OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the multiracial population of Malaysia, and to describe the clinical features and management of these patients.
SETTING: Busy city centre general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a 1-month period.
SUBJECTS: One-thousand four hundred and thirty-five acute medical admissions, of whom 40 patients (2.8%) had AF.
RESULTS: Of 1435 acute medical admissions to Kuala Lumpur General Hospital over the 4-week study period, 40 had AF (21 male, 19 female; mean age 65 years). Of these, 18 were Malay, 16 Chinese and six Indian. Nineteen patients had previously known AF (seven with paroxysmal AF) and 21 were newly diagnosed cases. The principal associated medical conditions were ischaemic heart disease (42.5%), hypertension (40%) and heart failure (40%). Dyspnoea was the commonest presentation, whilst stroke was the cause of presentation in only two patients. Investigations were under-utilised, with chest X-ray and echocardiography in only 62.5% of patients and thyroid function checked in 15%. Only 16% of those with previously diagnosed AF were on warfarin, with a further three on aspirin. Anticoagulant therapy was started in 13.5% of patients previously not on warfarin, and aspirin in 8%. Records of contraindications to warfarin were unreliable, being identified in only 25%. For those with known AF, 58% were on digoxin. For new onset AF, digoxin was again the most common rate-limiting treatment, initiated in 38%, whilst five patients with new onset AF were commenced on amiodarone. DC cardioversion was not used in any of the patients with new onset AF.
CONCLUSION: Amongst acute medical admissions to a single centre in Malaysia the prevalence of AF was 2.8%. Consistent with previous similar surveys in mainly western (caucasian) populations, standard investigations in this Malaysian cohort were also inadequate and there was underuse of anticoagulation, medication for ventricular rate control and cardioversion to sinus rhythm.
METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was conducted by inviting pre-dialysis CKD patients. Fluid overload was assessed by BIS.
RESULTS: A total of 312 CKD patients with mean eGFR 24.5 ± 11.2 ml/min/1.73 m2were enrolled. Based on OH value ≥7 %, 135 (43.3 %) patients were hypervolemic while euvolemia was observed in 177 (56.7 %) patients. Patients were categorized in different regions of hydration reference plot (HRP) generated by BIS i.e., 5.1 % in region-N (normal BP and fluid status), 20.5 % in region I (hypertensive with severe fluid overload), 29.5 % in region I-II (hypertensive with mild fluid overload), 22 % in region II (hypertensive with normohydration), 10.2 % in region III (underhydration with normal/low BP) and 12.5 % in region IV (normal BP with severe fluid overload). A total of 144 (46 %) patients received diuretics on basis of physician assessment of BP and edema. Maximum diuretics 100 (69.4 %) were prescribed in patients belonging to regions I and I-II of HRP. Interestingly, a similar number of diuretic prescriptions were observed in region II (13 %) and region IV (12 %). Surprisingly, 7 (4.9 %) of patients in region III who were neither hypervolemic nor hypertensive were also prescribed with diuretics.
CONCLUSION: BIS can aid clinicians to categorize CKD patients on basis of their fluid status and provide individualized pharmacotherapy to manage hypertensive CKD patients.
METHODS: A Markov model of a Malaysian hypothetical cohort aged ≥30 years (N = 14,589,900) was used to estimate the total and per-member-per-month (PMPM) costs of RAS uptake. This involved an incidence and prevalence rate of 9.0% and 10.53% of patients with diabetes and hypertension respectively. Transition probabilities of health stages and costs were adapted from published data.
RESULTS: An increasing uptake of RAS drugs would incur a projected total treatment cost ranged from MYR 4.89 billion (PMPM of MYR 27.95) at Year 1 to MYR 16.26 billion (PMPM of MYR 92.89) at Year 5. This would represent a range of incremental costs between PMPM of MYR 0.20 at Year 1 and PMPM of MYR 1.62 at Year 5. Over the same period, the care costs showed a downward trend but drug acquisition costs were increasing. Sensitivity analyses showed the model was minimally affected by the changes in the input parameters.
CONCLUSION: Mild impact to the overall healthcare budget has been reported with an increased utilization of RAS. The long-term positive health consequences of RAS treatment would reduce the cost of care in preventing deterioration of kidney function, thus offsetting the rising costs of purchasing RAS drugs. Optimizing and increasing use of RAS drugs would be considered an affordable and rational strategy to reduce the overall healthcare costs in Malaysia.
METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).
RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.
METHODS: Women older than 21 years with a histologic diagnosis of ICC and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN 2 or 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)] were enrolled. Cervical specimens were reviewed by histopathologists to confirm the presence of ICC or CIN 2/3/AIS lesion and tested with short PCR fragment 10-DNA enzyme immunoassay-line probe assay for 14 oncogenic HPV types and 11 non-oncogenic HPV types. The prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk HPV types in ICC [including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (ADC/ASC)] and CIN 2/3/AIS was estimated.
RESULTS: In the 5 Asian countries, diagnosis of ICC was confirmed in 500 women [SCC (n = 392) and ADC/ASC (n = 108)], and CIN 2/3/AIS, in 411 women. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 93.8% to 97.0% (84.5% for the Philippines) of confirmed ICC cases [94.0%-98.7% of SCC; 87.0%-94.3% (50.0% for the Philippines) of ADC/ASC] and in 93.7% to 100.0% of CIN 2/3/AIS. The most common types observed among ICC cases were HPV 16 (36.8%-61.3%), HPV 18 (12.9%-35.4%), HPV 52 (5.4%-10.3%), and HPV 45 (1.5%-17.2%), whereas among CIN 2/3/AIS cases, HPV 16 (29.7%-46.6%) was the most commonly observed type followed by HPV 52 (17.0%-66.7%) and HPV 58 (8.6%-16.0%).
CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the data on the HPV prevalence, HPV type distribution, and their role in cervical carcinogenesis in 5 Asian countries. These data are of relevance to public health authorities for evaluating the existing and future cervical cancer prevention strategies including HPV-DNA testing-based screening and HPV vaccination in these Asian populations.