METHODS: This cross-sectional validation study involved Malaysian PCP with ≥ 1-year work experience in the primary care settings. In Phase 1, the original 19-item FH KAP questionnaire underwent content validation and adaptation by 7 experts. The questionnaire was then converted into an online survey instrument and was face validated by 10 PCP. In Phase 2, the adapted questionnaire was disseminated through e-mail to 1500 PCP. Data were collected on their KAP, demography, qualification and work experience. The construct validity was tested using known-groups validation method. The hypothesis was PCP holding postgraduate qualification (PCP-PG-Qual) would have better FH KAP compared with PCP without postgraduate qualification (PCP-noPG-Qual). Internal consistency reliability was calculated using Kuder Richardson formula-20 (KR-20) and test-retest reliability was tested on 26 PCP using kappa statistics.
RESULTS: During content validation and adaptation, 10 items remained unchanged, 8 items were modified, 1 item was moved to demography and 7 items were added. The adapted questionnaire consisted of 25 items (11 knowledge, 5 awareness and 9 practice items). A total of 130 out of 1500 PCP (response rate: 8.7%) completed the questionnaire. The mean percentage knowledge score was found to be significantly higher in PCP-PG-Qual compared with PCP-noPG-Qual (53.5, SD ± 13.9 vs. 35.9, SD ± 11.79), t(128) = 6.90, p
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 370 pregnant women (aged 18 years old and above) will be recruited with International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form. Ten clusters (primary care clinics) will be randomly assigned to either PFMT or usual care in a 1:1 ratio by an independent researcher (sealed envelope). The primary outcome will be urinary incontinence, and the secondary outcomes (quality of life; PFMT adherence, psychological status and mobile apps' usability) will be assessed at four measurement time points (t0: baseline) and postintervention (t1: 4 weeks, t2: 8 weeks and t3: 8 weeks postnatal). T-test analysis will determine any significant differences at the baseline between the control and intervention groups. The mixed-model analysis will determine the effectiveness of the intervention at the population-average level for both the primary and secondary outcomes. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, expenditures during the study and 6 months after the intervention will be compared between the groups using the multiway sensitivity analysis. The recruitment planned will be in December 2020, and the planned end of the study will be in August 2021.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects, Universiti Putra Malaysia (JKEUPM-2019-368) and Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia, NMRR-19-412-47116 (IIR) with the ANZCTR registration. This study will obtain informed written consent from all the study participants. The results which conform with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and the Recommendations for Interventional Trials will be published for dissemination in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619000379112.
METHODS: The original PCPI-S was reviewed and adapted for cultural suitability by an expert committee to ensure conceptual and item equivalence. The instrument was subsequently translated into the local Malay language using the forward-backward translation by two independent native speakers, and modified following pre-tests involving cognitive debriefing interviews. The psychometric properties of the corresponding instrument were determined by assessing the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and correlation of the instrument, while the underlying structure was analysed using exploratory factor analysis.
RESULTS: Review by expert committee found items applicable to local context. Pre-tests on the translated instrument found multiple domains and questions were misinterpreted. Many translations were heavily influenced by culture, context, and language discrepancies. Results of the subsequent pilot study found mean scores for all items ranged from 2.92 to 4.39. Notable ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.9). Exploratory factor analysis found formation of 11 components as opposed to the original 17 constructs.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence regarding the reliability and underlying structure of the PCPI-S instrument with regard to primary care practice. Culture, context, language and local practice heavily influenced the adaptation as well as interpretation of the underlying structure and should be given emphasis when translating person-centred into practice.
DESCRIPTION: COVID-19 directly affects pregnant women causing more severe disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The indirect effects due to the monumental COVID-19 response are much worse, increasing maternal and neonatal mortality.
ASSESSMENT: Amidst COVID-19, governments must balance effective COVID-19 response measures while continuing delivery of essential health services. Using the World Health Organization's operational guidelines as a base, countries must conduct contextualized analyses to tailor their operations. Evidence based information on different services and comparative cost-benefits will help decisions on trade-offs. Situational analyses identifying extent and reasons for service disruptions and estimates of impacts using modelling techniques will guide prioritization of services. Ensuring adequate supplies, maintaining core interventions, expanding non-physician workforce and deploying telehealth are some adaptive measures to optimize care. Beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, governments must reinvest in maternal and child health by building more resilient maternal health services supported by political commitment and multisectoral engagement, and with assistance from international partners.
CONCLUSIONS: Multi-sectoral investments providing high-quality care that ensures continuity and available to all segments of the population are needed. A robust primary healthcare system linked to specialist care and accessible to all segments of the population including marginalized subgroups is of paramount importance. Systematic approaches to digital health care solutions to bridge gaps in service is imperative. Future pandemic preparedness programs must include action plans for resilient maternal health services.
METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted at 20 participating EnPHC clinics in Johor and Selangor, two months after the intervention was initiated. Data collected from self-reported forms and a structured observation checklist were descriptively analysed. In-depth interviews were also conducted with 20 participants across the clinics selected to clarify any information gaps observed in each clinic, and data were thematically analysed.
RESULTS: Evaluation showed that all components of EnPHC intervention had been successfully implemented except for the primary triage counter and visit checklist. The challenges were mainly discovered in terms of human resource and physical structure. Although human resource was a common implementation challenge across all interventions, clinic-specific issues could still be identified. Among the adaptive measures taken were task sharing among staff and workflow modification to match the clinic's capacity. Despite the challenges, early benefits of implementation were highlighted especially in terms of service outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation study disclosed issues of human resource and physical infrastructure when a supplementary intervention is implemented. To successfully achieve a scaled-up PHC service delivery model based on comprehensive management of NCDs patient-centred care, the adaptive measures in local clinic context highlight the importance of collaboration between good organisational process and good clinical practice and process.
METHODS: This qualitative exploratory study focused on the health education component derived from a complex enhanced primary health care intervention. Participants were purposively selected from patients who attended regular NCD treatment at 8 primary healthcare facilities in rural and urban areas of Johor and Selangor. Data collection was conducted between April 2017 and April 2018. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted on 4 to 5 patients at each intervention clinic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.
RESULTS: A total of 35 patients participated. Through thematic analysis, 2 main themes emerged; Perceived Suitability and Preferred HCPs. Under Perceived Suitability theme, increased waiting time and unsuitable location emerged as sub-themes. Under Preferred HCPs, emerging sub-themes were professional credibility, continuity of care, message fatigue, and interpersonal relationship. There are both positive and adverse acceptances toward health education delivered by HCPs. It should be noted that acceptance level for health information received from doctors are much more positively accepted compared to other HCPs.
CONCLUSION: Patients are willing to engage with health educators when their needs are addressed. Revision of current location, process and policy of health education delivery is needed to capture patients' attention and increase awareness of healthy living with NCDs. HCPs should continuously enhance knowledge and skills, which are essential to improve development and progressively becoming the expert educator in their respective specialized field.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among physicians who were currently working in primary care clinics in the capital state of Kuala Lumpur. The validated "Obstructive Sleep Apnea Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire" (OSAKA) and nine additional practice questions were used as the survey instrument.
RESULTS: Of 207 physicians queried, the response rate was 100%. The mean (± SD) total knowledge score was 11.6 (± 2.8) (range 1-18). The majority of respondents had a positive attitude towards the importance of OSA but lacked confidence in managing OSA. Primary care doctors' most common practice for patients with suspected OSA was referral to the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) clinic.
CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that primary care doctors demonstrated adequate knowledge about OSA and were aware of the importance of OSA as a core clinical problem. However, only a minority felt confident in managing patients with OSA. The results of the study may encourage improvement of primary care doctors' efforts to prevent and manage OSA.
Methods: The development phase consists of both literature and expert panel review. The validation phase consists of content validity, face validity, and construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to verify internal consistency. The development phase produced a questionnaire with 3 domains: perception, attitude, and practice consisting of 60 items (PAP-PCP questionnaire). Item response theory analysis for perception demonstrated the difficulty and discrimination values were acceptable except for 3 items. Exploratory factor analysis for attitude and practice domains showed the psychometric properties were good except for 3 items in practice domain. Experts judgement was used to decide on the final selection of questionnaire which consists of 59 items.
Results: The final validated questionnaire has 3 domains with 59 items. All domains had Cronbach's alpha above 0.65 which was reliable. 302 physicians completed the questionnaire. 98% PCPs diagnosed AR based on clinical history. Although, majority agree AR guidelines is useful (67%), they had difficulty in using it to classify AR (54.9%) and determine AR severity (73.9%). Oral anti-histamines (first and second generation) were the most prescribed (>75%) followed by intranasal corticosteroids (59%) and combined intranasal corticosteroid and oral anti-histamine (51%). Majority agreed that treatment efficacy (81.8%), adverse effects (83.8%), fear of adverse effects (73.5%), route of administration (69.4%), dosing frequency (72.5%), taste (64.6%) and cost (73.5%) affect treatment compliance.
Conclusions: The newly developed and validated questionnaire is a promising instrument in understanding the treatment gap in AR. Although further testing and refinement are needed, it provides an initial means for evaluating knowledge and understanding of PCPs in treating AR.
Methods: We enrolled and reviewed 122 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients. Advanced fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stages 3-4. Noninvasive assessments included aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), AST/ALT ratio, diabetes (BARD) score, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, and NAFLD fibrosis score.
Results: FIB-4 score had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.86 and 94.3%, respectively, for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis. FIB-4 score care setting, with further stratification of those in the indeterminate group using clinical predictors of NASH, can help in the development of a simplified strategy for a public health approach in the management of NAFLD.
BACKGROUND: Low research participation by primary care doctors, especially those working in the private sector, is a challenge to quality benchmarking.
METHODS: Primary care doctors were sampled through multi-stage sampling. The first stage-sampling unit was the primary care clinics, which were randomly sampled from five states in Malaysia to reflect their proportions in two strata - sector (public/private) and location (urban/rural). Strategies through endorsement, personalised invitation, face-to-face interview and non-monetary incentives were used to recruit public and private doctors. Data collection was carried out by fieldworkers through structured questionnaires.
FINDINGS: A total of 221 public and 239 private doctors participated in the study. Among the public doctors, 99.5% response rates were obtained. Among the private doctors, a 32.8% response rate was obtained. Totally, 30% of private clinics were uncontactable by telephone, and when these were excluded, the overall response rate is 46.8%. The response rate of the private clinics across the states ranges from 31.5% to 34.0%. A total of 167 answered the non-respondent questionnaire. Among the non-respondents, 77.4 % were male and 22.6% female (P = 0.011). There were 33.6% of doctors older than 65 years (P = 0.003) and 15.9% were from the state of Sarawak (P = 0.016) when compared to non-respondents. Reason for non-participation included being too busy (51.8%), not interested (32.9%), not having enough patients (9.1%) and did not find it beneficial (7.9%). Our study demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining favourable response rate in a survey involving doctors from public and private primary care settings.
METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was conducted in two clinics at a university primary care centre. Patients aged ≥18 years with ≥1 risk factor for NAFLD or CVD were recruited. Participants with history of established liver disease or chronic alcohol use were excluded. Socio-demographics, clinical related data, anthropometric measurements and blood investigation results were recorded in a proforma. Diagnosis of NAFLD was made using abdominal ultrasound. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the general Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Multiple logistic regression (MLogR) was performed to identify independent factors associated with NAFLD.
RESULTS: A total of 263 participants were recruited. The mean age was 52.3 ± 14.7 years old. Male and female were equally distributed. Majority of the participants were Malays (79.8%). The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 54.4% (95%CI 48,60%). Participants in the high FRS category have higher prevalence of NAFLD (65.5%), followed by those in the moderate category (55.4%) and the low category (46.3%), p = 0.025. From MLogR, independent factors associated with NAFLD were being employed (OR = 2.44, 95%CI 1.26,4.70, p = 0.008), obesity with BMI ≥27.5 (OR = 2.89, 95%CI 1.21,6.91, p = 0.017), elevated fasting glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L (OR = 2.79, 95%CI 1.44,5.43, p = 0.002), ALT ≥34 U/L (OR = 3.70, 95%CI 1.85,7.44, p care clinics. Patients who were obese, have elevated fasting glucose, elevated ALT and in the high FRS category were more likely to have NAFLD. This study underscores the importance of targeted screening for NAFLD in those with risk factors in primary care. Aggressive intervention must be executed in those with NAFLD in order to reduce CVD complications and risk of progression.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2018; data on patients' sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes knowledge, perceived social support and health literacy level were collected. Health literacy level was measured using the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47).
SETTING: Patients were recruited from four primary care clinics in Perak, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients diagnosed with T2DM who attended the study clinics during the study period.
PRIMARY OUTCOME VARIABLE: Patients with HLS-EU-Q47 General Index of ≤33 points were classified as having limited health literacy.
RESULTS: The prevalence of limited health literacy was 65.3% (n=279). In bivariate analysis, patients' ethnicity (p=0.04), highest education level (p<0.001), monthly income (p=0.003), having health insurance (p=0.007), English language fluency (p<0.001), Malay language fluency (p=0.021), attending diabetes education sessions (p<0.001), perceived social support (p<0.001) and diabetes knowledge (p=0.019) were factors associated with limited health literacy. In logistic regression, not being fluent in English was associated with limited health literacy (OR=2.36, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.30) whereas having high perceived social support (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.69) and having attended diabetes education sessions (OR=0.42, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.68) were associated with adequate health literacy.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of limited health literacy is high among patients with T2DM in Perak, Malaysia. Strategies to improve health literacy in these patients must consider the influences of English fluency, attendance at diabetes education sessions and social support, and may need to adopt a universal approach to addressing limited health literacy.
METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental research with prepost test design with control group involving 81 participants per group from two health clinics in Sepang. The primary outcome was a change in the haemoglobin levels following educational intervention. Secondary outcomes include knowledge on anaemia, Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs, dietary iron intake and compliance towards iron supplementation. The intervention group received a HBMbased education intervention programme.
RESULTS: The response rate in the intervention and control group were 83.9% and 82.7% respectively. Generalised estimating equations analysis showed that the intervention was effective in improving the mean haemoglobin level (β=0.75, 95%CI=0.52, 0.99, p<0.001), the knowledge score (β=1.42, 95%CI=0.36, 2.49, p=0.009), perceived severity score (β=2.2, 95%CI= 1.02, 3.39, p<0.001) and increased proportion of high compliance level (AOR=4.59, 95%CI=1.58, 13.35, p=0.005).
CONCLUSION: HBM-based health education programme has proven to be effective in improving the haemoglobin levels, knowledge scores, perceived severity scores and compliance level of participants. The study results emphasized on the effectiveness of such an approach, therefore it is recommended that future educational interventions which aim at increasing preventive healthy behaviours in pregnant women may benefit from the application of this model in primary health care settings.