METHODS: This is a controlled, intervention based study. It was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n = 140) received RFEP on medications doses & timing adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n = 122) received standard care.
RESULTS: The dose of insulin glargine was reduced from 42.51 ± 22.16 at the baseline to 40.11 ± 18.51-units during Ramadan (p = 0.002) in the intervention group while it remained the same in the control group before Ramadan and during Ramadan (38.51 ± 18.63 and 38.14 ± 18.46, P = 0.428, respectively). The hypoglycemia score was 14.2 ± (8.5) pre-Ramadan in the intervention and reduced to 6.36 ± 6.17 during Ramadan (p
Methods: An online survey was conducted among healthcare providers across public health clinics in Malaysia. All family medicine specialists, medical officers, nurses and assistant medical officers involved in the screening program for adult men were invited to answer a 51-item questionnaire via email or WhatsApp. The questionnaire comprised five sections: participants' socio-demographic information, current screening practices, barriers and facilitators to using the screening tool, and views on the content and format of the screening tool.
Results: A total of 231 healthcare providers from 129 health clinics participated in this survey. Among them, 37.44% perceived the implementation of the screening program as a "top-down decision." Although 37.44% found the screening tool for adult men "useful," some felt that it was "time consuming" to fill out (38.2%) and "lengthy" (28.3%). In addition, 'adult men refuse to answer' (24.1%) was cited as the most common patient-related barrier.
Conclusions: This study provided useful insights into the challenges encountered by the public healthcare providers when implementing a national screening program for men. The screening tool for adult men should be revised to make it more user-friendly. Further studies should explore the reasons why men were reluctant to participate in health screenings, thus enhancing the implementation of screening programs in primary care.
METHODS: Eleven participants were involved in this qualitative research which utilised the interpretative phenomenological analysis approach more renowned in health psychology research. All interviews conducted at their home. The interviews were recorded, typed verbatim, and the transcripts were analysed using NVivo software version 8.0.
RESULTS: The main barriers identified at the primary care level were 1) nondisclosure of their visual problems originated from their belated needs for better sight, delayed awareness of their visual status and social stigma and 2) patient-provider-related issues namely miscommunication and delayed referral. The first main theme explains their belief for not requiring surgery. This has led to their delayed awareness and impeded disclosure of their visual problems to family members or primary care providers. The second main theme reflects the provider-patient-related issues which retarded cataract detection and referral process required for earlier cataract extraction surgery.
CONCLUSION: Thus, the appropriate approach targeting these specific barriers at primary care level will be able to detect, motivate and assist patients for early uptake of cataract extraction surgery to improve their vision and prevent severe blindness.
Methods: This work is a cross-sectional validation study among patients with MetS attending a university primary care clinic in Selangor. The PAM-13 Malay version underwent a validation process and field testing. Psychometric properties were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, scree plot, Monte Carlo simulation, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability analyses.
Results: The content of the PAM-13 Malay version and the original version were conceptually equivalent. The questionnaire was refined after face validation by 10 patients with MetS. The refined version was then field-tested among 130 participants (response rate 89.7%). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was 0.767, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was ≤0.001, indicating sampling adequacy. Two factors were identified and labeled as (1) Passive and Building Knowledge, and (2) Taking Action and Maintaining Behavior. These labels were chosen as they were conceptually consistent with the items representing the levels of activation in PAM-13. The validated PAM-13 Malay version consisted of 13 items, framed into two domains. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.79, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.45.
Conclusions: The PAM-13 Malay version is valid, reliable, and fairly stable over time. This questionnaire can be used to evaluate the levels of activation among patients with MetS in primary care in Malaysia.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all primary care doctors working in government health clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from October 2016 to November 2016. A self-reported questionnaire was used, which included questions on demographic information, knowledge of in-flight medicine, and the attitude and confidence of primary care doctors in managing in-flight medical emergencies.
RESULTS: 182 doctors completed the questionnaire (92.9% response rate). The mean knowledge score was 8.9 out of a maximum score of 20. Only 11.5% of doctors felt confident managing in-flight medical emergencies. The majority (69.2%) would assist in an in-flight medical emergency, but the readiness to assist was reduced if someone else was already helping or if they were not familiar with the emergency. Total knowledge score was positively associated with confidence in managing in-flight medical emergencies (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSION: Only one in ten primary care doctors in this study felt confident managing in-flight medical emergencies. A higher total knowledge score of in-flight medical emergencies was positively associated with greater confidence in managing them. Educational programmes to address this gap in knowledge may be useful to improve doctors' confidence in managing in-flight medical emergencies.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the growth patterns of children under 2 years in Gaza, Palestine.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2014 in 10 randomly selected primary health care clinics in 5 governorates of Gaza. Weight and length data were obtained from the health cards of children born in 2012, and z-scores were calculated and compared with the WHO Growth Standard (2006).
Results: A total of 2 632 children's cards were included at the beginning of the study. Weight-for-age and weight-forlength decreased from birth to 6 months to about -0.40 SD but increased afterwards to -0.11 SD and 0.34 SD at 24 months respectively. Length-for-age declined after 6 months, reaching -0.85 SD at 24 months. At 6 months, the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 5% and 9% but at 24 months, the prevalence was 4% and 20% respectively. Wasting was highest at 6 months (10%) but decreased to 3% at 24 months. Significantly more girls were stunted at 9, 12 and 18 months (P < 0.001), underweight at 24 months (P < 0.05) and wasted at 12 months (P < 0.05). Early life faltering in length was more pronounced than weight, with stunting occurring in one fifth of boys and girls by 2 years of age.
Conclusions: Preventive strategies are urgently needed to address early life causes of undernutrition, particularly stunting, in Palestinian children in Gaza.