genotype and gender. Asian Indians had the lowest HDL-C for each APOE genotype except in Asian Indian males with epsilon 2, where HDL-C concentrations were intermediate between Chinese and Malays.

    CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in lipid profile could be explained in part by the higher prevalence of epsilon 4 in the Malays. Ethnicity may influence the association between APOE genotypes and HDL-C. APOE genotype showed no correlation with HDL-C in Malay males whereas the association in Asian Indians was particularly marked. Further studies of interactions between genes and environmental factors will contribute to the understanding of differences of coronary risk amongst ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  16. Welch QB, Shu LC, Thangavelu S, Lie-Injo EL
    Hum. Hered., 1978;28(1):62-5.
    PMID: 618819
    812 West Malaysian Orang Asli belonging to four ethnic groups were surveyed for adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC using starch gel electrophoresis. Only the common ADA1 and ADA2 alleles were found, with the frequencies of the latter being 0.025, 0.103, 0.115 and 0.028 in the Semai, Semelai, Temuan, and Jakun groups, respectively. A new 'breeding genetic distance' was applied to these gene frequencies and the Semelai and Temuan were found to be more closely related to each other, and to have considerably more evolutionary flexibility on this scale of 'micro-evolution' than the other two groups. The Semai and Jakun were more similar to each other on the basis of these ADA gene frequencies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  17. Lau CH, Muniandy S
    Ann. Hum. Genet., 2011 May;75(3):370-82.
    PMID: 21323646 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00635.x
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin and resistin loci are strongly associated with hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia, which may eventually increase risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular disease. Real-time PCR was used to genotype SNPs of the adiponectin (SNP+45T>G, SNP+276G>T, SNP+639T>C, and SNP+1212A>G) and resistin (SNP-420C>G and SNP+299G>A) genes in 809 Malaysian men (208 controls, 174 MS without T2DM, 171 T2DM without MS, 256 T2DM with MS) whose ages ranged between 40 and 70 years old. The genotyping results for each SNP marker was verified by sequencing. The anthropometric clinical and metabolic parameters of subjects were recorded. None of these SNPs at the adiponectin and resistin loci were associated with T2DM and MS susceptibility in Malaysian men. SNP+45T>G, SNP+276G>T, and SNP+639T>C of the adiponectin gene did not influence circulating levels of adiponectin. However, the G-allele of SNP+1212A>G at the adiponectin locus was marginally associated (P= 0.0227) with reduced circulating adiponectin levels. SNP-420C>G (df = 2; F= 16.026; P= 1.50×10(-7) ) and SNP+299G>A (df = 2; F= 22.944; P= 2.04×10(-10) ) of the resistin gene were strongly associated with serum resistin levels. Thus, SNP-420C>G and SNP+299G>A of the resistin gene are strongly associated with the risk of hyperresistinemia in Malaysian men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  18. Tuladhar BS, Haslindawaty N, Nada B, Panneerchelvam S, Norazmi MN
    J Forensic Sci, 2006 Sep;51(5):1205-6.
    PMID: 17018114
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
  19. Han ET, Song TE, Park JH, Shin EH, Guk SM, Kim TY, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2004 Dec;71(6):745-9.
    PMID: 15642964
    To study the genetic diversity of re-emerging Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea, nucleotide sequence variations at the merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMSP-3alpha) locus were analyzed using 24 re-emerging isolates and 4 isolates from imported cases. Compared with the well known Belem strain (Brazil), a large number of amino acid substitutions, deletions, and insertions were found at the locus of the isolates examined. The Korean isolates were divided into two allelic types; type I (15 isolates), similar to the Belem strain, and type II (9), similar to the Chess strain (New Guinea). Isolates from imported cases were classified into three types; type III (1 from Malaysia), similar to type B from western Thailand, type IV (1 each from Indonesia and India), and type V (1 from Pakistan), both being new types. Our results have shown that the MSP-3alpha locus of re-emerging Korean P. vivax is dimorphic with two allelic types coexisting in the endemic area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic
  20. Yap CK, Tan SG, Ismail A, Omar H
    Environ Int, 2004 Mar;30(1):39-46.
    PMID: 14664863
    It has been widely reported that heavy metal contamination in coastal waters can modify the allozyme profiles of marine organisms. Previous studies have recorded elevated metal concentrations in sediments and mussel tissues off Peninsular Malaysia. In the present study, horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was carried out to estimate the levels of allelic variation of the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, collected from one contaminated and three relatively uncontaminated sites off Peninsular Malaysia. Fourteen polymorphic loci were observed. In addition, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were determined in the sediments and in the soft tissues of the mussels. Mussels from contaminated site, evidenced by high metal pollution indices (MPI) of the sediment and the mussel tissues, showed the highest percentage of polymorphic loci (78.6%), while those collected from the uncontaminated sites had lower MPI of the sediment and mussel tissue, and exhibited lower percentages of polymorphic loci (35.7-57.1%). The population from the contaminated site showed the highest excess of heterozygosity (0.289) when compared to that of the populations from the three uncontaminated sites (0.108-0.149). Allozyme frequencies at the phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E.C. locus also differed between the contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Previous studies have shown that exposure to heavy metals can select or counter-select for particular alleles at this locus. The present results suggest that allozyme polymorphism in P. viridis is a potential biomonitoring tool for heavy metal contamination but further validation is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Genetic*
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