METHOD: A non-systemic search was performed to review articles relevant to CYP2S1 in literature. This review will update the findings related to the expression and regulation of CYP2S1 gene and protein, substrate profiles and metabolism mechanisms, genetic polymorphisms, and their association with diseases.
RESULTS: The expression of CYP2S1 was mainly in the epithelium of portal of entry organs such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is believed to be partly involved in the induction of CYP2S1. CYP2S1 was found to activate and deactivate pro-drugs which resulted in toxicity and detoxification of carcinogens. The current knowledge of the endogenous functions of CYP2S1 is largely related to cell proliferation and lipid metabolisms. Several polymorphic alleles of CYP2S1 have been reported and documented to date.
CONCLUSION: Molecular-based investigations should be performed to better understand the regulation mechanism of CYP2S1 in various cells and tissues. It is pivotal to establish optimum expression and incubation systems in vitro to elucidate the substrate specificity of CYP2S1 and characterise the genetic consequences of variant CYP2S1 in vitro.
METHODS: This study included 1740 males (1146 Chinese, 327 Malays and 267 Asian Indians) and 1950 females (1329 Chinese, 360 Malays and 261 Asian Indians) with complete data on anthropometric indices, fasting lipids, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise frequency and genotype at the APOE locus.
RESULTS: Malays and Asian Indians were more obese compared with the Chinese. Smoking was uncommon in all females but Malay males had significantly higher prevalence of smokers. Malays had the highest LDL-C whilst Indians had the lowest HDL-C, The epsilon 3 allele was the most frequent allele in all three ethnic groups. Malays had the highest frequency of epsilon 4 (0.180 and 0.152) compared with Chinese (0.085 and 0.087) and Indians (0.108 and 0.075) in males and females, respectively. The epsilon 2 allele was the least common in Asian Indians. Total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was highest in epsilon 4 carriers and lowest in epsilon 2 carriers. The reverse was seen in HDL-C with the highest levels seen in epsilon 2 subjects. The association between ethnic group and HDL-C differed according to APOE genotype and gender. Asian Indians had the lowest HDL-C for each APOE genotype except in Asian Indian males with epsilon 2, where HDL-C concentrations were intermediate between Chinese and Malays.
CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in lipid profile could be explained in part by the higher prevalence of epsilon 4 in the Malays. Ethnicity may influence the association between APOE genotypes and HDL-C. APOE genotype showed no correlation with HDL-C in Malay males whereas the association in Asian Indians was particularly marked. Further studies of interactions between genes and environmental factors will contribute to the understanding of differences of coronary risk amongst ethnic groups.