Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 576 in total

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  1. Ab Rahman AA, Al-Sadat N, Low WY
    Journal of Men's Health, 2011;8 Suppl 1:S94-S96.
    DOI: 10.1016/S1875-6867(11)60033-X
    Background: To examine the self-reported erectile problem and help-seeking behaviour among men.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1331 men aged 40 years and above who attended public primary care clinics in an urban district in Malaysia. Questions were asked regarding presence of erectile problem, help-seeking behaviour and treatment sought.
    Results: The mean age was 54.7 (±8.3), ranging from 40 to 79 years. Among the subjects, 69.5% (n = 925) had erectile dysfunction (ED); however, only 54.8% reported having difficulty with erection. The subjects with severe ED had higher proportion of self-reported ED (90.8%) than moderate (75.7%) and mild ED (27.4%). More than two-third of the subjects (67.2%) have spoken to someone about their difficulty; of these, 54.1% spoke to their spouse or partner, 6.3% to friends and 5.3% to family members. Only 32.4% had initiated the discussion with their doctor, whereas only 10.5% reported that their doctor had raised the issue. Among the men who did not seek any help, reasons were: ED normal part of aging (37.9%), due to health condition (32.2%), ED was caused by medication (9.4%) and they were embarrassed (7.3%). Only 4.4% had sought treatment. More than one third participants (35%) had used Sildenafil while most had used other traditional medicines such as Tongkat Ali, massage and Chinese herbs.
    Conclusions: Self-reported erectile problem among men is common. However, ED is not a health condition that patients would commonly discuss with their doctors despite the fact that they are already seeing doctors for various other medical reasons. © 2011 WPMH GmbH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Ab Rahman N, Sivasampu S, Mohamad Noh K, Khoo EM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2016 06 14;16:197.
    PMID: 27301972 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1444-0
    BACKGROUND: The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care.

    RESULTS: Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters.

    CONCLUSIONS: More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public clinics suggests a need for improved access to maternal care and pregnancy related care. This has implication on policy and health care provision and access for foreigners and future studies are needed to look into strategies to solve these problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/utilization; Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Abd Aziz A, Izyan Farhana Nordin N, Mohd Noor N, Bachok N, Nor Ismalina Isa S
    Fam Pract, 2014 Apr;31(2):236-44.
    PMID: 24317538 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmt062
    Background. Patient satisfaction influences the outcomes of the patient-physician encounter.
    Objective. The objective of this study was to validate the Malay version patient satisfaction
    (MISS-21) questionnaire using a confirmatory validity approach.
    Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 252 patients attending primary health
    clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Construct validity (convergent and discriminant) using
    confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content
    validity and face validity processes. Criterion validity was assessed using Pearson correlations
    with the scale of shared decision making 9-item questionnaire (SDMQ-9). The data was
    analysed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 19.
    Results. A total of 252 (100%) outpatients responded to this study. The final model that consists
    of three domains with 11 items had a good fit; (χ2
    (df) = 65.805 (32), P health care setting because it is acceptably valid, reliable and simple. The validated Malay version
    questionnaire was called as ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11’.
    Key words: Confirmatory factor analysis, patient-physician interaction, patient satisfaction, psychometrics, reliability, validity
    Questionnaire: ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11; Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale; MISS-21

    Study site: Primary health clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  4. Abd Razak MA, Ahmad NA, Chan YY, Mohamad Kasim N, Yusof M, Abdul Ghani MKA, et al.
    Public Health, 2019 Apr;169:84-92.
    PMID: 30826688 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2019.01.001
    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to provide updated and comprehensive evidence on the validity and feasibility of screening tools for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among the elderly at primary healthcare level.

    STUDY DESIGN: A review of articles was performed.

    METHODS: A search strategy was used by using electronic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL for published studies and reference list of published studies. The articles were exported to a bibliographic database for further screening process. Two reviewers worked independently to screen results and extract data from the included studies. Any discrepancies were resolved and confirmed by the consensus of all authors.

    RESULTS: There were three screening approaches for detecting MCI and dementia - screening by a healthcare provider, screening by a self-administered questionnaire and caretaker informant screening. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was the most common and preferable tool for MCI screening (sensitivity [Sn]: 81-97%; specificity [Sp]: 60-86%), whereas Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) was the preferable tool for dementia screening (Sn: 79-100%; Sp: 86%).

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review found that there are three screening approaches for detecting early dementia and MCI at primary health care. ACE and MoCA are recommended tools for screening of dementia and MCI, respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  5. Abdul Aziz AF, Mohd Nordin NA, Abd Aziz N, Abdullah S, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:40.
    PMID: 24580779 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-40
    BACKGROUND: Provision of post stroke care in developing countries is hampered by discoordination of services and limited access to specialised care. Albeit shortcomings, primary care continues to provide post-stroke services in less than favourable circumstances. This paper aimed to review provision of post-stroke care and related problems among Family Medicine Specialists managing public primary health care services.
    METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed to 121 Family Physicians servicing public funded health centres in a pilot survey focused on improving post stroke care provision at community level. The questionnaire assessed respondents background and practice details i.e. estimated stroke care burden, current service provision and opinion on service improvement. Means and frequencies described quantitative data. For qualitative data, constant comparison method was used until saturation of themes was reached.
    RESULTS: Response rate of 48.8% was obtained. For every 100 patients seen at public healthcentres each month, 2 patients have stroke. Median number of stroke patients seen per month is 5 (IQR 2-10). 57.6% of respondents estimated total stroke patients treated per year at each centre was less than 40 patients. 72.4% lacked a standard care plan although 96.6% agreed one was needed. Patients seen were: discharged from tertiary care (88.1%), shared care plan with specialists (67.8%) and patients who developed stroke during follow up at primary care (64.4%). Follow-ups were done at 8-12 weekly intervals (60.3%) with 3.4% on 'as needed' basis. Referrals ranked in order of frequency were to physiotherapy services, dietitian and speech and language pathologists in public facilities. The FMS' perceived 4 important 'needs' in managing stroke patients at primary care level; access to rehabilitation services, coordinated care between tertiary centres and primary care using multidisciplinary care approach, a standardized guideline and family and caregiver support.
    CONCLUSIONS: Post discharge stroke care guidelines and access to rehabilitation services at primary care is needed for post stroke patients residing at home in the community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  6. Abdul Aziz AF, Hamzah Z, Tong SF, Nadeson S, Wan Puteh SE
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2009 May 12;8(1):4.
    PMID: 19435494 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-8-4
    BACKGROUND: Optimum management of dyspepsia in primary care is a debatable subject. Testing for Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been recommended in primary care as this strategy will cure most underlying peptic ulcer disease and prevent future gastro duodenal disease.

    METHODS: A total of 98 patients completed Modified Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score Questionnaire (MGDSSQ) at initial presentation before undergoing the 13Carbon Urea Breath Test (UBT) for HP. Those with positive UBT received Eradication Therapy with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, Clarithromycin 500 mg daily and Amoxycillin 500 mg twice daily for one week followed by Omeprazole to be completed for another 4 to 6 weeks. Those with negative UBT received empirical treatment with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for 4 to 6 weeks. Patients were assessed again using the MGDSSQ at the completion of treatment and one month after stopping treatment.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of dyspepsia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia-Primary Care Centre was 1.12% (124/11037), out of which 23.5% (23/98) was due to HP. Post treatment assessment in both HP (95.7%, 22/23) and non HP-related dyspepsia (86.7%, 65/75) groups showed complete or almost complete resolution of dyspepsia. Only about 4.3% (1/23) in the HP related dyspepsia and 13.3% (10/75) in the non HP group required endoscopy.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dyspepsia due to HP in this primary care centre was 23.5%. Detection of HP related dyspepsia yielded good treatment outcomes (95.7%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  7. Abdul Aziz AF, Mohd Nordin NA, Ali MF, Abd Aziz NA, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2017 Jan 13;17(1):35.
    PMID: 28086871 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1963-8
    BACKGROUND: Lack of intersectoral collaboration within public health sectors compound efforts to promote effective multidisciplinary post stroke care after discharge following acute phase. A coordinated, primary care-led care pathway to manage post stroke patients residing at home in the community was designed by an expert panel of specialist stroke care providers to help overcome fragmented post stroke care in areas where access is limited or lacking.

    METHODS: Expert panel discussions comprising Family Medicine Specialists, Neurologists, Rehabilitation Physicians and Therapists, and Nurse Managers from Ministry of Health and acadaemia were conducted. In Phase One, experts chartered current care processes in public healthcare facilities, from acute stroke till discharge and also patients who presented late with stroke symptoms to public primary care health centres. In Phase Two, modified Delphi technique was employed to obtain consensus on recommendations, based on current evidence and best care practices. Care algorithms were designed around existing work schedules at public health centres.

    RESULTS: Indication for patients eligible for monitoring by primary care at public health centres were identified. Gaps in transfer of care occurred either at post discharge from acute care or primary care patients diagnosed at or beyond subacute phase at health centres. Essential information required during transfer of care from tertiary care to primary care providers was identified. Care algorithms including appropriate tools were summarised to guide primary care teams to identify patients requiring further multidisciplinary interventions. Shared care approaches with Specialist Stroke care team were outlined. Components of the iCaPPS were developed simultaneously: (i) iCaPPS-Rehab© for rehabilitation of stroke patients at community level (ii) iCaPPS-Swallow© guided the primary care team to screen and manage stroke related swallowing problems.

    CONCLUSION: Coordinated post stroke care monitoring service for patients at community level is achievable using the iCaPPS and its components as a guide. The iCaPPS may be used for post stroke care monitoring of patients in similar fragmented healthcare delivery systems or areas with limited access to specialist stroke care services.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.: ACTRN12616001322426 (Registration Date: 21st September 2016).
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  8. Abdul Aziz AF, Ali MF, Yusof MF, Che' Man Z, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    Sci Rep, 2018 12 19;8(1):17965.
    PMID: 30568180 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36154-0
    Data on post stroke outcomes in developing countries are scarce due to uncoordinated healthcare delivery systems. In Malaysia, the national stroke clinical practice guideline does not address transfer of care and longer term post stroke care beyond tertiary care. Hence, post stroke care delivery may be delivered at either tertiary or primary care facilities. This study aimed at describing patients' characteristics and outcomes of post stroke care delivered by the primary care teams at public primary care healthcentres across Peninsular Malaysia. Multi staged sampling was done to select public primary care health centres to recruit post stroke patients. At each health centre, convenience sampling was done to recruit adult patients (≥18 years) who received post stroke care between July-December 2012. Baseline measurements were recorded at recruitment and retrospective medical record review was done simultaneously, for details on medical and / or rehabilitation treatment at health centre. Changes in the measurements for post stroke care were compared using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Rank test where appropriate. Total of 151 patients were recruited from ten public primary care healthcentres. The mean age at stroke presentation was 55.8 ± 9.8 years. Median duration of follow up was 2.3 (IQR 5.1) years. Majority co-resided with a relative (80.8%), and a family member was primary caregiver (75.%). Eleven percent were current smokers. Almost 71.0% of patients achieved BP ≤ 140/90 mmHg. Only 68.9% of the patients had been referred for neurorehabilitation. Percentage of recorded data was highest for blood pressure (88.1%) while lowest was HbA1c (43.0%). For clinical outcomes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride level and calculated GFR (eGFR) showed statistically significant changes during follow up (p care at public primary care healthcentres showed benefits in stroke risk factors control (i.e. hypertension and dyslipidaemia) but deterioration in renal function. A more structured coordination is needed to optimise post stroke care beyond acute phase management for patients who reside at home in the community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Abdul Aziz AF, Mohd Nordin NA, Muhd Nur A, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    BMC Geriatr, 2020 02 18;20(1):70.
    PMID: 32070291 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-1453-z
    BACKGROUND: The delivery of post stroke care is fragmented even in advanced public healthcare systems, globally. Primary care teams are entrusted to provide longer term care for stroke survivors in most developing countries. The integrated Care Pathway for Post Stroke patients (iCaPPS©) was designed to guide primary care teams to incorporate further rehabilitation and regular screening for post stroke complications among patients residing at home in communities, using the shared-care approach, especially in areas with limited access to specialist stroke care services. The iCaPPS© addressed coordination of rehabilitation and screening for post stroke complications which were absent in the current conventional care of patients managed at public primary care healthcentres. This study aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of iCaPPS© on quality-adjusted- life-years (QALY) compared with current conventional monitoring at public primary care healthcentres.

    METHODS: A pragmatic healthcentre-based cluster randomised controlled trial-within trial on 151 post stroke patients from 10 public primary care facilities in Peninsular Malaysia was conducted to evaluate QALY of patients managed with iCaPPS© (n = 86) vs conventional care (n = 65) for 6 months. Costs from societal perspective were calculated, using combination of top down and activity-based costing methods. The 5-level EQ5D (EQ-5D-5 L) was used to calculate health state utility scores. Cost per QALY and incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) were determined. Differences within groups were determined using Mann-Whitney tests.

    RESULTS: Total costs for 6 months treatment with iCaPPS© was MYR790.34, while conventional care cost MYR527.22. Median QALY for iCaPPS© was 0.55 (0,1.65) compared to conventional care 0.32 (0, 0.73) (z = - 0.21, p = 0.84). Cost per QALY for iCaPPS© was MYR1436.98, conventional care was MYR1647.56. The ICER was MYR1144.00, equivalent to 3.7% of per capita GDP (2012 prices).

    CONCLUSIONS: Management of post stroke patients in the community using iCaPPS© costs less per QALY compared to current conventional care and is very cost effective.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration number ACTRN12616001322426. Registered 21 September 2016. (Retrospectively registered).

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  10. Abdul Aziz AF, Tan CE, Ali MF, Aljunid SM
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2020 Jun 20;18(1):193.
    PMID: 32563246 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-020-01450-9
    BACKGROUND: Satisfaction with post stroke services would assist stakeholders in addressing gaps in service delivery. Tools used to evaluate satisfaction with stroke care services need to be validated to match healthcare services provided in each country. Studies on satisfaction with post discharge stroke care delivery in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are scarce, despite knowledge that post stroke care delivery is fragmented and poorly coordinated. This study aims to modify and validate the HomeSat subscale of the Dutch Satisfaction with Stroke Care-19 (SASC-19) questionnaire for use in Malaysia and in countries with similar public healthcare services in the region.

    METHODS: The HomeSat subscale of the Dutch SASC-19 questionnaire (11 items) underwent back-to-back translation to produce a Malay language version. Content validation was done by Family Medicine Specialists involved in community post-stroke care. Community social support services in the original questionnaire were substituted with equivalent local services to ensure contextual relevance. Internal consistency reliability was determined using Cronbach alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was done to validate the factor structure of the Malay version of the questionnaire (SASC10-My™). The SASC10-My™ was then tested on 175 post-stroke patients who were recruited at ten public primary care healthcentres across Peninsular Malaysia, in a trial-within a trial study.

    RESULTS: One item from the original Dutch SASC19 (HomeSat) was dropped. Internal consistency for remaining 10 items was high (Cronbach alpha 0.830). Exploratory factor analysis showed the SASC10-My™ had 2 factors: discharge transition and social support services after discharge. The mean total score for SASC10-My™ was 10.74 (SD 7.33). Overall, only 18.2% were satisfied with outpatient stroke care services (SASC10-My™ score ≥ 20). Detailed analysis revealed only 10.9% of respondents were satisfied with discharge transition services, while only 40.9% were satisfied with support services after discharge.

    CONCLUSIONS: The SASC10-My™ questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool to measure caregiver or patient satisfaction with outpatient stroke care services in the Malaysian healthcare setting. Studies linking discharge protocol patterns and satisfaction with outpatient stroke care services should be conducted to improve care delivery and longer-term outcomes.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.: ACTRN12616001322426 (Registration Date: 21st September 2016.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Abdul Kadir A, Nordin R, Ismail SB, Yaacob MJ, Wan Mahmud WMR
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND), and associated risk factors among women in Kota Bharu District, Kelantan. Design: A cohort study Methods: A study involving four hundred and twenty one pregnant women attending primary health care facilities in Kota Bharu between February and September 2000 were screened for depression at 36-42 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week postpartum and 4-6 weeks postpartum using validated Malay version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Results: Three hundred and seventy seven women successfully completed the EPDS (response rate = 89.8%). The prevalence of PND at 4-6 weeks postpartum, based on an EPDS score of 12 and above, was 20.7%. Depressive symptoms at the end of pregnancy (p<0.05) and one week postnatal (p<0.05) were significantly associated with PND. Conclusions: PND among women in Kota Bharu was 20.7%, which was higher than previously reported studies. Onset of depressive symptoms towards the end of pregnancy and early postnatal period independently predicted postnatal depression. © 2005 Japan International Cultural Exchange Foundation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  12. Abdul Rahman NF, Ibrahim Azmi M
    MyJurnal
    Breaking bad news is a crucial communication delivered by healthcare professionals. This skill was
    taught in Management and Science University, Malaysia using lecture previously. Realising the
    instructional delivery gap, breaking bad news workshops was introduced involving not only the theory
    of the skills but the hands on experience as well. This workshop incorporated peer-assisted learning
    method in providing a friendly and conducive environment for the best learning experience for the
    students. Five workshops were conducted with a total of 204 students. Students (n = 38–42 per
    session) were given materials a week prior to the session to familiarise themselves with the workshop.
    Trained peer-assisted tutors (n = 8) guided role-playing sessions as well as giving feedbacks. Students
    found that the workshop to be useful adjunct to learning communication skills, specifically in breaking
    bad news. Students considered peer-assisted learning method provided them with a safe environment
    where mistakes were allowed, corrected and proper skills reiterated. In conclusion, learning breaking
    bad news is feasible with peer-assistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  13. Abdul Rahman NF, Albualy R
    MyJurnal
    Situated learning characterises the learning that takes place in the clinical environment. Learning in the workplace is characterised by transferring classroom knowledge into performing tasks and this may take various forms. In the medical education field, the cognitive apprenticeship instructional model developed by Collins (2016) supported this learning in the workplace setting due to its common characteristics of apprenticeship. This paper analysed two concrete learning situations in a Malaysian undergraduate and an Omani postgraduate learning environment. Both learning situations occurred in the primary healthcare outpatient setting. The cognitive apprenticeship model was used to identify characteristics of the individual learning environments and discusses factors that stimulate learning. Attention was paid to the role of reflection in stimulating learning in the described settings. The paper provided the context in both institutes, described the learning situation and provided an analysis based on the theoretical framework. Based on the analysis of the situations, solutions to problems in the two settings were suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  14. Abdullah A, Othman S
    BMC Fam Pract, 2011;12:143.
    PMID: 22208768 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-143
    BACKGROUND:
    Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is gaining popularity among hypertensive patients. This study aimed to explore the influence of self-initiated HBPM on primary care patients with hypertension.
    METHODS:
    Six in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted, taking into consideration the experiences of 24 primary care patients with hypertension. These patients had been using HBPM as part of their hypertension management. The overriding influences were grouped under themes which emerged from analyzing the data using the grounded theory approach.
    RESULTS:
    There are both positive and negative influences of self-initiated HBPM. Patients used the readings of their HBPM to decide on many aspects of their hypertension management. The HBPM readings both influenced their adherence to diet and exercise and provided certain reassurance when they experienced symptoms. In addition, the act of discussing their HBPM readings with their health care providers resulted in an enhanced doctor-patient therapeutic relationship. Nevertheless, HBPM created confusion at times in some patients, particularly with regard to the target blood pressure level and the need for medication. This led to some patients making their own medical decisions based on their own standards.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    HBPM is becoming an integral part of hypertension management. Primary care patients who self-initiated HBPM reported being more self-efficacious, but lack of participation and guidance from their doctors created confusion, and hindered the true benefit of HBPM.

    Study site: urban primary care clinic, located within the University Malaya Medical Centre
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  15. Abdullah A, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Ambigapathy S, V P, Chinna K
    BMJ Open, 2020 11 14;10(11):e039864.
    PMID: 33191262 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039864
    OBJECTIVE: Limited health literacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) led to poorer diabetes knowledge, less medication adherence and increased healthcare cost. The purpose of this paper was to report the prevalence of limited health literacy in patients with T2DM and to identify factors that are associated with it.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2018; data on patients' sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes knowledge, perceived social support and health literacy level were collected. Health literacy level was measured using the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47).

    SETTING: Patients were recruited from four primary care clinics in Perak, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients diagnosed with T2DM who attended the study clinics during the study period.

    PRIMARY OUTCOME VARIABLE: Patients with HLS-EU-Q47 General Index of ≤33 points were classified as having limited health literacy.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of limited health literacy was 65.3% (n=279). In bivariate analysis, patients' ethnicity (p=0.04), highest education level (p<0.001), monthly income (p=0.003), having health insurance (p=0.007), English language fluency (p<0.001), Malay language fluency (p=0.021), attending diabetes education sessions (p<0.001), perceived social support (p<0.001) and diabetes knowledge (p=0.019) were factors associated with limited health literacy. In logistic regression, not being fluent in English was associated with limited health literacy (OR=2.36, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.30) whereas having high perceived social support (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.69) and having attended diabetes education sessions (OR=0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.68) were associated with adequate health literacy.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of limited health literacy is high among patients with T2DM in Perak, Malaysia. Strategies to improve health literacy in these patients must consider the influences of English fluency, attendance at diabetes education sessions and social support, and may need to adopt a universal approach to addressing limited health literacy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  16. Abdullah Aszrin, Shah M. Azarisman, Rahman A. Jamaluddin, Razak A. Tariq, Noor M. Noriah
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Prehypertension precedes overt hypertension and has been acknowledged by many guidelines.
    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Malaysia. Hypertension prevalence is
    at 42.6% and population-based control is poor at 26.8%. The objective of the study is to ascertain the
    cardiovascular risk profile of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive young adults against age-matched
    controls in rural Malaysia. Methods: 484 (four hundred and eighty four) subjects attending primary care
    clinic were screened. 91 (Ninety one) young adults with pre/mild hypertension and normotensive, agematched controls were enrolled. The blood pressure and biochemical profiles for both groups were assessed
    and compared. Results: Fifty-four subjects and 37 controls were enrolled. Amongst subjects, 46.3% had
    prehypertension and 53.7% had mild hypertension. Mean values compared to age-matched controls for MAP
    were 102.68 ± 7.48 vs 83.25 ± 6.08 mmHg (p< 0.001), LDL 3.75 ± 0.95 vs 3.32 ± 0.93 mmol/L (p=0.03), FBG
    4.65 ± 0.54 vs 4.33 ± 0.42 mmol/L (p=0.03), BMI 28.81 ± 5.16 vs 24.12 ± 4.91 (p< 0.001). The mean BP was
    significantly associated with BMI, FBG, triglycerides, HDL and the TC/HDL ratio. Conclusions: Greater BMI,
    FBG, HDL, triglyceride levels and TC/HDL ratio characterised the young adults with pre/mild hypertension.
    The data suggests that hypertension in young adults is secondary to metabolic syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  17. Abdullah B, Snidvongs K, Recto M, Poerbonegoro NL, Wang Y
    Multidiscip Respir Med, 2020 Jan 28;15(1):726.
    PMID: 33376593 DOI: 10.4081/mrm.2020.726
    Background: In primary care, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists are tasked with the frontline responsibility of identifying and managing allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. There are currently no consolidated data on current treatment practices, patient compliance, and usage of guidelines within Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Objective: To assess the attitudes and practices on AR of GPs and pharmacists in 4 ASEAN countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia).

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 329 GPs and 548 pharmacists was conducted from May to November 2019. Participants answered a questionnaire focused on their i) current practice in the management of AR, ii) views on patient compliance, iii) understanding and usage of guidelines.

    Results: Clinical history was the most preferred method to diagnose AR by 95.4% of GPs and 58.8% of pharmacists. Second-generation antihistamines were the most widely available treatment option in GP clinics and pharmacies (94.8% and 97.2%) and correspondingly the most preferred treatment for both mild (90.3%, 76.8%) to moderatesevere rhinitis (90.3%, 78.6%) by GPs and pharmacists, respectively. Loratadine was ranked as the most preferred 2nd generation antihistamines (GP vs pharmacists: 55.3% vs 58.9%). More than 90% of GPs and pharmacists ranked length and efficacy of treatment as important factors that increase patient compliance. Awareness of the ARIA guidelines was high among GPs (80%) and lower among pharmacists (48.4%). However, only 63.3% of GPs and 48.2% of pharmacists knew how to identify AR patients.

    Conclusions: The survey in the 4 ASEAN countries has identified a need to strengthen the awareness and use of ARIA guidelines among the primary care practitioners. Adherence to ARIA guidelines, choosing the appropriate treatment option and prioritizing factors that increases patient compliance may contribute to better management outcomes of AR at the primary care practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  18. Abdullah B, Kandiah R, Hassan NFHN, Ismail AF, Mohammad ZW, Wang Y
    World Allergy Organ J, 2020 Dec;13(12):100482.
    PMID: 33294114 DOI: 10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100482
    Background: Primary care practitioners (PCPs), being the front liners, play an important role in treating allergic rhinitis (AR). As there is no proper tool to assess their perception, attitude, and practice in utilizing the guidelines, we aimed to develop and validate a new questionnaire for such purpose.

    Methods: The development phase consists of both literature and expert panel review. The validation phase consists of content validity, face validity, and construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to verify internal consistency. The development phase produced a questionnaire with 3 domains: perception, attitude, and practice consisting of 60 items (PAP-PCP questionnaire). Item response theory analysis for perception demonstrated the difficulty and discrimination values were acceptable except for 3 items. Exploratory factor analysis for attitude and practice domains showed the psychometric properties were good except for 3 items in practice domain. Experts judgement was used to decide on the final selection of questionnaire which consists of 59 items.

    Results: The final validated questionnaire has 3 domains with 59 items. All domains had Cronbach's alpha above 0.65 which was reliable. 302 physicians completed the questionnaire. 98% PCPs diagnosed AR based on clinical history. Although, majority agree AR guidelines is useful (67%), they had difficulty in using it to classify AR (54.9%) and determine AR severity (73.9%). Oral anti-histamines (first and second generation) were the most prescribed (>75%) followed by intranasal corticosteroids (59%) and combined intranasal corticosteroid and oral anti-histamine (51%). Majority agreed that treatment efficacy (81.8%), adverse effects (83.8%), fear of adverse effects (73.5%), route of administration (69.4%), dosing frequency (72.5%), taste (64.6%) and cost (73.5%) affect treatment compliance.

    Conclusions: The newly developed and validated questionnaire is a promising instrument in understanding the treatment gap in AR. Although further testing and refinement are needed, it provides an initial means for evaluating knowledge and understanding of PCPs in treating AR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  19. Abdullah F, Han TM, Mat Nor MB, Mohd Aznan MA, Ismail IZ
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Hypertension (HPT) is the most common co-morbidity among type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients which ominously increased their morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and control status of HPT, and also the glycemic control among T2DM patients in a primary care clinic in Kuantan, Pahang. Methods: It was a retrospective study of 154 T2DM patients’ records, aged ≥18 years selected by random sampling. The statistical analysis is done by using Chisquare test, paired sample “t” test and ANOVA “F” test. Results: Among T2DM patients; 47% were Malay, 45% Chinese and 9% Indian. The prevalence of HPT was 72.1% and majority of T2DM patients were women (60%). Out of 82 T2DM aged >60 years, 80.5% were hypertensive. 67.2% of T2DM patients between the age of 40-60 years and 25% age <40 years were also hypertensive (p= 0.003). BP-controlled status were classified into controlled, uncontrolled, systolic and diastolic HPT. All patients were compared between the last visit and one year before, which reported 55.8% versus 33.1%, 14.9% versus 51.9%, 20.1% versus 10.4% and 9.1% versus 4.5% respectively. There were significant rises in percentage of systolic BP (by 9.7%) and diastolic HPT (by 4.6%) p<0.0001, from the first visit. BP controlled status for aged group >60 years showed increments in systolic HPT and diastolic HPT which were significant (p<0.0001). Regarding glycemic parameters, 71.4% T2DM patients had poor controlled level of Hb1Ac (≥6.5) and only 20.1% remained controlled after one year (p<0.0001). Conclusions: This pilot study found high prevalence of HPT, increasing prevalence of systolic HPT and diastolic HPT in older age group as well as poor glycemic control among T2DM patients.

    KEYWORDS: Controlled blood pressure, systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension, HbA1C difference, primary care clinic
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  20. Abdullah MY
    ISBN: 978-967-5026-81-2
    Citation: Abdullah MY. Penjagaan Kesihatan Primer di Malaysia. Cabaran, Prospek dan Implikasi dalam latihan dan Penyelidikan Perubatan serta Sains Kesihatan di Universiti Putra Malaysia. Serdang: Penerbitan Universiti Putra Malaya; 2008
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
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