Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 576 in total

  1. Zuraida, A.S., Mohammad Basri, R., Ho, C.E.
    Objective: This study is an attempt to produce an abbreviated Malay version of Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (MWALI), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of the eating behavior which formed part of MWALI. Methods: The MWALI was translated ‘forward–backward’ from English to Malay and then administered to 135 adolescents. The factor construct of the 24-item eating behavior and the relationships between factor scores and demographic profile, dysphoria, global self-esteem and body mass index (BMI) were examined. Results: The exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors: Negative Emotion, Poor Impulse Control, Social Cues, Snacking and Early Meals in relation to over-eating. All the factors were significantly and positively correlated with BMI. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the eating behavior were satisfactory. Conclusion: MWALI is appropriate for assessing eating behavior among overweight and obese adolescents in the primary care setting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Zun AB, Ibrahim MI, Hamid AA
    Oman Med J, 2018 Sep;33(5):416-422.
    PMID: 30210721 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2018.76
    Objectives: Implemented in 2010, 1 Malaysia Clinic (1MC) is the latest innovation in public primary healthcare services in Malaysia to serve the urban population. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction and its associated factors using the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument. We also sought to compare the difference of mean score between expectation and perception of SERVQUAL dimension among patients attending 1MC in Kota Bharu district, Malaysia.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study included all nine 1MCs in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia, and used the validated SERVQUAL questionnaire from Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The primary data was collected in January 2017. The sample size was proportionate to the average daily patient attendance for each clinic, and a simple random sampling method was applied to reduced selection bias. Satisfaction level was determined by the mean gap score of expectation and perception of the SERVQUAL dimension.

    Results: A total of 386 patients were involved in this study (184 male and 202 female). Most were from the low socioeconomic group. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the clinic services. The tangible dimension (service quality (SQ) gap: -0.25) was the most critical dimension among all five SQ dimensions assessed. The factors included low education level (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.67; p = 0.024), monthly household income less than RM 3000 (adj. OR 2.97; 95% CI: 1.72, 5.51; p < 0.001), and frequency 3 3 visits (adj. OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.45; p < 0.001) had significant association with high level of satisfaction.

    Conclusion: 1MC has achieved its objective to increase the accessibility of health services among the low-income population in urban settings. However, most patients were not satisfied with certain parts of the services. Thus, proper evaluation of the service gap is required for improvement of the service.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  3. Zulkifli A, Khairul Anuar A, Atiya AS
    PMID: 10695800
    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  4. Zin CS, Chen LC, Knaggs RD
    Eur J Pain, 2014 Oct;18(9):1343-51.
    PMID: 24756859 DOI: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2014.496.x
    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the prescribing trends of four commonly prescribed strong opioids in primary care and explored utilization in non-cancer and cancer users.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2000 to 2010 using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Prescriptions of buprenorphine, fentanyl, morphine and oxycodone issued to adult patients were included in this study. Opioid prescriptions issued after patients had cancer medical codes were defined as cancer-related use; otherwise, they were considered non-cancer use. Annual number of prescriptions and patients, defined daily dose (DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) and oral morphine equivalent (OMEQ) dose were measured in repeat cross-sectional estimates.
    RESULTS: In total, there were 2,672,022 prescriptions (87.8% for non-cancer) of strong opioids for 178,692 users (59.9% female, 83.9% non-cancer, mean age 67.1 ± 17.0 years) during the study period. The mean annual (DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) was higher in the non-cancer group than in the cancer group for all four opioids; morphine (0.73 ± 0.28 vs. 0.12 ± 0.04), fentanyl (0.46 ± 0.29 vs. 0.06 ± 0.24), oxycodone (0.24 ± 0.19 vs. 0.038 ± 0.028) and buprenorphine (0.23 ± 0.15 vs. 0.008 ± 0.006). The highest proportion of patients were prescribed low opioid doses (OMEQ ≤ 50 mg/day) in both non-cancer (50.3%) and cancer (39.9%) groups, followed by the dose ranks of 51-100 mg/day (26.2% vs. 28.7%), 101-200 mg/day (15.1% vs. 19.2%) and >200 mg/day (8.25% vs. 12.1%).
    CONCLUSIONS: There has been a huge increase in strong opioid prescribing in the United Kingdom, with the majority of prescriptions for non-cancer pain. Morphine was the most frequently prescribed, but the utilization of oxycodone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased markedly over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  5. Zhu TH, Mooi CS, Shamsuddin NH, Mooi CS
    World J Diabetes, 2019 Jul 15;10(7):403-413.
    PMID: 31363387 DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v10.i7.403
    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies on diabetes empowerment among type 2 diabetes patients, particularly in the primary care setting.

    AIM: To assess the diabetes empowerment scores and its correlated factors among type 2 diabetes patients in a primary care clinic in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross sectional study involving 322 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) followed up in a primary care clinic. Systematic sampling method was used for patient recruitment. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) questionnaire was used to measure patient empowerment. It consists of three domains: (1) Managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes (9 items); (2) Assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change (9 items); and (3) Setting and achieving diabetes goal (10 items). A score was considered high if it ranged from 100 to 140. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 25 and multiple linear regressions was used to identify the predictors of total diabetes empowerment scores.

    RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 55 years old. 56% were male and the mean duration of diabetes was 4 years. The total median score of the DES was 110 [interquartile range (IQR) = 10]. The median scores of the three subscales were 40 with (IQR = 4) for "Managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes"; 36 with (IQR = 3) for "Assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change"; and 34 with (IQR = 5) for "Setting and achieving diabetes goal". According to multiple linear regressions, factors that had significant correlation with higher empowerment scores among type 2 diabetes patients included an above secondary education level (P < 0.001), diabetes education exposure (P = 0.003), lack of ischemic heart disease (P = 0.017), and lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Diabetes empowerment scores were high among type 2 diabetes patients in this study population. Predictors for high empowerment scores included above secondary education level, diabetes education exposure, lack of ischemic heart disease status and lower HbA1c.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  6. Zakaria ZF, Bakar AA, Hasmoni HM, Rani FA, Kadir SA
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2009 Dec 31;8(1):10.
    PMID: 20084190 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-8-10
    BACKGROUND: Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life.

    METHODS: A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview.

    RESULTS: A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 +/- 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8%) of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 +/- 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%), had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p < 0.0005) which indicated the deterioration of this domain as patients became older. Male respondents had better scores in most of the QOL dimensions especially in the physical functioning domain (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between QOL with different education levels, employment status and marital status. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and existence co-morbidities scored lower in most of the QOL domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  7. Zakaria N, Baharudin A, Razali R
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(2):89-99.
    Objective: To study the effect of depressive disorders, severity of depression and, sociodemographic factors on drug compliance among hypertensive patients at primary care clinics. Methods: A total of 201 hypertensive patients on treatment for at least 3 months who attended the HUKM Primary Care Clinic and Salak Polyclinic were selected for this study. Patients were screened for depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and those who scored 8 and more were further interviewed to establish a diagnosis using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients who were diagnosed to have depressive disorders were further rated for the severity of the illness by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Drug compliance was assessed during a 2 month follow up using the pill counting method (ratio 0.8 – 1.2 considered as compliant). Results: The prevalence of non-compliance among hypertensive patients was 38.3%. There was no association between the diagnosis of depressive disorders and drug compliance. Among the 12 patients who had depressive disorders, severity of depression as rated by HAMD, showed significant association with drug compliance (Mann-Whitney test z = -2.083, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  8. Zainuddin Z, Tan CK
    Family Physician, 2003;12:9-11.
    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in pregnancy. The effects of epilepsy include congenital abnormalities which are increased 2-3 fold. The babies born suffer from haemorrhagic disease of newborn. Preconception management and folic acid supplementation is important in optimizing outcome. With close monitoring and proper management, more than 90% of mothers have no complications throughout their pregnancy. Hormonal contraception dosage need to be increased due to the enzyme inducing nature of the anti epileptics drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Zainuddin N, Abdullah O
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(2):52-4.
    PMID: 27099662 MyJurnal
    Discharging ear is a common symptom in the primary care and private general clinics. Most of the cases are treated with the antibiotic ear drops for otitis externa or otitis media. However, despite an adequate standard therapy, a malignant tumour can also be present with non-specific symptom such as ear discharge, especially in the case of persistent ear discharge. In this paper we have reported a case of an adult woman presented with non-resolving ear discharge who was treated repeatedly with antibiotic ear drop, which was later diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  10. Zaini A, Nayan NF
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(1):44-6.
    PMID: 12597518 DOI: 10.1177/101053950201400110
    WHO's Declaration of the "Health for All" (HFA) goal was pronounced in 1978 in Alma Ata, and it was planned that HFA would be achieved through primary health care programmes and approaches by 2000. However, it is now 2002 and despite the technological advancements in medicine, science, and ICT, Health for All is far from reality. Instead, more and more conflicts are emerging with lethal consequences, such as, bioterrorism, biological agent abuse, global-terrorism, and environmental destruction is occurring at a greater scale that we have witnessed before. We may have the latest technology and knowledge today, but ironically, we are using them to inflict more suffering and pain in the world. In the Asia-Pacific, the past 30 years has seen dramatic advancement and lifestyle changes. We are now paying a high price for such progress in terms of risk factors to the health of the population, such as, ageing diseases, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and related conditions. The social, political, economic and environmental factors appeared to have deterred and negated WHO's HFA goal to attain basic human rights and health care for all. The HFA will not be achieved in the future if we do not learn from history and start taking measures now.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Zainab AM, Pereira XV
    Malays Fam Physician, 2007;2(3):95-101.
    PMID: 25606093 MyJurnal
    One of the commonest psychological problems that a clinician would encounter in primary care is depression. The prevalence of depression is high in women, the elderly and those with underlying physical problems or during the postpartum period. The spectrum of clinical presentations is wide and somatic complaints are more common in primary care clinics. Depression may present as a primary disorder and co-morbidity with other psychological problems or physical illnesses is high. A good clinical interview is an important form of assessment and a quick screening of depression can be done with the administration of proper rating scales, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale or Geriatric Depression Scale. Repeated use of the same scale in a patient would help the clinician to monitor the progress objectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  12. Zain SM, Tan HL, Mohamed Z, Chan WK, Mahadeva S, Basu RC, et al.
    JGH Open, 2020 Dec;4(6):1155-1161.
    PMID: 33319051 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12414
    Background and Aim: Advanced fibrosis is the most important predictor of liver-related mortality in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of noninvasive scoring systems in identifying advanced fibrosis in a Malaysian NAFLD cohort and propose a simplified strategy for the management of NAFLD in a primary care setting.

    Methods: We enrolled and reviewed 122 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Advanced fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stages 3-4. Noninvasive assessments included aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), AST/ALT ratio, diabetes (BARD) score, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, and NAFLD fibrosis score.

    Results: FIB-4 score had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.86 and 94.3%, respectively, for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis. FIB-4 score care setting, with further stratification of those in the indeterminate group using clinical predictors of NASH, can help in the development of a simplified strategy for a public health approach in the management of NAFLD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  13. Zailinawati AH, Teng CL, Kamil MA, Achike FI, Koh CN
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):162-7.
    PMID: 16898306 MyJurnal
    The prevalence of pain complaints as a reason for patient-doctor encounters in the local primary care setting is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of such encounters in one public primary care clinic (KK) and 17 general practice clinics (GP), from the city of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Reasons for visits were recorded by doctors in KK and medical students in GP using a structured questionnaire. Morbidity data was coded using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2). A total of 2234 encounters were recorded (80.9% from KK, 19.1% from GP). The overall prevalence of pain complaints was 31.9% with a significant difference between the two cohorts (KK 28.7% and GP 45.2%, p<0.001). Musculoskeletal pain complaints were more common in KK than GP (40.9% versus 29.7%, p<0.05). Of the 3 main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian) the Indian patients at KK had the highest prevalence of pain complaints and the Chinese at the GP had the lowest. Thus pain was a common complaint in the two different primary care settings studied. Some of the differences observed are probably due to the differences in the healthcare seeking behaviour of patients consulting at these two settings as well as differences in the payment systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  14. Zahrina AZ, Haymond P, Rosanna P, Ho R, Rajini AR, Low BT, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(3):3-11.
    PMID: 30800227
    INTRODUCTION: With increasing evidence of disease transmission through doctors' white coats, many countries have discouraged doctors from wearing their white coats during consultations. However, there have been limited studies about patients' preferences concerning doctors' attire in Malaysia. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate patients' perceptions of doctors' attire before and after the disclosure of information about the infection risk associated with white coats.
    METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st June 2015 to 31st July 2015 at three different primary care settings (government, private, and university primary care clinics) using a self-administered questionnaire. A 1:5 systematic random sampling method was employed to select the participants. The respondents were shown photographs of male and female doctors in four different types of attire and asked to rate their level of confidence and trust in and ease with doctors in each type of attire. Subsequently, the respondents were informed of the risk of white coat-carried infections, and their responses were reevaluated. Data analysis was completed using SPSS Version 24.0. Associations of categorical data were assessed using the Chi-Square test, while the overall change in perceptions after the disclosure of additional information was examined using the McNemar test. Results with p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
    RESULTS: A total of 299 respondents completed the questionnaire. Most of the respondents had more confidence and trust in the male (62.5%) and female (59.2%) doctors wearing white coats. A high proportion of the respondents from the government clinic (70.5%) felt more confidence in male doctors dressed in white coats (p-value = 0.018). In terms of ethnicity, male doctors in white coats were highly favored by Malays (61.0%), followed by the Chinese (41.2%) and Indians (38%) (p = 0.005). A similar preference was observed for the female doctors, whereby the highest number of Malays (60.3%), followed by the Chinese (41.2%) and Indians (40.0%) (p = 0.006), had a preference for female doctors wearing white coats. Only 21.9% of the initial 71.9% of patients who preferred white coats maintained their preference (p < 0.001) after learning of the risk of microbial contamination associated with white coats.
    CONCLUSION: Most patients preferred that primary care doctors wear white coats. Nevertheless, that perception changed after they were informed about the infection risk associated with white coats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  15. Zaharan NL, Williams D, Bennett K
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2013 Apr;75(4):1118-24.
    PMID: 22845189 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04403.x
    (i) To examine the incidence of new onset treated diabetes in patients treated with different types of statins and (ii) the relationship between the duration and dose of statins and the subsequent development of new onset treated diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  16. Yunus A, Seet W, Md Adam B, Jamaiyah H
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(1):5-11.
    PMID: 25606261 MyJurnal
    Objective: To validate the Malay version of Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) as a tool to screen for patients at risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in primary care Background: Most patients with OSA are unrecognised and untreated. Thus, the BQ has been used as a tool to screen for patients at risk for OSA. However, this tool has not been validated in Malay version. Materials and Methods: A parallel back-to-back translation method was applied to produce the Malay version (Berlin-M). The Malay version was administered to 150 patients in a tertiary respiratory medical centre.  Concurrent validity of the Berlin-M was determined using the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) as the gold standard measure. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Berlin-M were determined. Results: Most patients were males (64.0%) and majority of them were Malays (63.3%). Based on the sleep study test, 121 (84.0%) were classified as high risk while 23 (16.0%) as low risk using the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥5 as the cutoff point. The test–retest reliability Kappa value showed a good range between 0.864 – 1.000. The Cronbach’s alpha of BQ was 0.750 in category 1 and 0.888 in category 2. The sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: The BQ showed high sensitivity (92%) but low specificity (17%). Therefore, though the Berlin-M is useful as a screening tool, it is not a confirmatory diagnostic tool.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  17. Ying NY, Idris NS, Muhamad R, Ahmad I
    Korean J Fam Med, 2020 Jun 01.
    PMID: 32475104 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.20.0090
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The world is currently challenged to handle this pandemic. The common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. There are few reports on the association of SARS-CoV-2 with ocular abnormalities including conjunctivitis. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman who presented solely with conjunctivitis subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. A lack of full history of her travel abroad was another issue leading to a delay in evaluating her COVID-19 status that increased the infection risk to her managing team. Thus, primary care practitioners should be suspicious of this atypical feature of COVID-19, thus enabling us to identify such patients at entry points. Maintaining safety measures while managing patients is also crucial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  18. Yashodhara BM, Huat CB, Naik LN, Umakanth S, Hande M, Pappachan JM
    Infect Drug Resist, 2010;3:115-22.
    PMID: 21694900 DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S10743
    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate the disease, tuberculosis continues to be a major threat to Indian society, with an estimated prevalence of 3.45 million cases in 2006. Emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has complicated eradication attempts in recent years. Incomplete and/inadequate treatment are the main causes for development of drug resistance. Directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) is the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for worldwide eradication of tuberculosis, and our country achieved 100% coverage for DOTS through the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in 2006. For patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the WHO recommends a DOTS-Plus treatment strategy. Early detection and prompt treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is crucial to avoid spread of the disease and also because of the chances of development of potentially incurable extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in these cases. This review discusses the epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and also outlines the role of primary care doctors in the management of this dangerous disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  19. Yadav H, Lin WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2001;13 Suppl:S58-61.
    PMID: 12109251
    Malaysia enjoys a comprehensive range of health services, the government being committed to the principles of universal access to high quality health care, which the Ministry of Health provides through a wide variety of nation wide network of clinics and hospitals. One of the major problems is the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of health care in remote health centres. When patients are transferred from the health centres to the hospitals for further treatment, this not only incurs inconvenience to the patients and their family but also increases the cost to the health care system. Teleprimary care is one of the tools to overcome this problem. The doctors in the remote clinics are able to discuss the problem cases through teleconsultation with the doctors and specialist in the hospitals using an audiovisual system to provide better care in the health centers without transferring the patients to the hospitals. Only the essential and needy patients are referred to the hospitals. This has not only reduced the number of patients referred to the hospitals but it has reduced the cost to the health care system. It has also provided a more comprehensive care to the patients in the health centres. The doctors in the health centers are also provided training and are also updated on the latest in medicine. This method of training has made doctors in the health centers more efficient and satisfied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration; Primary Health Care/standards*
  20. Yadav H
    There has been a significant decline in maternal mortality from 540 per 100,000 live births
    in I957 to 28 per 100,000 in 2010. This decline is due to several factors. Firstly the introduction of the rural health infrastructure which is mainly constructing health centres and midwife clinics for the rural population. This provided the accessibility and availability of primary health care and specially, antenatal care for the women. This also helped to increase the antenatal coverage for the women to 98% in 2010 and it increased the average number of antenatal visits per women from6 in 1980 to 12 visits in 2010 for pregnant women. Along with the introduction of health centres, another main feature was the introduction of specific programmes to address the needs of the women and children. In the 1950s the introduction of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) programme was an important
    step. Later in the late 1970s there was the introduction of the High Risk Approach in MCH care and Safe Motherhood in the 1980s. In 1990, an important step was the introduction of the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). Another significant factor in the reduction is the identification of high risk mothers and this is being done by the introduction of the colour coding system in the health centres. Other factors include the increase in the number of safe deliveries by skilled personnel and the reduction in the number of deliveries by the Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). The reduction in fertility rate from 6.3 in 1960 to 3.3 in 2010 has been another important factor. To achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) to further reduce maternal deaths by 50%, more needs to be done especially to identify maternal deaths that are missed by omission or misclassification and also to capture the late maternal deaths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
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