Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 575 in total

  1. Azraii AB, Ramli AS, Ismail Z, Abdul-Razak S, Badlishah-Sham SF, Mohd-Kasim NA, et al.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2021 Jan 19;21(1):39.
    PMID: 33468051 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-020-01845-y
    BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians (PCP) play an important role in detecting Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) early. However, knowledge, awareness and practice (KAP) regarding FH among Malaysian PCP are not well established, and there was no validated tool to assess their FH KAP. Thus, the aim of this study was to adapt an FH KAP questionnaire and determine its validity and reliability among Malaysian PCP.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional validation study involved Malaysian PCP with ≥ 1-year work experience in the primary care settings. In Phase 1, the original 19-item FH KAP questionnaire underwent content validation and adaptation by 7 experts. The questionnaire was then converted into an online survey instrument and was face validated by 10 PCP. In Phase 2, the adapted questionnaire was disseminated through e-mail to 1500 PCP. Data were collected on their KAP, demography, qualification and work experience. The construct validity was tested using known-groups validation method. The hypothesis was PCP holding postgraduate qualification (PCP-PG-Qual) would have better FH KAP compared with PCP without postgraduate qualification (PCP-noPG-Qual). Internal consistency reliability was calculated using Kuder Richardson formula-20 (KR-20) and test-retest reliability was tested on 26 PCP using kappa statistics.

    RESULTS: During content validation and adaptation, 10 items remained unchanged, 8 items were modified, 1 item was moved to demography and 7 items were added. The adapted questionnaire consisted of 25 items (11 knowledge, 5 awareness and 9 practice items). A total of 130 out of 1500 PCP (response rate: 8.7%) completed the questionnaire. The mean percentage knowledge score was found to be significantly higher in PCP-PG-Qual compared with PCP-noPG-Qual (53.5, SD ± 13.9 vs. 35.9, SD ± 11.79), t(128) = 6.90, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Sidik SM, Jaffar A, Foo CN, Muhammad NA, Abdul Manaf R, Ismail SIF, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2021 Jan 12;11(1):e039076.
    PMID: 33436465 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039076
    INTRODUCTION: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) strongly recommended to incontinent pregnant women. The Kegel Exercise Pregnancy Training-app trial is a multicentre cluster-randomised study aims to assess the effectiveness and its cost-effectiveness of the mobile app guidance in PFMT among incontinent pregnant women.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 370 pregnant women (aged 18 years old and above) will be recruited with International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form. Ten clusters (primary care clinics) will be randomly assigned to either PFMT or usual care in a 1:1 ratio by an independent researcher (sealed envelope). The primary outcome will be urinary incontinence, and the secondary outcomes (quality of life; PFMT adherence, psychological status and mobile apps' usability) will be assessed at four measurement time points (t0: baseline) and postintervention (t1: 4 weeks, t2: 8 weeks and t3: 8 weeks postnatal). T-test analysis will determine any significant differences at the baseline between the control and intervention groups. The mixed-model analysis will determine the effectiveness of the intervention at the population-average level for both the primary and secondary outcomes. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, expenditures during the study and 6 months after the intervention will be compared between the groups using the multiway sensitivity analysis. The recruitment planned will be in December 2020, and the planned end of the study will be in August 2021.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects, Universiti Putra Malaysia (JKEUPM-2019-368) and Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia, NMRR-19-412-47116 (IIR) with the ANZCTR registration. This study will obtain informed written consent from all the study participants. The results which conform with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and the Recommendations for Interventional Trials will be published for dissemination in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings.


    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  3. Balqis-Ali NZ, Saw PS, Jailani AS, Fun WH, Mohd Saleh N, Tengku Bahanuddin TPZ, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2021 Jan 07;21(1):32.
    PMID: 33413325 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-06012-9
    BACKGROUND: The Person-centred Practice Inventory-Staff (PCPI-S) instrument was developed to measure healthcare providers' perception towards their person-centred practice. The study aimed to explore the influence of culture, context, language and local practice towards the PCPI-S instrument adaptation process for use among public primary care healthcare providers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The original PCPI-S was reviewed and adapted for cultural suitability by an expert committee to ensure conceptual and item equivalence. The instrument was subsequently translated into the local Malay language using the forward-backward translation by two independent native speakers, and modified following pre-tests involving cognitive debriefing interviews. The psychometric properties of the corresponding instrument were determined by assessing the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and correlation of the instrument, while the underlying structure was analysed using exploratory factor analysis.

    RESULTS: Review by expert committee found items applicable to local context. Pre-tests on the translated instrument found multiple domains and questions were misinterpreted. Many translations were heavily influenced by culture, context, and language discrepancies. Results of the subsequent pilot study found mean scores for all items ranged from 2.92 to 4.39. Notable ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.9). Exploratory factor analysis found formation of 11 components as opposed to the original 17 constructs.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence regarding the reliability and underlying structure of the PCPI-S instrument with regard to primary care practice. Culture, context, language and local practice heavily influenced the adaptation as well as interpretation of the underlying structure and should be given emphasis when translating person-centred into practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  4. Mangantig E, MacGregor S, Iles MM, Scolyer RA, Cust AE, Hayward NK, et al.
    Hum Mol Genet, 2021 Jan 06;29(21):3578-3587.
    PMID: 33410475 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddaa222
    Germline genetic variants have been identified, which predispose individuals and families to develop melanoma. Tumor thickness is the strongest predictor of outcome for clinically localized primary melanoma patients. We sought to determine whether there is a heritable genetic contribution to variation in tumor thickness. If confirmed, this will justify the search for specific genetic variants influencing tumor thickness. To address this, we estimated the proportion of variation in tumor thickness attributable to genome-wide genetic variation (variant-based heritability) using unrelated patients with measured primary cutaneous melanoma thickness. As a secondary analysis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of tumor thickness. The analyses utilized 10 604 individuals with primary cutaneous melanoma drawn from nine GWAS datasets from eight cohorts recruited from the general population, primary care and melanoma treatment centers. Following quality control and filtering to unrelated individuals with study phenotypes, 8125 patients were used in the primary analysis to test whether tumor thickness is heritable. An expanded set of 8505 individuals (47.6% female) were analyzed for the secondary GWAS meta-analysis. Analyses were adjusted for participant age, sex, cohort and ancestry. We found that 26.6% (SE 11.9%, P = 0.0128) of variation in tumor thickness is attributable to genome-wide genetic variation. While requiring replication, a chromosome 11 locus was associated (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  5. He AJ, Tang VFY
    Health Policy, 2021 Jan 04.
    PMID: 33422336 DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2020.12.020
    Against the backdrop of rapid ageing populations, there is an increasing recognition of the need to integrate various health services for the elderly, not only to provide more coordinated care, but also to contain the rapid cost inflation driven primarily by the curative sector. Funded by the Asia-Pacific Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, this scoping review seeks to synthesize the received knowledge on care integration for the elderly in four Asian societies representing varying socioeconomic and health-system characteristics: Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The search for English-language literature published between 2009 and 2019 yielded 67 publications in the final sample. The review finds that both research and practice regarding health service integration are at a preliminary stage of development. It notes a marked trend in seeking to integrate long-term elderly care with curative and preventive care, especially in community settings. Many distinctive models proliferated. Integration is demonstrated not only horizontally but also vertically, transcending public-private boundaries. The central role of primary care is highly prominent in almost all the integration models. However, these models are associated with a variety of drawbacks in relation to capacity, perception, and operation that necessitate further scholarly and policy scrutiny, indicating the robustness and persistence of siloed healthcare practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  6. Kingsley JP, Vijay PK, Kumaresan J, Sathiakumar N
    Matern Child Health J, 2021 Jan;25(1):15-21.
    PMID: 33244678 DOI: 10.1007/s10995-020-03044-9
    PURPOSE: To advocate perspectives to strengthen existing healthcare systems to prioritize maternal health services amidst and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle income countries.

    DESCRIPTION: COVID-19 directly affects pregnant women causing more severe disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The indirect effects due to the monumental COVID-19 response are much worse, increasing maternal and neonatal mortality.

    ASSESSMENT: Amidst COVID-19, governments must balance effective COVID-19 response measures while continuing delivery of essential health services. Using the World Health Organization's operational guidelines as a base, countries must conduct contextualized analyses to tailor their operations. Evidence based information on different services and comparative cost-benefits will help decisions on trade-offs. Situational analyses identifying extent and reasons for service disruptions and estimates of impacts using modelling techniques will guide prioritization of services. Ensuring adequate supplies, maintaining core interventions, expanding non-physician workforce and deploying telehealth are some adaptive measures to optimize care. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, governments must reinvest in maternal and child health by building more resilient maternal health services supported by political commitment and multisectoral engagement, and with assistance from international partners.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multi-sectoral investments providing high-quality care that ensures continuity and available to all segments of the population are needed. A robust primary healthcare system linked to specialist care and accessible to all segments of the population including marginalized subgroups is of paramount importance. Systematic approaches to digital health care solutions to bridge gaps in service is imperative. Future pandemic preparedness programs must include action plans for resilient maternal health services.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  7. Low LL, A B Rahim FI, Hamzah NAR, Ismail MS
    PLoS One, 2021;16(1):e0245125.
    PMID: 33428645 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0245125
    BACKGROUND: In combating the increasing trend of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) over the last two decades in the country, the Ministry of Health Malaysia developed the Enhanced Primary Health Care (EnPHC) initiative to improve care management across different levels of the public service delivery network. An evaluation research component was embedded to explore the implementation issues in terms of fidelity, feasibility, adaptation and benefit of the initiative's components which were triage, care coordination, screening, risk management and referral system.

    METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted at 20 participating EnPHC clinics in Johor and Selangor, two months after the intervention was initiated. Data collected from self-reported forms and a structured observation checklist were descriptively analysed. In-depth interviews were also conducted with 20 participants across the clinics selected to clarify any information gaps observed in each clinic, and data were thematically analysed.

    RESULTS: Evaluation showed that all components of EnPHC intervention had been successfully implemented except for the primary triage counter and visit checklist. The challenges were mainly discovered in terms of human resource and physical structure. Although human resource was a common implementation challenge across all interventions, clinic-specific issues could still be identified. Among the adaptive measures taken were task sharing among staff and workflow modification to match the clinic's capacity. Despite the challenges, early benefits of implementation were highlighted especially in terms of service outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation study disclosed issues of human resource and physical infrastructure when a supplementary intervention is implemented. To successfully achieve a scaled-up PHC service delivery model based on comprehensive management of NCDs patient-centred care, the adaptive measures in local clinic context highlight the importance of collaboration between good organisational process and good clinical practice and process.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  8. Swarna Nantha Y, Chelliah AAP, Haque S, Yen GK, Md Zain AZ
    PLoS One, 2021;16(1):e0245041.
    PMID: 33444368 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0245041
    BACKGROUND: Qualitative strategies can uncover the relationship between the external realities of people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the barriers that are associated with disease self-management. Information from in-depth interviews (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGD) can be used to devise psychological models that could potentially facilitate behaviour changes in people with T2D. We aim to identify salient factors that govern the external realities of people with T2D in relation to disease management.

    METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted at a regional primary care clinic in Malaysia using a Grounded Theory Approach. People with T2D were recruited through purposeful sampling to determine their living experiences with the disease. A total of 34 IDIs with 24 people with T2D and 10 health care professionals, followed by two FGDs with people with T2D, were conducted.

    RESULTS: Three major processes that arbitrate self-management practices include- 1) external reality, 2) internal reality, 3) mediators of behaviour. Within the context of external reality, three important sub-themes were identified-intrinsic background status, personal experience, and worldview. Lifestyle habits of persons with T2D play a central role in their disease management. Another common recurring concern is the issue of a low-quality food environment in the country. More importantly, individuals with T2D have a high degree of expectations for a more person-centered approach to their illness.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified modifiable and non-modifiable behavioural factors that influence the daily living environment of people with T2D. This information can be used to customize the management of T2D through targeted behavioural interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Parham S, Kharazi AZ, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Nur H, Ismail AF, Sharif S, et al.
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2020 Dec 21;9(12).
    PMID: 33371338 DOI: 10.3390/antiox9121309
    Recently, increasing public concern about hygiene has been driving many studies to investigate antimicrobial and antiviral agents. However, the use of any antimicrobial agents must be limited due to their possible toxic or harmful effects. In recent years, due to previous antibiotics' lesser side effects, the use of herbal materials instead of synthetic or chemical drugs is increasing. Herbal materials are found in medicines. Herbs can be used in the form of plant extracts or as their active components. Furthermore, most of the world's populations used herbal materials due to their strong antimicrobial properties and primary healthcare benefits. For example, herbs are an excellent material to replace nanosilver as an antibiotic and antiviral agent. The use of nanosilver involves an ROS-mediated mechanism that might lead to oxidative stress-related cancer, cytotoxicity, and heart diseases. Oxidative stress further leads to increased ROS production and also delays the cellular processes involved in wound healing. Therefore, existing antibiotic drugs can be replaced with biomaterials such as herbal medicine with high antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activity. This review paper highlights the antibacterial, antiviral, and radical scavenger (antioxidant) properties of herbal materials. Antimicrobial activity, radical scavenger ability, the potential for antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents, and efficacy in eliminating bacteria and viruses and scavenging free radicals in herbal materials are discussed in this review. The presented herbal antimicrobial agents in this review include clove, portulaca, tribulus, eryngium, cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, thyme, pennyroyal, mint, fennel, chamomile, burdock, eucalyptus, primrose, lemon balm, mallow, and garlic, which are all summarized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  10. Jaafar N, Perialathan K, Zulkepli MZ, Mohd Zin Z, Jonoi PE, Johari MZ
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 12 11;11:2150132720980629.
    PMID: 33300405 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720980629
    BACKGROUND: The present Malaysian healthcare system is burdened with increasing cases of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and its risk factors. Health care providers (HCPs) have to provide both treatment and health education to ensure optimal outcome. Health education is a vital component in addressing and managing chronic diseases. This study intends to explore patient's perspective on health education services received from HCPs, focusing at the secondary triage in government primary healthcare facilities.

    METHODS: This qualitative exploratory study focused on the health education component derived from a complex enhanced primary health care intervention. Participants were purposively selected from patients who attended regular NCD treatment at 8 primary healthcare facilities in rural and urban areas of Johor and Selangor. Data collection was conducted between April 2017 and April 2018. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted on 4 to 5 patients at each intervention clinic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 patients participated. Through thematic analysis, 2 main themes emerged; Perceived Suitability and Preferred HCPs. Under Perceived Suitability theme, increased waiting time and unsuitable location emerged as sub-themes. Under Preferred HCPs, emerging sub-themes were professional credibility, continuity of care, message fatigue, and interpersonal relationship. There are both positive and adverse acceptances toward health education delivered by HCPs. It should be noted that acceptance level for health information received from doctors are much more positively accepted compared to other HCPs.

    CONCLUSION: Patients are willing to engage with health educators when their needs are addressed. Revision of current location, process and policy of health education delivery is needed to capture patients' attention and increase awareness of healthy living with NCDs. HCPs should continuously enhance knowledge and skills, which are essential to improve development and progressively becoming the expert educator in their respective specialized field.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Ramsay R, Nashat NH, Thuraisingham C, Andrades M, Ng V, Cabezas-Escobar CE, et al.
    Educ Prim Care, 2020 Dec 09.
    PMID: 33295252 DOI: 10.1080/14739879.2020.1851147
    This article sets out to highlight the challenges and opportunities for medical education in primary care realised during the COVID-19 pandemic and now being enacted globally. The themes were originally presented during a webinar involving educationalists from around the world and are subsequently discussed by members of the WONCA working party for education. The article recognises the importance of utilising diversity, addressing inequity and responding to the priority health needs of the community through socially accountable practice. The well-being of educators and learners is identified as priority in response to the ongoing global pandemic. Finally, we imagine a new era for medical education drawing on global connection and shared resources to create a strong community of practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  12. Lim SC, Mustapha FI, Aagaard-Hansen J, Calopietro M, Aris T, Bjerre-Christensen U
    Med Educ Online, 2020 Dec;25(1):1710330.
    PMID: 31891330 DOI: 10.1080/10872981.2019.1710330
    Background: Continuing Medical Education (CME) is a cornerstone of improving competencies and ensuring high-quality patient care by nurses and physicians. The Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia collaborated with Steno Diabetes Centre to improve diabetes-related competencies of general physicians and nurses working in primary care through a six-month training programme called the Steno REACH Certificate Course in Clinical Diabetes Care (SRCC).Objective: This impact evaluation aimed to assess the effect of participation of general physicians and nurses in the SRCC in selected public primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia.Design: The quasi-experimental, embedded, mixed-methods study used concurrent data collection and the Solomon four-group design. Participants in an intervention group (Arm 1) and control group (Arm 3) were assessed by pre-and post-test, and participants in separate intervention (Arm 2) and control (Arm 4) groups were assessed by post-test only. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to assess the effect of the programme.Results: Thirty-four of the 39 participants in the intervention groups (Arms 1 and 2) completed the SRCC and were included in the analysis. All 35 participants in the control groups (Arms 3 and 4) remained at the end of the study period. Significant improvements in diabetes-related knowledge, skills and clinical practise were found among general physicians and nurses in the intervention group after the six-month SRCC, after controlling the pretest effects. No clear changes could be traced regarding attitudes.Conclusion: SRCC participants had significant improvements in knowledge, skills and clinical practice that meet the current needs of general physicians and nurses working in primary care in Malaysia. Thus, SRCC is an effective CME approach to improving clinical diabetes care that can be scaled up to the rest of the country and, with some modification, beyond Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  13. Devaraj NK
    Sleep Breath, 2020 Dec;24(4):1581-1590.
    PMID: 32096012 DOI: 10.1007/s11325-020-02040-1
    PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked with inflammation, hypertension, and higher cardiovascular risk which cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, OSA is underdiagnosed and its prevalence is increasing. Primary care doctors are the first contact for most patients and primary care providers play an important role in promoting, screening, and educating patients regarding OSA. This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding OSA among primary care doctors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among physicians who were currently working in primary care clinics in the capital state of Kuala Lumpur. The validated "Obstructive Sleep Apnea Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire" (OSAKA) and nine additional practice questions were used as the survey instrument.

    RESULTS: Of 207 physicians queried, the response rate was 100%. The mean (± SD) total knowledge score was 11.6 (± 2.8) (range 1-18). The majority of respondents had a positive attitude towards the importance of OSA but lacked confidence in managing OSA. Primary care doctors' most common practice for patients with suspected OSA was referral to the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) clinic.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that primary care doctors demonstrated adequate knowledge about OSA and were aware of the importance of OSA as a core clinical problem. However, only a minority felt confident in managing patients with OSA. The results of the study may encourage improvement of primary care doctors' efforts to prevent and manage OSA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  14. Abdullah B, Kandiah R, Hassan NFHN, Ismail AF, Mohammad ZW, Wang Y
    World Allergy Organ J, 2020 Dec;13(12):100482.
    PMID: 33294114 DOI: 10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100482
    Background: Primary care practitioners (PCPs), being the front liners, play an important role in treating allergic rhinitis (AR). As there is no proper tool to assess their perception, attitude, and practice in utilizing the guidelines, we aimed to develop and validate a new questionnaire for such purpose.

    Methods: The development phase consists of both literature and expert panel review. The validation phase consists of content validity, face validity, and construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to verify internal consistency. The development phase produced a questionnaire with 3 domains: perception, attitude, and practice consisting of 60 items (PAP-PCP questionnaire). Item response theory analysis for perception demonstrated the difficulty and discrimination values were acceptable except for 3 items. Exploratory factor analysis for attitude and practice domains showed the psychometric properties were good except for 3 items in practice domain. Experts judgement was used to decide on the final selection of questionnaire which consists of 59 items.

    Results: The final validated questionnaire has 3 domains with 59 items. All domains had Cronbach's alpha above 0.65 which was reliable. 302 physicians completed the questionnaire. 98% PCPs diagnosed AR based on clinical history. Although, majority agree AR guidelines is useful (67%), they had difficulty in using it to classify AR (54.9%) and determine AR severity (73.9%). Oral anti-histamines (first and second generation) were the most prescribed (>75%) followed by intranasal corticosteroids (59%) and combined intranasal corticosteroid and oral anti-histamine (51%). Majority agreed that treatment efficacy (81.8%), adverse effects (83.8%), fear of adverse effects (73.5%), route of administration (69.4%), dosing frequency (72.5%), taste (64.6%) and cost (73.5%) affect treatment compliance.

    Conclusions: The newly developed and validated questionnaire is a promising instrument in understanding the treatment gap in AR. Although further testing and refinement are needed, it provides an initial means for evaluating knowledge and understanding of PCPs in treating AR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  15. Zain SM, Tan HL, Mohamed Z, Chan WK, Mahadeva S, Basu RC, et al.
    JGH Open, 2020 Dec;4(6):1155-1161.
    PMID: 33319051 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12414
    Background and Aim: Advanced fibrosis is the most important predictor of liver-related mortality in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of noninvasive scoring systems in identifying advanced fibrosis in a Malaysian NAFLD cohort and propose a simplified strategy for the management of NAFLD in a primary care setting.

    Methods: We enrolled and reviewed 122 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Advanced fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stages 3-4. Noninvasive assessments included aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), AST/ALT ratio, diabetes (BARD) score, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, and NAFLD fibrosis score.

    Results: FIB-4 score had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.86 and 94.3%, respectively, for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis. FIB-4 score care setting, with further stratification of those in the indeterminate group using clinical predictors of NASH, can help in the development of a simplified strategy for a public health approach in the management of NAFLD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  16. Husin M, Ab Rahman N, Wong XC, Mohamad Noh K, Tong SF, Schäfer W, et al.
    Prim Health Care Res Dev, 2020 11 20;21:e51.
    PMID: 33213564 DOI: 10.1017/S1463423620000511
    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to describe the recruitment strategies, the response rates and the reasons for non-response of Malaysian public and private primary care doctors in an international survey on the quality, cost and equity in primary care.

    BACKGROUND: Low research participation by primary care doctors, especially those working in the private sector, is a challenge to quality benchmarking.

    METHODS: Primary care doctors were sampled through multi-stage sampling. The first stage-sampling unit was the primary care clinics, which were randomly sampled from five states in Malaysia to reflect their proportions in two strata - sector (public/private) and location (urban/rural). Strategies through endorsement, personalised invitation, face-to-face interview and non-monetary incentives were used to recruit public and private doctors. Data collection was carried out by fieldworkers through structured questionnaires.

    FINDINGS: A total of 221 public and 239 private doctors participated in the study. Among the public doctors, 99.5% response rates were obtained. Among the private doctors, a 32.8% response rate was obtained. Totally, 30% of private clinics were uncontactable by telephone, and when these were excluded, the overall response rate is 46.8%. The response rate of the private clinics across the states ranges from 31.5% to 34.0%. A total of 167 answered the non-respondent questionnaire. Among the non-respondents, 77.4 % were male and 22.6% female (P = 0.011). There were 33.6% of doctors older than 65 years (P = 0.003) and 15.9% were from the state of Sarawak (P = 0.016) when compared to non-respondents. Reason for non-participation included being too busy (51.8%), not interested (32.9%), not having enough patients (9.1%) and did not find it beneficial (7.9%). Our study demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining favourable response rate in a survey involving doctors from public and private primary care settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  17. Miptah HN, Ramli AS, Mohamad M, Hashim H, Tharek Z
    BMC Fam Pract, 2020 11 20;21(1):238.
    PMID: 33218301 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-020-01306-7
    BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging novel cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. It's prevalence is increasing globally. However, there is paucity in the evidence showing the association between NAFLD and CVD risk in primary care setting. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with NAFLD among patients with ≥1 risk factor for NAFLD or CVD attending primary care clinics.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted in two clinics at a university primary care centre. Patients aged ≥18 years with ≥1 risk factor for NAFLD or CVD were recruited. Participants with history of established liver disease or chronic alcohol use were excluded. Socio-demographics, clinical related data, anthropometric measurements and blood investigation results were recorded in a proforma. Diagnosis of NAFLD was made using abdominal ultrasound. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the general Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Multiple logistic regression (MLogR) was performed to identify independent factors associated with NAFLD.

    RESULTS: A total of 263 participants were recruited. The mean age was 52.3 ± 14.7 years old. Male and female were equally distributed. Majority of the participants were Malays (79.8%). The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 54.4% (95%CI 48,60%). Participants in the high FRS category have higher prevalence of NAFLD (65.5%), followed by those in the moderate category (55.4%) and the low category (46.3%), p = 0.025. From MLogR, independent factors associated with NAFLD were being employed (OR = 2.44, 95%CI 1.26,4.70, p = 0.008), obesity with BMI ≥27.5 (OR = 2.89, 95%CI 1.21,6.91, p = 0.017), elevated fasting glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L (OR = 2.79, 95%CI 1.44,5.43, p = 0.002), ALT ≥34 U/L (OR = 3.70, 95%CI 1.85,7.44, p care clinics. Patients who were obese, have elevated fasting glucose, elevated ALT and in the high FRS category were more likely to have NAFLD. This study underscores the importance of targeted screening for NAFLD in those with risk factors in primary care. Aggressive intervention must be executed in those with NAFLD in order to reduce CVD complications and risk of progression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  18. Abdullah A, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Ambigapathy S, V P, Chinna K
    BMJ Open, 2020 11 14;10(11):e039864.
    PMID: 33191262 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039864
    OBJECTIVE: Limited health literacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) led to poorer diabetes knowledge, less medication adherence and increased healthcare cost. The purpose of this paper was to report the prevalence of limited health literacy in patients with T2DM and to identify factors that are associated with it.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2018; data on patients' sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes knowledge, perceived social support and health literacy level were collected. Health literacy level was measured using the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47).

    SETTING: Patients were recruited from four primary care clinics in Perak, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients diagnosed with T2DM who attended the study clinics during the study period.

    PRIMARY OUTCOME VARIABLE: Patients with HLS-EU-Q47 General Index of ≤33 points were classified as having limited health literacy.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of limited health literacy was 65.3% (n=279). In bivariate analysis, patients' ethnicity (p=0.04), highest education level (p<0.001), monthly income (p=0.003), having health insurance (p=0.007), English language fluency (p<0.001), Malay language fluency (p=0.021), attending diabetes education sessions (p<0.001), perceived social support (p<0.001) and diabetes knowledge (p=0.019) were factors associated with limited health literacy. In logistic regression, not being fluent in English was associated with limited health literacy (OR=2.36, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.30) whereas having high perceived social support (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.69) and having attended diabetes education sessions (OR=0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.68) were associated with adequate health literacy.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of limited health literacy is high among patients with T2DM in Perak, Malaysia. Strategies to improve health literacy in these patients must consider the influences of English fluency, attendance at diabetes education sessions and social support, and may need to adopt a universal approach to addressing limited health literacy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  19. Mohd Mydin FH, Othman S
    J Interpers Violence, 2020 Nov;35(23-24):6041-6066.
    PMID: 29294874 DOI: 10.1177/0886260517726411
    This qualitative study attempts to explore the definition, perceptions, practice experience, and barriers of primary care physicians (PCPs) in identifying and intervening in cases of elder abuse and neglect at the primary care level. Semistructured in-depth interview was conducted among 10 PCPs. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. In general, PCPs showed consistency in defining elder abuse and neglect. PCPs considered that they were optimally positioned to intervene in cases of elder abuse and neglect, but indicated the potential of overlooking such problems. The hurdles faced by PCPs in the identification and intervention of elder abuse were determined to be occurring at three levels: clinical, organizational, and policy. At the clinical level, PCPs recognize that they are lacking both the confidence and knowledge of elder abuse and neglect intervention. PCPs' conflicting personal and professional beliefs create barriers during the clinical practice. Time constraints, patients' other clinical problems, and, in addition, the preservation of a good doctor-patient relationship overshadow the importance of addressing and intervening in elder abuse and neglect issues during the consultation. This is further exacerbated by the barriers perceived by the patients: their nondisclosure and reluctance to accept outside intervention. At the organizational level, the lack of efficient interagency networks or support for the health system poses barriers. At the policy level, the absence of legislation specifically addressing elder abuse also creates considerable difficulties. However, PCPs gave differing responses when asked about a law concerning the elderly and mandatory reporting. Addressing these multilevel barriers is critical for ensuring that opportunities arising at the primary care level for elder maltreatment intervention are correctly utilized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  20. Hasneezah H, Rosliza AM, Salmiah MS, Appanah G
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):626-634.
    PMID: 33219169
    BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnancy is considered a public health problem throughout the world. The effects of the existing intervention in ensuring compliance to the subscribed regimen and the impact of nutrition education in enhancing dietary modification during pregnancy in Malaysia have been minimal. This study aims to develop, implement and evaluate the effects of the Health Belief Model educational intervention on haemoglobin level among anaemic pregnant women.

    METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental research with prepost test design with control group involving 81 participants per group from two health clinics in Sepang. The primary outcome was a change in the haemoglobin levels following educational intervention. Secondary outcomes include knowledge on anaemia, Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs, dietary iron intake and compliance towards iron supplementation. The intervention group received a HBMbased education intervention programme.

    RESULTS: The response rate in the intervention and control group were 83.9% and 82.7% respectively. Generalised estimating equations analysis showed that the intervention was effective in improving the mean haemoglobin level (β=0.75, 95%CI=0.52, 0.99, p<0.001), the knowledge score (β=1.42, 95%CI=0.36, 2.49, p=0.009), perceived severity score (β=2.2, 95%CI= 1.02, 3.39, p<0.001) and increased proportion of high compliance level (AOR=4.59, 95%CI=1.58, 13.35, p=0.005).

    CONCLUSION: HBM-based health education programme has proven to be effective in improving the haemoglobin levels, knowledge scores, perceived severity scores and compliance level of participants. The study results emphasized on the effectiveness of such an approach, therefore it is recommended that future educational interventions which aim at increasing preventive healthy behaviours in pregnant women may benefit from the application of this model in primary health care settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
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