Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2686 in total

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  1. Sidi H, Asmidar D, Hod R, Jaafar NR, Guan NC
    Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract, 2012 Mar;16(1):41-7.
    PMID: 22122658 DOI: 10.3109/13651501.2011.617457
    To determine the risk of hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) in depressed female patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, comparing escitalopram and fluoxetine. The associated factors were also examined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  2. Freestone B, Rajaratnam R, Hussain N, Lip GY
    Int. J. Cardiol., 2003 Oct;91(2-3):233-8.
    PMID: 14559136
    BACKGROUND: There are established differences in cardiovascular disease in different racial groups. Worldwide, the literature regarding the clinical epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in non-white populations is scarce.

    OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the multiracial population of Malaysia, and to describe the clinical features and management of these patients.

    SETTING: Busy city centre general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a 1-month period.

    SUBJECTS: One-thousand four hundred and thirty-five acute medical admissions, of whom 40 patients (2.8%) had AF.

    RESULTS: Of 1435 acute medical admissions to Kuala Lumpur General Hospital over the 4-week study period, 40 had AF (21 male, 19 female; mean age 65 years). Of these, 18 were Malay, 16 Chinese and six Indian. Nineteen patients had previously known AF (seven with paroxysmal AF) and 21 were newly diagnosed cases. The principal associated medical conditions were ischaemic heart disease (42.5%), hypertension (40%) and heart failure (40%). Dyspnoea was the commonest presentation, whilst stroke was the cause of presentation in only two patients. Investigations were under-utilised, with chest X-ray and echocardiography in only 62.5% of patients and thyroid function checked in 15%. Only 16% of those with previously diagnosed AF were on warfarin, with a further three on aspirin. Anticoagulant therapy was started in 13.5% of patients previously not on warfarin, and aspirin in 8%. Records of contraindications to warfarin were unreliable, being identified in only 25%. For those with known AF, 58% were on digoxin. For new onset AF, digoxin was again the most common rate-limiting treatment, initiated in 38%, whilst five patients with new onset AF were commenced on amiodarone. DC cardioversion was not used in any of the patients with new onset AF.

    CONCLUSION: Amongst acute medical admissions to a single centre in Malaysia the prevalence of AF was 2.8%. Consistent with previous similar surveys in mainly western (caucasian) populations, standard investigations in this Malaysian cohort were also inadequate and there was underuse of anticoagulation, medication for ventricular rate control and cardioversion to sinus rhythm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  3. Hussein Z, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Goh SY, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S24-9.
    PMID: 23647714 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70006-8
    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  4. Bebakar WM, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S17-23.
    PMID: 23647713 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70005-6
    AIM:
    To examine the clinical safety and effectiveness of insulin aspart (IAsp) therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients from the ASEAN cohort of the international, 24-week, non-interventional A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    T2D patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore, who started IAsp therapy with or without oral glucose-lowering drugs, were included. The primary endpoint was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemic events. Secondary endpoints included hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial plasma glucose [PPPG], systolic blood pressure [SBP], body weight and lipids. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire.

    RESULTS:
    Overall, 312 T2D patients (222 insulin-naive and 90 insulin-experienced) with a mean ± SD age of 56.6 ± 11.2 years, BMI of 24.2 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration of 7.0 ± 5.7 years were included. The mean daily IAsp dose was 0.51 ± 0.31 U/kg at baseline titrated up to 0.60 ± 0.29 U/kg at Week 24. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic events were reported in the entire subgroup. The proportion of patients who reported overall hypoglycaemia decreased from baseline to Week 24 (7.1% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.0001). The mean HbA1c improved from 9.5 ± 1.6% at baseline to 7.6 ± 1.3% after 24 weeks (p < 0.001). The mean FPG, post-breakfast PPPG and SBP also improved (p < 0.001). Health-related QoL scores increased in the entire subgroup (mean increase: 9.8 ± 14.6 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    Starting IAsp therapy was well-tolerated and was associated with significantly improved overall glycaemic control in the ASEAN cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  5. Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Bebakar WM, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S3-9.
    PMID: 23647715 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70003-2
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in the ASEAN cohort of the A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Type 2 diabetes patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed BIAsp 30 therapy were included. The primary outcome was evaluation of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were changes in hypoglycaemic events, serious adverse events (SAEs) and effectiveness parameters.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 2798 patients (insulin-naive, 1903; insulin-experienced, 895) with mean age ± SD, 55.3 ± 10.8 years, BMI, 24.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration, 7.5 ± 5.9 years. Baseline HbA1c in the entire cohort was poor (9.9%, 85 mmol/mol). A total of 15 SAEs were reported in 7 insulin-experienced patients (1 moderate event was related to BIAsp 30). Overall hypoglycaemia at Week 24 was 0.88 events/patient-year compared to 1.71 events/patient-year reported at baseline (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). No major hypoglycaemia was reported at Week 24. BIAsp 30 significantly improved glucose control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose, p < 0.001) at Week 24. The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% at Week 24 was 35.3% compared to 3.5% at baseline. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure also improved significantly (p < 0.001). Quality of life was positively impacted (mean change in visual analogue scores from EQ-5D = 10.6 ± 13.8 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    BIAsp 30 was well-tolerated and improved glucose control while decreasing the risk of hypoglycaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  6. Soewondo P, Mohamed M, Jain AB, Sy RA, Khoo CM
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S10-6.
    PMID: 23647712 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70004-4
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir (IDet) in type 2 diabetes patients from the ASEAN cohort of the A1chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed IDet at the discretion of their physicians were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary endpoints included changes in the frequency of hypoglycaemia, serious adverse events and effectiveness assessments.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 1540 patients (insulin-naive, 1239; insulin-experienced, 301) with mean age ± SD 56.4 ± 10.9 years, BMI 25.4 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration 6.9 ± 5.3 years. Insulin-naive patients received a baseline IDet dose of 0.24 ± 0.11 U/kg titrated up to 0.37 ± 0.21 U/kg by Week 24. The pre-study insulin dose in insulin-experienced patients was 0.41 ± 0.25 U/kg and baseline IDet dose was 0.31 ± 0.24 U/kg titrated up to 0.40 ± 0.20 U/kg by Week 24. Overall hypoglycaemia decreased from 1.73 to 0.46 events/patient-year from baseline to Week 24 (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). At Week 24, 1 major hypoglycaemic event was reported in 1 insulin-experienced patient. IDet significantly improved glucose control (p < 0.001) at Week 24. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure improved (p < 0.001) and body weight did not change significantly. Quality of life was positively impacted (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    IDet was well-tolerated and improved glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia or weight gain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  7. Lin, Hai Peng, Mohd Sham Kasim
    MyJurnal
    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country with a very young population, about 36% of which are below the age of 15 years. The standard of child health has improved greatly. However, there are great changes in the morbidity and mortality patterns of childhood diseases relating mainly to an improved standard of living; availability of safe water supply and adequate sanitary latrines; a higher literacy rate; rapid industrialisation and urban migration. The infant mortality rate has droppedfrom 50.1 per 1,000 livebirths in 1986 to 10.4 in 1995, and similar trends apply also to neonatal, perinatal and toddler mortality rates. Nevertheless, current major child health problems are those relating to events in the perinatal period and to infections. Despite improvements in the standard of neonatal care with the use ofhigh technology, the commonest cause of certified deaths still occur in the neonatal period. A rapid and inexpensive screening test for G6PD deficiency, a disease present in 2-3% of the population, is now widely available and, together with the use of phototherapy is largely responsible for the declining incidence of kernicterus in the country. Infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality although their patterns have changed. The very high (>95%) WHO-EPI-vaccines coverage rate is linked to the great reduction in the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Childhood tuberculosis is less common now, with about 250 - 300 reported cases per year and TB meningitis is rare with about 30-40 reported cases/year. The hepatitis B carrier rate is high (5%) and the introduction of routine newborn hepatitis B vaccination in 1989 is expected to have a positive impact as is the immunisation of young girls against rubella introduced in 1985 in reducing the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. The incidence of malaria has declined but remains prevalent in the interiors of PeninsularMalaysia and in Sabah and Sarawak. Filariasis is largely under control. Unfortunately, despite great efforts at mosquito control, dengue virus infection remains a major problem with thousands of cases reported every year. Children are most susceptible to dengue haemorrhagic fever with many dying from the shock syndrome. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis has also dropped with most cases being due to a viral aetiology. Acute respiratory infections, mostly viral in origin, account for most attendances at paediatric outpatient services. Although staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo and pneumonia are common, the incidence of streptococcal related diseases like rheumatic fever and acute glomendonephritis is rapidly declining. The nutritional status of children has improved in tandem with the rise in the standard of living, but subclinical malnutrition is prevalent, particularly among urban squatters and the rural poor. There is a disturbing decline in breastfeeding among urban working mothers. Poor weaning practices and food habits are responsible for the common occurrence of nutritional anaemia (5%) among infants and young children. Greater prosperity, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in changes in the childhood disease pattern where non-communicable diseases assume greater importance as the problems of malnutrition and infection are gradually overcome. Road traffic accidents are a major killer and home accidents, largely preventable, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Childhood cancer, with about 550 new cases a year, is an important cause of death beyond infancy. Major congenital malformations, with a 1% prevalence rate, cause much ill-health. Thalassaemia is a particularly common genetic disease with fl thalassaemia gene frequency of about 5%. The prevalence of asthma is increasing, with a rate of 13.9% in the Kiang Valley but the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms is much higher. Physical, sexual child abuse and neglect, abandoned babies, substance abuse are but signs of stress of modern city living and peoples inability to cope with it. Although the general standard of child health has greatly improved, there are several states where it is still not satisfactory. In Sabah where there is a large illegal immigrant population, the infant mortality and infection rates are relatively high. In Kelantan and Trengganu, it is common for parents to refuse permission for a lumbar puncture required to treat meningitis. Other still deeply entrenched, culturally-related adverse health practices include : a fatalistic attitude to illness; a preference for traditional practitioners of medicine resulting in late treatment; and 'doctor-hopping' with unrealistic expectations of 'instant cure'. Childhood illnesses that are uncommon in Malaysia include: cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Encopresis, enuresis and epiglottitis due to Haemophilus Influen:ae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  8. Khan YH, Sarriff A, Adnan AS, Khan AH, Mallhi TH
    Clin. Exp. Nephrol., 2017 Jun;21(3):488-496.
    PMID: 27402286 DOI: 10.1007/s10157-016-1303-7
    INTRODUCTION: The relationship between hypertension and fluid overload in pre-dialysis CKD patients need to be elucidated. Current study aimed to find relationship between fluid overload and hypertension along with prescribed diuretic therapy using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS).

    METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was conducted by inviting pre-dialysis CKD patients. Fluid overload was assessed by BIS.

    RESULTS: A total of 312 CKD patients with mean eGFR 24.5 ± 11.2 ml/min/1.73 m2were enrolled. Based on OH value ≥7 %, 135 (43.3 %) patients were hypervolemic while euvolemia was observed in 177 (56.7 %) patients. Patients were categorized in different regions of hydration reference plot (HRP) generated by BIS i.e., 5.1 % in region-N (normal BP and fluid status), 20.5 % in region I (hypertensive with severe fluid overload), 29.5 % in region I-II (hypertensive with mild fluid overload), 22 % in region II (hypertensive with normohydration), 10.2 % in region III (underhydration with normal/low BP) and 12.5 % in region IV (normal BP with severe fluid overload). A total of 144 (46 %) patients received diuretics on basis of physician assessment of BP and edema. Maximum diuretics 100 (69.4 %) were prescribed in patients belonging to regions I and I-II of HRP. Interestingly, a similar number of diuretic prescriptions were observed in region II (13 %) and region IV (12 %). Surprisingly, 7 (4.9 %) of patients in region III who were neither hypervolemic nor hypertensive were also prescribed with diuretics.

    CONCLUSION: BIS can aid clinicians to categorize CKD patients on basis of their fluid status and provide individualized pharmacotherapy to manage hypertensive CKD patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  9. Vasavan T, Ferraro E, Ibrahim E, Dixon P, Gorelik J, Williamson C
    Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis, 2018 04;1864(4 Pt B):1345-1355.
    PMID: 29317337 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.12.039
    Cardiac dysfunction has an increased prevalence in diseases complicated by liver cirrhosis such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This observation has led to research into the association between abnormalities in bile acid metabolism and cardiac pathology. Approximately 50% of liver cirrhosis cases develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Bile acids are directly implicated in this, causing QT interval prolongation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and abnormal haemodynamics of the heart. Elevated maternal serum bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, a disorder which causes an impaired feto-maternal bile acid gradient, have been associated with fatal fetal arrhythmias. The hydrophobicity of individual bile acids in the serum bile acid pool is of relevance, with relatively lipophilic bile acids having a more harmful effect on the heart. Ursodeoxycholic acid can reverse or protect against these detrimental cardiac effects of elevated bile acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  10. Mohd-Tahir NA, Li SC
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(2):e0212832.
    PMID: 30817790 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212832
    INTRODUCTION: Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RAS) drugs have a proteinuria-reducing effect that could prevent the progression of kidney disease in diabetic patients. Our study aimed to assess the budget impact based on healthcare payer perspective of increasing uptake of RAS drugs into the current treatment mix of standard anti-hypertensive treatments to prevent progression of kidney disease in patient's comorbid with hypertension and diabetes.

    METHODS: A Markov model of a Malaysian hypothetical cohort aged ≥30 years (N = 14,589,900) was used to estimate the total and per-member-per-month (PMPM) costs of RAS uptake. This involved an incidence and prevalence rate of 9.0% and 10.53% of patients with diabetes and hypertension respectively. Transition probabilities of health stages and costs were adapted from published data.

    RESULTS: An increasing uptake of RAS drugs would incur a projected total treatment cost ranged from MYR 4.89 billion (PMPM of MYR 27.95) at Year 1 to MYR 16.26 billion (PMPM of MYR 92.89) at Year 5. This would represent a range of incremental costs between PMPM of MYR 0.20 at Year 1 and PMPM of MYR 1.62 at Year 5. Over the same period, the care costs showed a downward trend but drug acquisition costs were increasing. Sensitivity analyses showed the model was minimally affected by the changes in the input parameters.

    CONCLUSION: Mild impact to the overall healthcare budget has been reported with an increased utilization of RAS. The long-term positive health consequences of RAS treatment would reduce the cost of care in preventing deterioration of kidney function, thus offsetting the rising costs of purchasing RAS drugs. Optimizing and increasing use of RAS drugs would be considered an affordable and rational strategy to reduce the overall healthcare costs in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  11. Masir N, Akhter A, Roshan TM, Florence CS, Abdul-Rahman F, Tumian NR, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2019 Sep;72(9):630-635.
    PMID: 31189540 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2019-205837
    AIMS: Heightened B-cell receptor (BCR) activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is well established, and a subset of patients with relapsed DLBCL can benefit from BCR-targeted therapies. Universal outreach of such emerging therapies mandates forming a global landscape of BCR molecular signalling in DLBCL, including Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).

    RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  12. Chun S, Choi Y, Chang Y, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 07;177:17-24.
    PMID: 27297845 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.018
    BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  13. Alyousefi NA, Mahdy MA, Lim YA, Xiao L, Mahmud R
    Parasitology, 2013 May;140(6):729-34.
    PMID: 23369243 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182012001953
    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and animals and has a worldwide distribution. The parasite has a unique epidemiology in Middle Eastern countries where the IId subtype family of Cryptosporidium parvum dominates. However, there has been no information on Cryptosporidium species in Yemen. Thus, this study was conducted in Yemen to examine the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtype families. Fecal samples were collected from 335 patients who attended hospitals in Sana'a city. Cryptosporidium species were determined by PCR and sequence analysis of the 18 s rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis subtypes were identified based on sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Out of 335 samples, 33 (9.9%) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of them, 97% were identified as C. parvum whilst 1 case (3%) was caused by C. hominis. All 7 C. parvum isolates subtyped belonged to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype. The common occurrence of the zoonotic IIa subtype family of C. parvum highlights the potential occurrence of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Yemen. However, this postulation needs confirmation with future molecular epidemiological studies of cryptosporidiosis in both humans and animals in Yemen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  14. Ng CG, Dijkstra E, Smeets H, Boks MP, de Wit NJ
    Br J Gen Pract, 2013 Jan;63(606):e63-8.
    PMID: 23336475 DOI: 10.3399/bjgp13X660797
    It is unclear whether psychiatric disorders are specifically related to the terminal phase of cancer, or independent of the underlying disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  15. Quek SC, Lim BK, Domingo E, Soon R, Park JS, Vu TN, et al.
    Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer, 2013 Jan;23(1):148-56.
    PMID: 23221730 DOI: 10.1097/IGC.0b013e31827670fd
    OBJECTIVE: Independent, prospective, multicenter, hospital-based cross-sectional studies were conducted across 5 countries in Asia, namely, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, South Korea, and the Philippines. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types (high risk and others including coinfections) in women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and high-grade precancerous lesions.

    METHODS: Women older than 21 years with a histologic diagnosis of ICC and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 2 or 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)] were enrolled. Cervical specimens were reviewed by histopathologists to confirm the presence of ICC or CIN 2/3/AIS lesion and tested with short PCR fragment 10-DNA enzyme immunoassay-line probe assay for 14 oncogenic HPV types and 11 non-oncogenic HPV types. The prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk HPV types in ICC [including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (ADC/ASC)] and CIN 2/3/AIS was estimated.

    RESULTS: In the 5 Asian countries, diagnosis of ICC was confirmed in 500 women [SCC (n = 392) and ADC/ASC (n = 108)], and CIN 2/3/AIS, in 411 women. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 93.8% to 97.0% (84.5% for the Philippines) of confirmed ICC cases [94.0%-98.7% of SCC; 87.0%-94.3% (50.0% for the Philippines) of ADC/ASC] and in 93.7% to 100.0% of CIN 2/3/AIS. The most common types observed among ICC cases were HPV 16 (36.8%-61.3%), HPV 18 (12.9%-35.4%), HPV 52 (5.4%-10.3%), and HPV 45 (1.5%-17.2%), whereas among CIN 2/3/AIS cases, HPV 16 (29.7%-46.6%) was the most commonly observed type followed by HPV 52 (17.0%-66.7%) and HPV 58 (8.6%-16.0%).

    CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the data on the HPV prevalence, HPV type distribution, and their role in cervical carcinogenesis in 5 Asian countries. These data are of relevance to public health authorities for evaluating the existing and future cervical cancer prevention strategies including HPV-DNA testing-based screening and HPV vaccination in these Asian populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  16. Abougalambou SS, Abougalambou AS
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2012 Jul-Sep;6(3):167-72.
    PMID: 23158982 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2012.09.002
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors and prevalence of diabetic neuropathy (DN) among type II diabetic patients in Malaysian hospital setting.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: a observational prospective longitudinal follow up study design was selected, total no of respondents were 1077 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients recruited via attended the diabetes clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent variables that affect the development of neuropathy.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of nephropathy is 54.3%. Longitudinal logistic regression identified four predictive variables on the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy that are: duration of diabetes, retinopathy, HbA1c at second visit, and creatinine clearance third visit.
    CONCLUSION: Findings of this study show high prevalence of diabetic neuropathy. HbA1c and creatinine clearance are two modifiable risk factors for the development of diabetic neuropathy.
    Study site: Diabetes clinics, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  17. Rahman MN, Rani MR, Rohani JM
    Work, 2012;43(4):507-14.
    PMID: 22927603 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1404
    The aim of this study was to investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among workers in wall plastering jobs within the construction industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  18. Choon SE, Lai NM
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol, 2012 Nov-Dec;78(6):734-9.
    PMID: 23075643 DOI: 10.4103/0378-6323.102367
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence, clinical patterns, and causative drugs of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADR) vary among the different populations previously studied.
    AIM: To determine the prevalence, the clinical patterns of drug eruptions, and the common drugs implicated, particularly in severe cADR such as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in our population.
    METHODS: We analyzed the database established for all cADR seen by the department of Dermatology from January 2001 till December 2010.
    RESULTS: A total of 362 cADR were seen among 42 170 new clinic attendees, yielding an incidence rate of 0.86%. The most common reaction pattern seen was maculopapular eruption (153 cases) followed by SJS/TEN (110 cases) and DRESS (34 cases). Antibiotics was the most commonly implicated drug group (146 cases) followed by anticonvulsants (81 cases) and antigout drugs (50 cases). The most frequently implicated drug was allopurinol (50 cases). Carbamazepine, allopurinol, and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN accounting for 21.8%, 20.9%, and 12.7%, respectively, of the 110 cases seen, whereas DRESS was mainly caused by allopurinol (15 cases). Mortality rates for TEN, SJS, and DRESS were 28.6%, 2.2%, and 5.9%, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: The low rate of cADR with a high proportion of severe reactions observed in this study was probably due to referral bias. Otherwise, the reaction patterns and drugs causing cADR in our population were similar to those seen in other countries. Carbamazepine, allopurinol, and cotrimoxazole were the three main causative drugs of SJS/TEN in our population.
    Study site: department of dermatology in Hospital Sultanah Aminah
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  19. Shamsudin MN, Alreshidi MA, Hamat RA, Alshrari AS, Atshan SS, Neela V
    J. Hosp. Infect., 2012 Jul;81(3):206-8.
    PMID: 22633074 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.04.015
    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 60 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from Malaysia to three antiseptic agents - benzalkonium chloride (BZT), benzethonium chloride (BAC) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) - were determined. All isolates had MICs ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg/L. Antiseptic resistance genes qacA/B and smr were detected in 83.3% and 1.6% of the isolates, respectively. Carriage of qacA/B correlated with reduced susceptibility to CHG and BAC. This is the first report of the prevalence of qacA/B and smr gene carriage in Malaysian MRSA isolates, with a high frequency of qacA/B carriage. The presence of these antiseptic resistance genes and associated reduced susceptibility to antiseptic agents may have clinical implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  20. Ho WS, Balan G, Puthucheary S, Kong BH, Lim KT, Tan LK, et al.
    Microb. Drug Resist., 2012 Aug;18(4):408-16.
    PMID: 22394084 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2011.0222
    The emergence of Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is of concern as ESC is often used to treat infections by Gram-negative bacteria. One-hundred and ten E. coli strains isolated in 2009-2010 from children warded in a Malaysian tertiary hospital were analyzed for their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, possible inclusion of the beta-lactamase genes on an integron platform, and their genetic relatedness. All E. coli strains were sensitive to carbapenems. About 46% of strains were multidrug resistant (MDR; i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes) and almost half (45%) were nonsusceptible to ESCs. Among the MDR strains, high resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (98%), tetracycline (75%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (73%). Out of 110 strains, bla(TEM-1) (49.1%), bla(CTX-M) (11.8%), and bla(CMY-2) (6.4%) were detected. Twenty-one strains were ESBL producers. CTX-M-15 was the predominant CTX-M variant found and this is the first report of a CTX-M-27-producing E. coli strain from Malaysia. Majority (3.1%) of the strains harbored class 1 integron-encoded integrases with a predominance of aadA and dfr genes within the integron variable region. No gene cassette encoding ESBL genes was found and integrons were not significantly associated with ESBL or non-ESBL producers. Possible clonal expansion was observed for few CTX-M-15-positive strains but the O25-ST131 E. coli clone known to harbor CTX-M-15 was not detected while CMY-2-positive strains were genetically diverse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
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