METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 3886 Asian patients (60 ± 13 years, 21% women) with HF (ejection fraction ≤40%) from 11 regions in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure study. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin <13 g/dL (men) and <12 g/dL (women). Ethnic groups included Chinese (33.0%), Indian (26.2%), Malay (15.1%), Japanese/Korean (20.2%), and others (5.6%). Overall, anaemia was present in 41%, with a wide range across ethnicities (33-54%). Indian ethnicity, older age, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with higher odds of anaemia (all P
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over the period of 9 weeks in patients who visited the ED of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia. Data on patient medication orders and demographic information was collected from the doctor's clerking sheet. Observations were made on nursing activities and these were documented in the data collection form. Other information related to the administration of medications were obtained from the nursing care records.
RESULTS: Observations and data collections were made for 547 patients who fulfilled the study criteria. From these, 311 patient data were randomly selected for analysis. Ninety-five patients had at least one ME. The prevalence of ME was calculated to be 30.5%. The most common types of ME were wrong time error (46.9%), unauthorized drug error (25.4%), omission error (18.5%) and dose error (9.2%). The most frequently drug associated with ME was analgesics. No adverse event was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ME in our ED setting was moderately high. However, the majority of them did not result in any adverse event. Intervention measures are needed to prevent further occurrence.
METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2016 in seven schools of Bhakkar district in the Punjab province of Pakistan, and comprised of school children aged 11-12 years. Diet diaries were used to assess the frequency of sugar intake while caries was assessed using the Modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate analysis was used to assess the association of sugar consumption and early carious lesion with selected sociodemographic variables, and regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factor that matters most in caries occurrence.
RESULTS: Of the 226 subjects, 115(51%) had early carious lesion. Mean frequency of sugar intake was 5.2±3.2 times per day. Children who consumed sugar between main meals (p=0.01) and within two hours before bedtime (p=0.04) had significantly higher history of having caries. Cariogenic intake before bedtime was significantly associated with overall caries risk (p=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of sugar intake among the subjects was slightly higher than the recommended level. .
METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in October-November 2017 at five government and two private schools in Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan. It comprised children aged 11-12 years. World Health Organisation standards and the modified International Caries Detection and Assessment Systems methods were used were used to determine the dental caries status of each subject. Results of the two methods were compared at all cut- offs where appropriate, using SPSS 17.
RESULTS: Of the 183 subjects, 101(55.2%) were boys. Those aged 12 years were 112(61.2%) while 71(38.8%) were aged 11 years. There was no statistically significant difference in values of the Decayed Missing and Filled Surface / Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth index as well as the prevalence of dental caries between two methods (p>0.05 each). Intra-examiner reproducibility was higher with the World Health Organisation method compared to the other index used (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Modified International Caries Detection and Assessment Systems method can be used in epidemiological surveys as it was found to provide results similar to the World Health Organisation criteria at cut-off point 2.
METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed.
RESULTS: The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress.
CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 327 secondary school students completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Children's Depression Inventory, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Binary and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between the different variables.
RESULTS: A total of 42.2% of adolescents had PAU. Urban adolescents had a higher prevalence compared with rural adolescents (OR, 1.612; 95% CI: 1.036-2.508 P = 0.034). Female adolescents (56.8%) and Bumiputera Sarawak adolescents (76.8%) comprised a large proportion of the respondents with PAU. Cultural norm (78.3%) and curiosity (68.1%) were the two main reasons for PAU. Only family history of alcohol use (OR, 2.273; 95% CI: 1.013-5.107; P = 0.047), ever consumed alcohol (OR, 57.585; 95% CI: 21.885-151.525; P