Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2690 in total

  1. Ang, Grace, Jacqueline Maryam Kamaluddin, Wizziyiane Ahmad, Uday Kumar Umesan, Siti Waznah Wahab, Naing, Lin
    his study assesses inter-examiner reproducibility in recording various malocclusion parameters and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) grade during patient examination by utilising the kappa statistic. Five previously calibrated orthodontists clinically examined 233 non-orthodontically treated schoolchildren aged 14-17 years for recording various malocclusion parameters. The examination was repeated twice, thirty days apart and precluded the use of study-models or radiographs. Although good inter-examiner reproducibility was observed in recording incisor class, IOTN dental health grade, type of posterior crossbite, and excellent for parameters with absolute criteria like
    erupted supernumeraries, etc, substantial examiner variation resulted in only fair reproducibility for recording IOTN esthetic category, canine class, overbite category, traumatic overbite and upper centre-line shift of two millimetres or more from the facial midline. Reproducibility for detecting occlusal displacement in the presence of crossbite was poor, and kappa statistic was incalculable for recording openbite and number of upper incisors rotated 30° or more. Kappa was also incalculable for recording IOTN dental health subcategory due to the creation of asymmetric tables caused by rarely chosen subcategory options. Despite prior agreement between previously calibrated examiners on evaluation criteria, detection of certain malocclusion parameters during an epidemiological examination can prove to be challenging. Epidemiological studies that report on prevalence of malocclusion in the population should always report on the kappa reproducibility, especially if the study is carried out by multiple examiners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  2. Ishii H
    Nippon Rinsho, 2006 Jun;64(6):1017-9.
    PMID: 16768103
    In Japan, much attention has been paid to NASH and NAFLD for the past several years and the prevalence of this disease entity has been estimated, and NASH is thought to be present in 10% of those who have fatty liver diseases. Other points out the prevalence of NASH in Japan as 6 to 8 hundred thousand patients. The last two or three decades have seen the evolution of Western-style life of near complete inactivity, energy-dense food choices and liberal fiscal resources to obtain them and other means to avoid physical activity. Moreover, what is increasingly apparent is that NASH and NAFLD is not a Western disease and many population groups in the Asia-Pacific region are particularly prone to type 2 diabetes. Thus, it is not surprising that NASH has increasingly been diagnosed in several regions in Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  3. ISBN: 978 92 906 1766 2
    Citation: Youth and Tobacco in the Western Pacific Region: Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005–2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016

    Study name: Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  4. Sopian IL, Shahabudin S, Ahmed MA, Lung LT, Sandai D
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):27-34.
    PMID: 27540323 MyJurnal
    Vaginal yeast infection refers to irritation of the vagina due to the presence of opportunistic yeast of the genus Candida (mostly Candida albicans). About 75% of women will have at least one episode of vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. Several studies have shown that pregnancy and uncontrolled diabetes increase the infection risk. Reproductive hormone fluctuations during pregnancy and elevated glucose levels characteristic of diabetes provide the carbon needed for Candida overgrowth and infection. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginal yeast infection among pregnant women with and without diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  5. Capuano C, Ozaki M
    J Trop Med, 2011;2011:642832.
    PMID: 22235208 DOI: 10.1155/2011/642832
    Until the middle of the 20th century, yaws was highly endemic and considered a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), leading to intensive control efforts in the 1950s-1960s. Since then, little attention has been paid to its reemergence. Its current burden is unknown. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review, focusing on yaws in the South Pacific. Available records suggest that the region remains largely free of yaws except for Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Many clinical cases reported recently were described as "attenuated"; advanced stages are rare. A single intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin is still effective in curing yaws. In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adequate resources are provided and political commitment revived. A mapping of yaws prevalence in PNG, Solomon, and Vanuatu is needed before comprehensive country-tailored strategies towards yaws elimination can be developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  6. Shahrizaila N, Samulong S, Tey S, Suan LC, Meng LK, Goh KJ, et al.
    Muscle Nerve, 2014 Feb;49(2):198-201.
    PMID: 23649551 DOI: 10.1002/mus.23892
    Data regarding Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is lacking in Southeast Asian populations. We investigated the frequency of the common genetic mutations in a multiethnic Malaysian cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  7. Haque E, Banik U, Monwar T, Anthony L, Adhikary AK
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(3):e0194516.
    PMID: 29590206 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194516
    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs. HAdV-3 has recently become the major agent of acute respiratory infection worldwide, being responsible for 15% to 87% of all adenoviral respiratory infections. However, despite the increased prevalence of HAdV-3 as respiratory pathogen, the diversity of hexon proteins in circulating strains remains unexplored. This study was designed to explore the variation in HVRs of hexon among globally distributed strains of HAdV-3 as well as to discover possible relationship among them, thus possibly shedding light on the cause for the increased prevalence of HAdV-3. In this study, for the first time we analysed the hexon proteins of all 248 available strains of HAdV-3 from the NCBI database and compared them with those of the HAdV-3 prototype (GB stain). We found that the HVRs of HAdV-3 strains circulating worldwide were highly heterogeneous and have been mutating continuously since -their original isolation. Based on their immense heterogeneity, the strains can be categorized into 25 hexon variants (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-25), 4 of which (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-4) comprises 80% of the strains. This heterogeneity may explain why HAdV-3 has become the most prevalent HAdVs type worldwide. The heterogeneity of hexon proteins also shows that the development of a vaccine against HAdV-3 might be challenging. The data on hexon variants provided here may be useful for the future epidemiological study of HAdV-3 infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  8. Barber BE, Rajahram GS, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM
    Malar. J., 2017 03 31;16(1):135.
    PMID: 28359340 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-017-1787-y
    BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report.

    MAIN TEXT: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation.

    CONCLUSION: The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  9. Chan CMH, Wong JE, Yeap LLL, Wee LH, Jamil NA, Swarna Nantha Y
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):608.
    PMID: 31196025 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6859-1
    BACKGROUND: 1Little is known of the extent of workplace bullying in Malaysia, despite its growing recognition worldwide as a serious public health issue in the workplace. Workplace bullying is linked to stress-related health issues, as well as socioeconomic consequences which may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. We sought to examine the prevalence of workplace bullying and its association with socioeconomic factors and psychological distress in a large observational study of Malaysian employees.

    METHODS: This study employed cross-sectional, self-reported survey methodology. We used the 6-item Kessler screening scale (K6) to assess psychological distress (cutoff score ≥ 13, range 0-24, with higher scores indicating greater psychological distress). Participants self-reported their perceptions of whether they had been bullied at work and how frequently this occurred. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted with ever bullying and never bullying as dichotomous categories.

    RESULTS: There were a total of 5235 participants (62.3% female). Participant ages ranged from 18 to 85, mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD): 33.88 ± 8.83. A total of 2045 (39.1%) participants reported ever being bullied. Of these, 731 (14.0%) reported being subject to at least occasional bullying, while another 194 (3.7%) reported it as a common occurrence. Across all income strata, mean scores for psychological distress were significantly higher for ever bullied employees (M ± SD: 8.69 ± 4.83) compared to those never bullied (M ± SD: 5.75 ± 4.49). Regression analysis indicated significant associations (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  10. Emilia, Z.A., Noor Hassim, I.
    Background: A cross-sectional study on work-related stressors among nurses in a public teaching hospital had also attempted to explore functions of coping strategies in determining stress.
    Materials and Methods: A structured bilingual questionnaire (English-Malay) on symptoms and sources of stress, and coping style measure was disseminated to medical and surgical nurses working in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Socio demographic information and stress management methods were inquired. Frequency in workplace stressors were assessed using Nursing Stress Scale. Stress symptoms and home-life stressors were evaluated using Personal Stress Inventory. Measurement of coping strategies was performed using Coping Orientation for Problems Experienced questionnaire.
    Results: A total of 181 questionnaires were disseminated and 151 (83.4%) were satisfactorily completed by nurses. It was found that the prevalence of work-related stress among medical and surgical nurses was 49.3% (N=74/150). Analysis of dichotomized outcome (between Stress and No stress group) illustrated high workload (t-value=4.122; p
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  11. Roseni Abdul Aziz, Mat Rebi Abdul Rani, Jafri Mohd Rohani, Ademola James Adeyemi
    Studies have identified working postures as a major risk factors associated with Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) in industries. This study investigated the prevalence of WMSD among assembly workers in Malaysia and how psychosocial factors such as personal values and workers relationship with family and superior are associated with discomfort and pain. A survey was conducted among 127 workers at assembly process in the manufacturing industry. The workers were aged 28.74±6.74 years and 64.6% of them were males. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effect of workplace factors on WMSD at different body regions. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to investigate association between psychosocial factors and occurrence of discomfort and pain. Only occupation and job activities revealed any significant different with WMSD in the major body regions while there was no significant difference in gender, age and work duration classifications. Shoulder painis the most prevalent in terms of frequency and intensity of occurrence. Psychosocial issues that have to do with person values, effect of job on family relationship and workers rapport with superiors are all found to be associated with the discomfort and pain among the occupational group. Employers and concerned government agencies need to take more proactive steps in tackling the problem as the occurrence of WMSD will have a significant effect on the overall wellbeing of the working population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  12. Al-Husuny, A., Rampal, L., Manohar, A.
    Work-Related Hand Injuries (WRHIs) may result in disability and diminished productivity and cause economic impacts not only to the individual, worker’s families and industries, but to the local community as well.
    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of severe Work-Related Hand Injuries (WRHIs) and factors associated at a tertiary hospital.
    Methods: A pre-tested validated questionnaire was used to obtain data. All patients 18 years and above with WRHIs seen at a tertiary hospital between January 2010 and June 2010 were included in the study. Data was analysed using SPSS version 18.
    Results: Out of the 297 industrial accidents, 74 (24.9%) were WRHIs. Among those with WRHIs, (47.3%) of them had severe hand injuries. The overall mean age of the respondents was 30.36 (± 9.54 SD) years. Majority (82.5%) of the injuries occurred between Mondays to Friday. Majority (70.1%) of hand injuries were caused by machine and 48.6% of the hand injuries occurred when the hand was caught in the operating part of the machine. Majority (62.1%) of the respondents had fingers’ injuries and 32.4% had open fracture. Bivariate analysis showed that there was significant association between severity of WRHIs and locations of injury, mechanisms of injury, sources of injury and sectors of industry (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that WRHIs was significantly associated with source of injury and sector of industry. Respondents with hand injury resulted while operating on mechanical machine was 26 times more likely to report severe WRHIs than those with other sources of their hand injury like (sharp tool, heavy door, and wet floor). Respondents working in metal-machinery industries were eight times more likely to report severe WRHIs than those who working in other sectors of industry like (wood-furniture, constriction, food preparing, service and automotive).
    Conclusions: WRHIs contributed to 24.9% of all industrial accidents seen at the emergency department and orthopaedic clinic and 47.3% of the respondents with WRHIs had severe hand injuries. Severity of WRHIs was significantly associated with sources of injury and sectors of industry.
    Study site: emergency room, orthopaedic ward, general surgery ward and the orthopaedic outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  13. Sethu, V.S.
    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb (WRMSDs-UL) account for one of the largest types of occupational disorders worldwide. This broad term includes several disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, tension neck syndrome and lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) which are generally caused by poor postures, repetitive strain and psychosocial factors. Various workplace interventions have been investigated and employed to prevent the different WRMSDs-UL, but a common consensus to address the problem has yet to be achieved. This paper reviews and discusses the efficacies of some interventions which have been tested for the most prevalent type of WRMSDs-UL, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The focus will be on computer users who developed CTS out of the prolonged and repetitive use of keyboards and pointing devices. The interventions studied include engineering design, management strategies, personal development, medical treatment and multi-dimensional approaches. Outcome of the study reveals that the most effective approach would be one that is multi-dimensional in nature, with the inclusion of at least two or more intervention strategies at the same time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  14. Heidari M, Borujeni MG, Rezaei P, Kabirian Abyaneh S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Mar;26(2):122-130.
    PMID: 31447615 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.2.13
    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in nursing are regarded as an important factor for creating tension since they may often cause discontent, leave profession, and provide incorrect services to their clients. The present study aimed to determine WMSDs and their related factors among the nursing staff in university hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS).

    Methods: In the present descriptive cross-sectional study, 300 nurses in SUMS were selected based on systematic random sampling. To this aim, demographic information, and Nordic musculoskeletal disorder questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were analysed by descriptive and analytical tests (mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, and ANOVA) by SPSS/21 software.

    Results: Based on the findings of WMSDs, low back disorders (88.33%) were more prevalent. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between WMSDs in different areas of the body with age, sex, and work experience and hours (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of WMSDs among nurses, it is recommended to adopt interventional program for preventing WMSDs by reducing working hours and physical pressure control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  15. Premalatha GD, Noor Hassim I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):247-56.
    PMID: 10972037
    A total of 323 workers from 5 different occupational groups in the telecommunication industry were studied in this cross sectional study, which sought to determine the prevalence of Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULD) in 5 occupational groups; operators using the Video Display Terminals, switchboard operators, clerks, data entry processors and the supervisors. WRULD was also studied with regard to factors such as sex, race, height, age, stress and the discomfort perceived due to the work station design. The possibility of WRULD was determined from a self-administered questionnaire and confirmed by history and physical examination. Psychological stress and the discomfort due to the workstation were measured from the questionnaire. The overall prevalence was found to be 31.2% and the prevalence among the various occupations differed with it being the highest in the switchboard operators and data processors and the lowest in the supervisors. The older workers and the female workers were found to have higher prevalences of WRULD. It was also found that a higher stress score and a higher score of discomfort perceived at the work station were associated with higher prevalences of WRULD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  16. Abu Bakar F, Shaharir SS, Mohd R, Kamaruzaman L, Mohamed Said MS
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2019 Jun;22(6):1002-1007.
    PMID: 30968556 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.13572
    AIM: To determine the prevalence of work disability (WD) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its associated factors.

    METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving SLE patients aged 18-56 years from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Employment history was obtained from clinical interviews. WD was defined as unemployment, interruption of employment or premature cessation of employment due to SLE at any time after the diagnosis. SLE disease characteristics, presence of organ damage and Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) flare index were determined from the medical records. Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was performed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Demographic factors, disease characteristics, and QoL were compared between patients with and without WD using statistical analyses.

    RESULTS: A total of 215 patients were recruited and the majority were Malay (60.5%), followed by Chinese (33.5%), Indian (4.5%) and others (n = 4, 1.9%). The prevalence of WD was 43.2% (n = 93) with 22.3% (n = 48) patients were unemployed at the time of study. Over half the patients with WD (n = 51, 54.8%) had onset of disability at <5 years from diagnosis. Patients with WD had significantly lower health-related QoL. The independent factors associated with WD were SLEDAI score at diagnosis, frequency of flare, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics score, being married, had lower education and lupus nephritis.

    CONCLUSION: We found a high rate of WD in patients with SLE and it was significantly associated with SLE-related factors, in particular higher disease activity, presence of renal involvement and organ damage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  17. Swee, W.F., Anza, E., Noor Hassim, I.
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(1):93-98.
    A cross sectional study on work stress prevalence was carried out among 185 executives and managers in the head quarter of an international tobacco company. The aim of the study was to identify work stress prevalence in this company and work stressors that were associated with stress experienced by the workers. A questionnaire based on the Personal Stress Inventory by O'Donell (1984) was used. Data collected from participants included sociodemography factors, symptoms of stress and work stressors related to organizational policy, organizational structure, organizational process, and work environment. The study showed that the prevalence of stress among executives was 68.1% and managers were 67.9%. There was no significant difference in the level of stress between the executives and the managers in the company. The sociodemographic factors that were significantly associated with stress were salary, number of children and personal factors. The significant stressors in the workplace were lack of job recognition, over focusing on quality of work, heavy workload and long working hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  18. Rajadurai J, Lopez EA, Rahajoe AU, Goh PP, Uboldejpracharak Y, Zambahari R
    Nat Rev Cardiol, 2012 Aug;9(8):464-77.
    PMID: 22525668 DOI: 10.1038/nrcardio.2012.59
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  19. Jan Mohamed HJ, Mitra AK, Zainuddin LR, Leng SK, Wan Muda WM
    Women Health, 2013;53(4):335-48.
    PMID: 23751089 DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2013.788120
    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
  20. Culbert GJ, Waluyo A, Iriyanti M, Muchransyah AP, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2015 Apr 1;149:71-9.
    PMID: 25659895 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.018
    In Indonesia, incarceration of people who inject drugs (PWID) and access to drugs in prison potentiate within-prison drug injection (WP-DI), a preventable and extremely high-risk behavior that may contribute substantially to HIV transmission in prison and communities to which prisoners are released.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prevalence
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