Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2687 in total

  1. Narayan, K.A., A Rashid, K.
    This study was conducted to study the blood pressure pattern and the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in a rural community in two coastal villages in rural Kedah, Mahysia. Out of the total population 504 were above 20 years of age and were eligible to participate. There were 227 males and 252 females. The mean systolic blood pressure was found to rise with age, peaking in the 6l·70 years age group, For women the mean blood pressure rose earlier from the age group of 4-l· 50 years. Mean blood pressures rose with increasing body mass index. lt also varied with occupation and education. The retired and unemployed had a higher blood pressure than those employed and there was an inverse relationship with increasing education. The prevalence of hypertension was 33.6%. More females were hypertensive (36.5%) as compared to males (3 0.4%) and this finding was the same for both systolic and diastolic hypertension. Majority (71.4%) of the hypertensives were undiagnosed. 72.5% of hypertensives who were on treatment were not under control. Hypertension was more prevalent among retirees and illiterates. Prevalence of hypertension increased correspondingly with age. Obesity was associated with hypertension. There was no association with family history of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression showed a positive association only for obesity. ln conclusion, given the high prevalence of hypertension at
    present, it appears that the prevalence will increase as each age cohort grows older. Obesity, especially among housewives is a significant assorted factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  2. Jamsiah, M., Sana Taher, A. Taufik J.
    Being a student, especially postgraduate student, could expose to stress, and being international postgraduate student would exposed to more stress to the student. This study was conducted to assess stress level among international postgraduate students and its associated factors. A cross sectional study was conducted among international postgraduate students registered at UKMMC, Cheras campus, Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaires were distributed to 119 students,. Main international student are Arabs (52.4%). The stress prevalence is 54.8%. Younger age group are more stressful with mean age 33.94 (P=0.004), while shorter duration is associated with stress, P=0.035. Relationship with neighbour and relationship with local colleagues are shown to be associated with stress with P value 0.011 and 0.005 respectively. This study reveals the presence of significant prevalence of stress among international postgraduate students. The student socio-demographic character that has shown to be associated with stress in this study was age. The poor relationships with local colleagues as well as the poor relationships with the neighbours have shown to contribute to the stress among international students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  3. Kelly AM, Keijzers G, Klim S, Graham CA, Craig S, Kuan WS, et al.
    Emerg Med Australas, 2015 Jun;27(3):187-91.
    PMID: 25940885 DOI: 10.1111/1742-6723.12397
    Shortness of breath is a common reason for ED attendance. This international study aims to describe the epidemiology of dyspnoea presenting to EDs in the South East Asia-Pacific region, to compare disease patterns across regions, to understand how conditions are investigated and treated, and to assess quality of care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  4. ACES Investigators
    Int J Stroke, 2009 Oct;4(5):398-405.
    PMID: 19765130 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2009.00339.x
    Better methods of identifying which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis will develop stroke, are required to improve the risk-benefit ratio of carotid endarterectomy. A promising method is the detection of asymptomatic embolic signals using transcranial Doppler. Embolic signals predict stroke risk in symptomatic carotid stenosis, but their predictive role in asymptomatic carotid stenosis is uncertain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  5. Somia IKA, Teeratakulpisarn N, Jeo WS, Yee IA, Pankam T, Nonenoy S, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Mar;97(10):e9898.
    PMID: 29517698 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009898
    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and associated risk factors for anal high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia.This was baseline data from a prospective cohort study with clinic sites in Jakarta and Bali (Indonesia), Bangkok (Thailand), and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).MSM and TGW aged 18 years and older from Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia were enrolled. Demographic and behavioral characteristics were assessed, and anal samples were collected for HPV genotyping. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for anal hr-HPV overall and among HIV-positive participants.A total of 392 participants were enrolled, and 48 were TGW. As many as 245 were HIV-positive, and 78.0% of the participants were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Median CD4 count was 439 cells/mm and 68.2% had undetectable HIV-RNA. HIV-positive participants had significantly more hr-HPV compared to HIV-negative participants (76.6% vs 53.5%, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  6. Tromp J, Teng TH, Tay WT, Hung CL, Narasimhan C, Shimizu W, et al.
    Eur. J. Heart Fail., 2019 01;21(1):23-36.
    PMID: 30113120 DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.1227
    BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem. Unfortunately, little is known about HFpEF across Asia.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied clinical characteristics, echocardiographic parameters and outcomes in 1204 patients with HFpEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%) from 11 Asian regions, grouped as Northeast Asia (Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, n = 543), South Asia (India, n = 252), and Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, n = 409). Mean age was 68 ±12 years (37% were 
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  7. Chandramouli C, Tay WT, Bamadhaj NS, Tromp J, Teng TK, Yap JJL, et al.
    PLoS Med., 2019 Sep;16(9):e1002916.
    PMID: 31550265 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002916
    BACKGROUND: Asians are predisposed to a lean heart failure (HF) phenotype. Data on the 'obesity paradox', reported in Western populations, are scarce in Asia and have only utilised the traditional classification of body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate the association between obesity (defined by BMI and abdominal measures) and HF outcomes in Asia.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Utilising the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry (11 Asian regions including Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea; 46 centres with enrolment between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016), we prospectively examined 5,964 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age 61.3 ± 13.3 years, 26% women, mean BMI 25.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, 16% with HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; ejection fraction ≥ 50%]), among whom 2,051 also had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measurements (mean age 60.8 ± 12.9 years, 24% women, mean BMI 25.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 7% HFpEF). Patients were categorised by BMI quartiles or WHtR quartiles or 4 combined groups of BMI (low, <24.5 kg/m2 [lean], or high, ≥24.5 kg/m2 [obese]) and WHtR (low, <0.55 [thin], or high, ≥0.55 [fat]). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine a 1-year composite outcome (HF hospitalisation or mortality). Across BMI quartiles, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome (ptrend < 0.001). Contrastingly, higher WHtR was associated with higher risk of the composite outcome. Individuals in the lean-fat group, with low BMI and high WHtR (13.9%), were more likely to be women (35.4%) and to be from low-income countries (47.7%) (predominantly in South/Southeast Asia), and had higher prevalence of diabetes (46%), worse quality of life scores (63.3 ± 24.2), and a higher rate of the composite outcome (51/232; 22%), compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 for all). Following multivariable adjustment, the lean-fat group had higher adjusted risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.18, p = 0.01), compared to the obese-thin group, with high BMI and low WHtR. Results were consistent across both HF subtypes (HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]; pinteraction = 0.355). Selection bias and residual confounding are potential limitations of such multinational observational registries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Asian patients with HF, the 'obesity paradox' is observed only when defined using BMI, with WHtR showing the opposite association with the composite outcome. Lean-fat patients, with high WHtR and low BMI, have the worst outcomes. A direct correlation between high WHtR and the composite outcome is apparent in both HFpEF and HFrEF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in HF (ASIAN-HF) Registry ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633398.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  8. Goh VJ, Tromp J, Teng TK, Tay WT, Van Der Meer P, Ling LH, et al.
    ESC Heart Fail, 2018 08;5(4):570-578.
    PMID: 29604185 DOI: 10.1002/ehf2.12279
    AIMS: Recent international heart failure (HF) guidelines recognize anaemia as an important comorbidity contributing to poor outcomes in HF, based on data mainly from Western populations. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of anaemia in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction across Asia.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 3886 Asian patients (60 ± 13 years, 21% women) with HF (ejection fraction ≤40%) from 11 regions in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure study. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin <13 g/dL (men) and <12 g/dL (women). Ethnic groups included Chinese (33.0%), Indian (26.2%), Malay (15.1%), Japanese/Korean (20.2%), and others (5.6%). Overall, anaemia was present in 41%, with a wide range across ethnicities (33-54%). Indian ethnicity, older age, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with higher odds of anaemia (all P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  9. Jan Mohamed HJ, Yap RW, Loy SL, Norris SA, Biesma R, Aagaard-Hansen J
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):123-35.
    PMID: 25524952 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514562447
    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  10. Ibrahim N, Sherina MS, Phang CK, Mukhtar F, Awang H, Ang JK, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 08;72(4):221-227.
    PMID: 28889133 MyJurnal
    No abstract available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  11. Tuan Lonik EA, Tuan Kamauzaman TH, Abdullah AA, Nor J, Ab Hamid SA
    This study is to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of low-back pain (LBP), which has multifactorial causes, among ambulance workers in Kelantan, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved ambulance workers in the emergency department in all government hospitals in Kelantan. Those who did not consent, complete or return the questionnaire as well as having rheumatic diseases were excluded from the study. The participants were asked to answer a self-administered questionnaire in English. Descriptive analyses and Chi-square test were used. A total of 168 respondents had completed the questionnaires with a response rate of 85.0%. Questionnaires with more than 95.0% items completed were included in the analysis (n=143). The respondents had a higher proportion of male than female (63.6% versus 36.4%). Assistant Medical Officer comprised of 60.0% of all respondents and the rest were nurses. The respondents’ age ranged between 23 to 58 years old with a mean age of 38.27 and standard deviation (SD) of 7.27. The mean duration of involvement in ambulance service was 9.68 years (SD 6.97). The majority (98.5%) of the respondents were Malay. Gender, smoking status and hobbies were the associated factors of LBP among ambulance workers. The modifiable risk factors should be emphasized to the ambulance workers as a measure to prevent the development of LBP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  12. Taqi M, Razak IA, Ab-Murat N
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2018 Oct;68(10):1483-1487.
    PMID: 30317346
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and pattern of sugar intake among Pakistani school going children and its association with early carious lesion and caries history.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2016 in seven schools of Bhakkar district in the Punjab province of Pakistan, and comprised of school children aged 11-12 years. Diet diaries were used to assess the frequency of sugar intake while caries was assessed using the Modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate analysis was used to assess the association of sugar consumption and early carious lesion with selected sociodemographic variables, and regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factor that matters most in caries occurrence.

    RESULTS: Of the 226 subjects, 115(51%) had early carious lesion. Mean frequency of sugar intake was 5.2±3.2 times per day. Children who consumed sugar between main meals (p=0.01) and within two hours before bedtime (p=0.04) had significantly higher history of having caries. Cariogenic intake before bedtime was significantly associated with overall caries risk (p=0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of sugar intake among the subjects was slightly higher than the recommended level. .

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  13. Taqi M, Razak IA, Ab-Murat N
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2019 Jul;69(7):950-954.
    PMID: 31308560
    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the dental caries status among children using two methods..

    METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in October-November 2017 at five government and two private schools in Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan. It comprised children aged 11-12 years. World Health Organisation standards and the modified International Caries Detection and Assessment Systems methods were used were used to determine the dental caries status of each subject. Results of the two methods were compared at all cut- offs where appropriate, using SPSS 17.

    RESULTS: Of the 183 subjects, 101(55.2%) were boys. Those aged 12 years were 112(61.2%) while 71(38.8%) were aged 11 years. There was no statistically significant difference in values of the Decayed Missing and Filled Surface / Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth index as well as the prevalence of dental caries between two methods (p>0.05 each). Intra-examiner reproducibility was higher with the World Health Organisation method compared to the other index used (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Modified International Caries Detection and Assessment Systems method can be used in epidemiological surveys as it was found to provide results similar to the World Health Organisation criteria at cut-off point 2.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  14. Nik-Hussein NN, Abdul Muttalib K, Junid NZ, Wan MN, Abang A
    Singapore Dent J, 2004 Dec;26(1):30-8.
    PMID: 15736839
    The aim of the present study was to determine the oral health status of 16-year-old Malaysian school children. The prevalence of caries was 75.5%. More than 60% of subjects had caries experience by teeth (DMFT) scores of 0-3. The largest component of the DMFT and caries experience by surface index was the filled component. Females had higher caries prevalence and caries scores than males. The mouth and tooth prevalences of enamel defects were 56% and 21.8%, respectively. The most common type of enamel defects observed were diffuse opacities, affecting 95.5% of affected subjects and 92.1% of affected teeth. One-third of subjects had healthy gingival conditions, 8.6% had bleeding gingivae, 55.1% had calculus and 3% had pockets. Less than 1% of subjects wore or required dentures. Cleft lip and/or palate was uncommon. This study shows that the prevalence of caries and DMFT scores have declined over the last 30 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  15. Abdul Manaf MR, Mustafa M, Abdul Rahman MR, Yusof KH, Abd Aziz NA
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0156937.
    PMID: 27280529 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156937
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia.

    METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress.

    CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  16. Bujang MA, Kuan PX, Tiong XT, Saperi FE, Ismail M, Mustafa FI, et al.
    J Diabetes Res, 2018;2018:4638327.
    PMID: 30116741 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4638327
    Aims: This study aims to determine the all-cause mortality and the associated risk factors for all-cause mortality among the prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients within five years' period and to develop a screening tool to determine high-risk patients.

    Methods: This is a cohort study of T2DM patients in the national diabetes registry, Malaysia. Patients' particulars were derived from the database between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Their records were matched with the national death record at the end of year 2013 to determine the status after five years. The factors associated with mortality were investigated, and a prognostic model was developed based on logistic regression model.

    Results: There were 69,555 records analyzed. The mortality rate was 1.4 persons per 100 person-years. The major cause of death were diseases of the circulatory system (28.4%), infectious and parasitic diseases (19.7%), and respiratory system (16.0%). The risk factors of mortality within five years were age group (p < 0.001), body mass index category (p < 0.001), duration of diabetes (p < 0.001), retinopathy (p = 0.001), ischaemic heart disease (p < 0.001), cerebrovascular (p = 0.007), nephropathy (p = 0.001), and foot problem (p = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed model was fairly strong with 70.2% and 61.3%, respectively.

    Conclusions: The elderly and underweight T2DM patients with complications have higher risk for mortality within five years. The model has moderate accuracy; the prognostic model can be used as a screening tool to classify T2DM patients who are at higher risk for mortality within five years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  17. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    Psychiatry Res, 2018 03;261:319-324.
    PMID: 29331849 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.086
    Suicide has become a serious matter in both developed and developing countries. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting suicidal behaviour among adults in Malaysia. A nationally representative data which consists of 10,141 respondents is used for analysis. A trivariate probit model is utilised to identify the probability of having suicide ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt. Results of the regression analysis show that to ensure unbiased estimates, a trivariate probit model should be used instead of three separate probit models. The determining factors of suicidal behaviour are income, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, self-rated health and being diagnosed with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour is lower among higher income earners and older individuals. Being male and married significantly reduce the propensity to engage in suicidal behaviour. Of all the ethnic groups, Indian/others displays the highest likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour. There is a positive relationship between poor health condition and suicide. Policies targeted at individuals who are likely to adopt suicidal behaviour may be effective in lowering the prevalence of suicide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  18. Chhoa KH, Zakaria H, Abd Rahman FN
    Pediatr Int, 2019 Mar;61(3):284-292.
    PMID: 30636372 DOI: 10.1111/ped.13789
    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption in the under-aged is one of the main concerns regarding Malaysian adolescents. There is no previous study on problematic alcohol use (PAU) in adolescents in Sarawak. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PAU, its associated variables and its relationship with depression.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 327 secondary school students completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Children's Depression Inventory, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Binary and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between the different variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 42.2% of adolescents had PAU. Urban adolescents had a higher prevalence compared with rural adolescents (OR, 1.612; 95% CI: 1.036-2.508 P = 0.034). Female adolescents (56.8%) and Bumiputera Sarawak adolescents (76.8%) comprised a large proportion of the respondents with PAU. Cultural norm (78.3%) and curiosity (68.1%) were the two main reasons for PAU. Only family history of alcohol use (OR, 2.273; 95% CI: 1.013-5.107; P = 0.047), ever consumed alcohol (OR, 57.585; 95% CI: 21.885-151.525; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  19. Sing CK, Md. Zahirul Islam Khan, Hassan Hj. Mohd Daud, Abd. Rahman Aziz
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1597-1602.
    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella sp. isolated from
    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). A total of 30 catfish were harvested from four different farms and four different
    wet markets. A total of 60 samples (30 catfish skins and 30 catfish intestines) were used for Salmonella sp. isolation
    (pellet-method), its biochemical and serological test. Confirmation of Salmonella sp. were determined by polyvalent
    O antisera and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genus specific primers for invA genes (DNA amplification
    showed one distinct band with molecular weight of 389 bp) and the species of isolated Salmonella sp. were identified
    by serotyping. The result showed 6/30 (20%) of fish or 6/60 (10%) of organ samples were positive for Salmonella sp.
    Among those positive for Salmonella sp., 4/6 were from intestine samples and 2/6 were from skin samples. No significant
    difference was found in the prevalence of Salmonella sp. isolates between fish harvested from farms and wet markets
    (p-value= 0.406). The Salmonella serovars identified were Salmonella corvallis (n=3), Salmonella mbandaka (n=2)
    and Salmonella typhmurium (n=1). Salmonella sp. isolates were resistance to Penicillin (P 10, 100%), Clindamycin
    (DA 2, 100%), Tetracycline (TE 30, 100%) and Rifampicin (RD 5, 100%) and all of the isolates were susceptible or
    intermediate resistance to Ceftazidime (CAZ 30) and Trimethopin (W 5). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of
    all Salmonella sp. isolates in current study was 0.67 indicating that fish sampled in the present study was under high
    risk of been exposed to the tested antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  20. Ghazi HF, Mustafa J, Aljunid S, Isa Z, Abdalqader MA
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2013 Sep;31(3):350-5.
    PMID: 24288949
    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
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