Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 575 in total

  1. Balan S, Hassali MAA, Mak VSL
    World J Pediatr, 2018 12;14(6):528-540.
    PMID: 30218415 DOI: 10.1007/s12519-018-0186-y
    BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, many legislative and regulatory initiatives were taken globally to improve drug use in children. However, children are still found to be prescribed with off-label drugs. This study was conducted to provide an overview of the worldwide trend in off-label prescribing in children from the year 1996 to 2016.

    DATA SOURCES: The articles published in PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched using text words: off-label, unlicensed, paediatric and children. Additional articles were identified by reviewing the bibliography of the retrieved articles. Full-text articles published in English which reported on the prevalence of off-label prescribing in children between January 1996 and December 2016 were included.

    RESULTS: A total of 101 studies met the inclusion criteria. Off-label prescribing definition included four main categories: age, indication, dose and route of administration. The three most common reference sources used in the studies were summary of product characteristics, national formularies and package inserts. Overall, the off-label prescribing rates in children ranged from 1.2 to 99.7%. The most common category of off-label prescribing in children was dose and age.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted that off-label prescribing in children was found to be highly prevalent throughout the past two decades, persistently in the neonatal intensive care units. This suggests that besides legislative and regulatory initiatives, behavioural, knowledge aspects and efforts to integrate evidence into practice related to off-label prescribing also need to be evaluated and consolidated as part of the concerted efforts to narrow the gaps in prescribing for children.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Zhu TH, Mooi CS, Shamsuddin NH, Mooi CS
    World J Diabetes, 2019 Jul 15;10(7):403-413.
    PMID: 31363387 DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v10.i7.403
    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies on diabetes empowerment among type 2 diabetes patients, particularly in the primary care setting.

    AIM: To assess the diabetes empowerment scores and its correlated factors among type 2 diabetes patients in a primary care clinic in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross sectional study involving 322 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) followed up in a primary care clinic. Systematic sampling method was used for patient recruitment. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) questionnaire was used to measure patient empowerment. It consists of three domains: (1) Managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes (9 items); (2) Assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change (9 items); and (3) Setting and achieving diabetes goal (10 items). A score was considered high if it ranged from 100 to 140. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 25 and multiple linear regressions was used to identify the predictors of total diabetes empowerment scores.

    RESULTS: The median age of the study population was 55 years old. 56% were male and the mean duration of diabetes was 4 years. The total median score of the DES was 110 [interquartile range (IQR) = 10]. The median scores of the three subscales were 40 with (IQR = 4) for "Managing the psychosocial aspect of diabetes"; 36 with (IQR = 3) for "Assessing dissatisfaction and readiness to change"; and 34 with (IQR = 5) for "Setting and achieving diabetes goal". According to multiple linear regressions, factors that had significant correlation with higher empowerment scores among type 2 diabetes patients included an above secondary education level (P < 0.001), diabetes education exposure (P = 0.003), lack of ischemic heart disease (P = 0.017), and lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Diabetes empowerment scores were high among type 2 diabetes patients in this study population. Predictors for high empowerment scores included above secondary education level, diabetes education exposure, lack of ischemic heart disease status and lower HbA1c.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  3. Chen PCY
    World Health Forum, 1989;10(2):190-2.
    PMID: 2610830
    A primary health care system is being developed in Baram District, Sarawak, Malaysia, for the benefit of the Penans, who, until recently, were largely nomadic. Many of them are now attempting to adopt a settled mode of existence, and this in itself creates special health problems because the people lack the skills needed for living in one place. Substantial progress has already been achieved in mother and child care and in immunization coverage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  4. Mohamad Noh K, Jaafar S
    Citation: Mohamad Noh K, Jaafar S. Health in all policies: The primary health care approach in Malaysia. 50-years experience in addressing social determinants of health through Intersectoral Action for Health. World Conference on Social Determinants of Health. 19-21 October 2011, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    At Independence in 1957, Malaysia inherited a rural urban divide and racial identification of specific economic functions. Thus, the government’s welfarist policy was on growth with equity. This entailed the formulation of national social policies to reduce poverty and at the same time to restructure society by addressing economic imbalances and eventually eliminating racial identification of specific economic functions. The poverty reduction approaches placed a strong emphasis on rural socio-economic development addressing the social determinants of health. This approach has served Malaysia well over the decades but since the 1990s Malaysia has been caught in a middle income trap. Realising that achieving a high income nation status by 2020 is not possible at the present economic trajectory, Malaysia has now embarked on a national transformation agenda based on the four pillars of inculcating the cultural and societal values under the 1Malaysia Concept and the twin commitments of people first in all policies & projects and performance now; a government transformation programme (GTP); macroeconomic policies under the economic transformation programme (ETP); and the operationalisation of these policies through the 10th Malaysia Plan. The highest political commitment is given to the implementation of these national policies by the various agencies, orchestrated and coordinated by a central planning process which cascades down to the state and district administrative levels of the government machinery. The health policies follow these national policies and the thrust of the Malaysian health care system is primary health care, supported by an inclusive referral system to decentralized secondary care and regionalized tertiary care. This model of comprehensive public primary health care delivers promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative care across the life course. The network of static health facilities is organized into a two-tier system which includes outreach services for remote areas. Community participation is encouraged through village health promoters, health volunteers and advisory panels. The primary health care approach has delivered increased access to health care at a relatively low-cost. This has translated into health gains for the Malaysian population comparable with countries of similar economic development. As Malaysia moves towards a high income nation status, as demographic and epidemiological transitions continue, and as new health technology develops, the demand for health care by the - Draft Background Paper 7 - 2 population will continue to rise with increasing expectations for more care of even higher quality, and at ever increasing cost. This is especially challenging as Malaysia’s open economy is yet to recover fully from the Asian financial crisis of 1997. The government transformation programme, with its focus on a whole-of-government approach, is a natural progression for the primary health care approach to addressing the social determinants of health as a vehicle for social justice to reduce health inequalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  5. Jimam NS, Ismail NE, Dayom WD
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2020 Jan 30;22:15-22.
    PMID: 32007751 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2019.08.478
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the 5-level EuroQol 5-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) through classical test theory and the Rasch measurement model.

    METHODS: Three hundred patients treated for uncomplicated malaria in selected primary healthcare facilities of Plateau state, Nigeria, completed the EQ-5D-5L scale. Classical test theory was used to establish validity and Cronbach's alpha reliability of the scale. Rasch analysis was used to confirm the unidimensionality, item fitness, item and person separations and reliabilities, and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability levels and presentation on Wright map (item-person map).

    RESULTS: The outcome of classical test theory revealed unidimensional scale with average variance extracted values > 0.5, and the square root of the average variance extracted for construct was greater than the correlation coefficients, indicating convergent and discriminant validities of the scale whose Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α) was 0.87. Rasch analysis indicated variance explained values of 88.3% and the eigenvalues of the first contrast was 1.3, further confirming the unidimensionality of the scale, whose fit index values were within accepted ranges. The high item and person separation and reliability values indicated the instrument's strength in detecting and evenly spreading items and persons on the Wright map based on item difficulty and the respondents' ability levels, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The EQ-5D-5L scale performed well in uncomplicated malaria, hence, it is recommended for use in the assessment of health-related quality of life in this patient population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  6. Chen PC, Tan YK
    Trop Geogr Med, 1981 Dec;33(4):403-9.
    PMID: 7342391
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  7. Lee YL, Lim YMF, Law KB, Sivasampu S
    Trials, 2020 Jun 16;21(1):530.
    PMID: 32546189 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-020-04349-4
    INTRODUCTION: There are few sources of published data on intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) amongst patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or hypertension in primary care, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. ICC values are necessary for determining the sample sizes of cluster randomized trials. Hence, we aim to report the ICC values for a range of measures from a cluster-based interventional study conducted in Malaysia.

    METHOD: Baseline data from a large study entitled Evaluation of Enhanced Primary Health Care interventions in public health clinics (EnPHC-EVA: Facility) were used in this analysis. Data from 40 public primary care clinics were collected through retrospective chart reviews and a patient exit survey. We calculated the ICCs for processes of care, clinical outcomes and patient experiences in patients with T2D and/or hypertension using the analysis of variance approach.

    RESULTS: Patient experience had the highest ICC values compared to processes of care and clinical outcomes. The ICC values ranged from 0.01 to 0.48 for processes of care. Generally, the ICC values for processes of care for patients with hypertension only are higher than those for T2D patients, with or without hypertension. However, both groups of patients have similar ICCs for antihypertensive medications use. In addition, similar ICC values were observed for clinical outcomes, ranging from 0.01 to 0.09. For patient experience, the ICCs were between 0.03 (proportion of patients who are willing to recommend the clinic to their friends and family) and 0.25 (for Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care item 9, Given a copy of my treatment plan).

    CONCLUSION: The reported ICCs and their respective 95% confidence intervals for T2D and hypertension will be useful for estimating sample sizes and improving efficiency of cluster trials conducted in the primary care setting, particularly for low- and middle-income countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  8. Elnaem MH, Mohamed MHN, Huri HZ, Shah ASM
    Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2019;15:137-145.
    PMID: 30705590 DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S182716
    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main complication leading to morbidity and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a large amount of evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for the prevention of CVD. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and prescription quality of LLT among T2DM patients and to identify its associated factors.

    Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study included 816 T2DM patients from four different primary care centers in Pahang, Malaysia. We involved LLT-eligible T2DM patients as per the national clinical practice guidelines (CPG). The assessment of therapy effectiveness focused on the attainment of target lipid measures stated in the CPG. Evaluation of the prescription quality was classified into appropriate, potentially inappropriate, and inappropriate, based on the compliance with guidelines and existence of potential safety concerns. Binomial logistic regression was employed to identify the predictors of LLT effectiveness and prescription quality.

    Results: The overall percentage of T2DM patients receiving statin therapy was 87.6% (715/816). Statin therapy was appropriately prescribed in 71.5% of the cases. About 17.5% of the LLT prescriptions have at least one significant drug interaction with co-prescribed medications. The achievement of the primary target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels was observed in only 37% of T2DM patients. The LLT indication and appropriateness of prescription were significantly associated with the attainment of LDL-C treatment goals. Primary prevention, Malay race, and hypertension were identified as predictors for appropriate prescribing of LLT among T2DM subjects.

    Conclusion: There is a need to enhance the quality of LLT prescribing in the primary care setting to cover all eligible high-risk patients and ensure patient safety. Strategies to improve the achievement of LDL-C goals among patients with T2DM, such as investigating the potential role of the combination therapy and high-intensity statin therapy, are required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Tang WS, Khoo EM
    J Sex Med, 2011 Jul;8(7):2071-8.
    PMID: 21492404 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02280.x
    INTRODUCTION: Premature ejaculation (PE) is common. However, it has been underreported and undertreated.
    AIMS: To determine the prevalence of PE and to investigate possible associated factors of PE.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a primary care clinic over a 3-month period in 2008. Men aged 18-70 years attending the clinic were recruited, and they completed self-administered questionnaires that included the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), International Index of Erectile Function, sociodemography, lifestyle, and medical illness. The operational definition of PE included PE and probable PE based on the PEDT.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of PE.
    RESULTS: A total of 207 men were recruited with a response rate of 93.2%. There were 97 (46.9%) Malay, 57 (27.5%) Chinese, and 53 (25.6%) Indian, and their mean age was 46.0 ± 12.7 years. The prevalence of PE was 40.6% (N = 82) (PE: 20.3%, probable PE: 20.3% using PEDT). A significant association was found between ethnicity and PE (Indian 49.1%, Malay 45.4%, and Chinese 24.6%; χ(2) = 8.564, d.f. = 2, P = 0.014). No significant association was found between age and PE. Multivariate analysis showed that erectile dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.907, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.271, 10.604), circumcision (adjusted OR 4.881, 95% CI 2.346, 10.153), sexual intercourse ≤5 times in 4 weeks (adjusted OR 3.733, 95% CI 1.847, 7.544), and Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.323, 95% CI 1.489, 7.417) were predictors of PE.
    CONCLUSION: PE might be frequent in men attending primary care clinics. We found that erectile dysfunction, circumcision, Indian ethnicity, and frequency of sexual intercourse of ≤5 times per month were associated with PE. These associations need further confirmation.
    Study site: primary care clinic at the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  10. Ishak IH, Low WY, Othman S
    J Sex Med, 2010 Sep;7(9):3080-7.
    PMID: 20584130 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01848.x
    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent sexual health problem but poorly investigated at the primary care level.
    AIM: This article examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its possible risk factors associated with women at high risk of FSD in a hospital-based primary practice.
    METHODS: A validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) was utilized to determine FSD in a cross-sectional study design, involving 163 married women, aged 18-65 years, in a tertiary hospital-based primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic, marital profile, health, and lifestyle for women at high risk of FSD and those who were not at high risk were compared and their risk factors were determined.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of FSD in Malaysian women based on the MVFSFI, and its risk factors for developing FSD.
    RESULTS: Some 42 (25.8%) out of 163 women had sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with age. Sexual dysfunctions were detected as desire problem (39.3%), arousal problem (25.8%), lubrication problem (21.5%), orgasm problem (16.6%), satisfaction problem (21.5%) and pain problems (16.6%). Women at high risk of FSD were significantly associated with age (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.0), husband's age (OR 4.3 95% C.I 1.9 to 9.3), duration of marriage (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.8), medical problems (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3 to 21.7), menopausal status (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.1 to 14.3), and frequency of sexual intercourse (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 31.7). Multivariate analysis showed that medical problem (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 14.0) and frequency of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.0) were associated with increased risk of having FSD. Those who practiced contraception were less likely to have FSD.
    CONCLUSION: Sexual health problems are prevalent in women attending primary care clinic where one in four women were at high risk of FSD. Thus, primary care physician should be trained and prepared to address this issue.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Sazlina SG, Zaiton A, Nor Afiah MZ, Hayati KS
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2012 May;16(5):498-502.
    PMID: 22555798 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-012-0038-8
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the health related quality of life and its predictive factors among older people with non-communicable diseases attending primary care clinics.
    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
    SETTING: Three public primary care clinics in a district in Selangor, Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Registered patients aged 55 years and above.
    MEASUREMENTS: A face-to-face interview was conducted using a validated questionnaire of Medical Outcome Study 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). The outcome measure was the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and other factors measured were socio demography, physical activity, social support (Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire), and presence of non-communicable diseases.
    RESULTS: A total of 347 participants had non-communicable diseases which included hypertension (41.8%), type 2 diabetes (33.7%), asthma (4.8%), hyperlipidaemia (1.7%), coronary heart disease (1.2%), and osteoarthritis (0.2%). Age ≥ 65 years old (OR =2.23; 95%CI=1.42, 3.50), single (OR=1.75; 95%CI=1.06,2.90), presence of co-morbid condition (OR=1.66; 95%CI=1.06, 2.61), and poorer social support (OR=2.11; 95%CI=1.27, 3.51; p=0.002) were significant predictors of poorer physical component of HRQoL . In predicting lower mental health component of HRQoL, the significant predictors were women (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.44, 3.62), Indian ethnicity (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.08, 3.21) and poorer social support (OR=2.71; 95%CI=1.63, 4.51). No interactions existed between these predictors.
    CONCLUSION: Older people with non-communicable diseases were susceptible to lower health related quality of life. Increasing age, single, presence of co-morbid conditions, and poorer social support were predictors of lower physical health component of HRQoL. While the older women, Indian ethnicity and poorer social support reported lower mental health component of HRQoL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  12. Abdullah B, Kandiah R, Hassan NFHN, Ismail AF, Mohammad ZW, Wang Y
    World Allergy Organ J, 2020 Dec;13(12):100482.
    PMID: 33294114 DOI: 10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100482
    Background: Primary care practitioners (PCPs), being the front liners, play an important role in treating allergic rhinitis (AR). As there is no proper tool to assess their perception, attitude, and practice in utilizing the guidelines, we aimed to develop and validate a new questionnaire for such purpose.

    Methods: The development phase consists of both literature and expert panel review. The validation phase consists of content validity, face validity, and construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to verify internal consistency. The development phase produced a questionnaire with 3 domains: perception, attitude, and practice consisting of 60 items (PAP-PCP questionnaire). Item response theory analysis for perception demonstrated the difficulty and discrimination values were acceptable except for 3 items. Exploratory factor analysis for attitude and practice domains showed the psychometric properties were good except for 3 items in practice domain. Experts judgement was used to decide on the final selection of questionnaire which consists of 59 items.

    Results: The final validated questionnaire has 3 domains with 59 items. All domains had Cronbach's alpha above 0.65 which was reliable. 302 physicians completed the questionnaire. 98% PCPs diagnosed AR based on clinical history. Although, majority agree AR guidelines is useful (67%), they had difficulty in using it to classify AR (54.9%) and determine AR severity (73.9%). Oral anti-histamines (first and second generation) were the most prescribed (>75%) followed by intranasal corticosteroids (59%) and combined intranasal corticosteroid and oral anti-histamine (51%). Majority agreed that treatment efficacy (81.8%), adverse effects (83.8%), fear of adverse effects (73.5%), route of administration (69.4%), dosing frequency (72.5%), taste (64.6%) and cost (73.5%) affect treatment compliance.

    Conclusions: The newly developed and validated questionnaire is a promising instrument in understanding the treatment gap in AR. Although further testing and refinement are needed, it provides an initial means for evaluating knowledge and understanding of PCPs in treating AR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  13. Muthupalaniappen L, Azimah MN, Kharuddin NF, Tzar MN
    PMID: 24050080
    Onychomycosis increases the risk of developing secondary bacterial infection and cellulitis if left untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics and its associated factors. A cross sectional study using universal sampling of all type 1 and 2 diabetic patients attending a primary care facility of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) from January to March 2011 was conducted. Samples were taken from clinically abnormal nails and from the first right toenail in the absence of nail abnormalities and cultured for fungal elements. A total of 151 diabetics participated in the study. The mean patient age was 60.7 +/- 9.1 years. A total of 123 nail samples (81.5%) were culture positive for fungal elements. A positive correlation was found between onychomycosis and increasing age (p = 0.011) and clinically abnormal nails (p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations with gender, ethnic group, duration of diabetes, types of diabetes or glycemic control. The prevalence of onychomycosis among diabetics in our study was high.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data*
  14. Jackson AA, Manan WA, Gani AS, Eldridge S, Carter YH
    PMID: 15689099
    Smoking deception is often ignored, but is important in health care. In this trial it was assessed at both study entry and outcome. At study entry, 1,044 males at a primary care clinic were asked smoking status and tested for breath carbon monoxide (CO). Of self-reported non-smokers, 57/402 (14%) were actually smokers, as were 59/251 (24%) of self-reported ex-smokers. The self-reported smokers (n=387) entered a randomized, controlled trial where the intervention comprised four questions on knowledge and beliefs about smoking, standardized verbal advice against smoking, and a leaflet. At follow-up, subjects were also questioned about beliefs. Follow-up was difficult, but 191/387 (49%) attended at three or six months. Of 27 who claimed to have quit, 6 (22%) were deceivers and 21 were confirmed quitters. Cessation did not differ between intervention and control groups. Overall confirmed cessation at six months was 16/387 (4.1 %). Confirmed quitters were significantly lighter smokers than deceivers and still smokers. There were non-significant trends between the outcome groups whereby deceivers had least knowledge and most lay beliefs, and quitters had most knowledge and fewest lay beliefs. The lay beliefs may prevent some smokers from quitting.

    Study site: open-access outpatients
    clinic (KPM) attached to the teaching hospital
    (HUSM) of Universiti Sains Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  15. Muthupalaniappen L, Omar J, Omar K, Iryani T, Hamid SN
    PMID: 23431837
    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  16. Zulkifli A, Khairul Anuar A, Atiya AS
    PMID: 10695800
    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  17. Lim ES
    PMID: 1364867
    The Malaria Eradication Program was started in 1967 in Peninsular Malaysia. Since then and up to 1980, there was a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases from 160,385 in 1966 to 9,110 cases for Peninsular Malaysia. Although the concept of eradication has changed to one of control in the 1980, the anti-malaria activities have remained the same. However, additional supplementary activities such as the use of impregnated bednets, and the Primary Health Care approach, have been introduced in malarious and malaria-prone areas. Focal spraying activity is instituted in localities with outbreaks in both malaria-prone and non-malarious areas. Passive case detection has been maintained in all operational areas. In 1990, 50,500 cases of malaria were reported of which 69.7% (35,190) were from Sabah, 27.8% (14,066) from Peninsular Malaysia and 2.5% (1,244) from Sarawak. Until June 1991 a total of 18,306 cases were reported for the country. Plasmodium falciparum continues to be the predominant species, contributing to 69.6% of the parasites involved. The case fatality rate for 1990 was 0.09%. There were 43 deaths all of which were attributed to cerebral malaria. The problems faced in the prevention and control of malaria include problems associated with the opening of land for agriculture, mobility of the aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia (Orang Asli) and inaccessibility of malaria problem areas. There is need to ensure prompt investigation and complete treatment of cases especially in malarious areas. The promotion of community participation in control activities should be intensified. Primary Health Care should be continued and intensified in the malarious areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  18. Arasu GD
    PMID: 1341845
    The risk behavior in malaria has been identified as one of the factors contributing to malaria in Malaysia. The occurrence of malaria among illegal immigrants and indigenous groups, staying in risk prone areas where conditions are favorable for transmission, highlights the behavior pattern of these groups. In these areas the usual anti-malarial activities are less effective and thus there is a need to identify control measures suited to that particular condition and environment and to community groups. Some of the determinants contributing to the increase in malaria cases like man-vector contact, non-compliance to drugs, complications of the disease, and factors interfering with malaria control measures, factors favoring transmission and proposals to modify risk behavior, which can be applied in an endeavor to control the diseases, have been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  19. Riji HM
    PMID: 1341838
    The Primary Health Care approach in Malaysia was first tried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia in 1982. In 1984, the Vector Borne Disease Control Program, Kelantan decided to adopt the Primary Health Care approach as an additional strategy in its effort to control malaria in the state, which then experienced an increase in malaria cases. Much effort was directed at creating the awareness and stimulating the interest of health staff and communities to adopt the strategy. Kelantan was made the model state. The paper gives an outline of the process involved and some characteristics of PHC workers. A study was carried out among health workers, community members and health staff on their knowledge and involvement in PHC in three states, including Kelantan. In view of the overall success of this approach, and the weaknesses which have been identified possible solutions have been suggested and should be acted upon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  20. Kasim MS, Abraham S
    PMID: 7163857
    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links