Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 472 in total

  1. Tee ES, Kandiah M, Ali J, Kandiah V, Zahari MR, Kuladevan R, et al.
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1984 Jun;2(1):32-50.
    PMID: 12267519
    The study presents recent data on the prevalence and pattern of nutritional anemia in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 309 pregnant women in their third trimester, of Malay, Chinese and Indian origin from the lower socio-economic strata were randomly selected for the study. Hematological indices (including Hb, PCV, MCHC, and TRBC), serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin, serum folate as well as protein and albumin were determined. Based on Hb and PCV values, 30-40 percent of the women could be considered anemic; approximately 50 percent of them presented with unsatisfactory serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin values; 60.9 percent had low serum folate levels; and about 30 percent may be considered to be of poor protein nutriture. Anemia in the study population was seen to be related mostly to iron and to a lesser extent, folate deficiency. Hematological, iron, folate and protein status was observed to be the poorest amongst the Indian women, better in the Malay group and generally the best amongst the Chinese women. Birth records of 169 of these women revealed that all of them had live births. Nearly all the infants were delivered by normal vaginal delivery (NVD) The mean gestational age was 38.6 weeks. One of the infants had a birth weight of <2.0 kg; incidence of low birth weight, <2.5 kg, was 8.3 percent. Although there was a trend of deteriorating hematological, iron and protein status of women from the 0, 1 -3 and >=4 parity groups, these differences were not statlstlcally significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Sui CF, Ming LC, Neoh CF, Ibrahim B
    PMID: 26316735 DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S84618
    Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener
    (COPD-PS) questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers.
    Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83) were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia) compared to 75.9% (63/83) from Sabah (Borneo region). Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of >=5) yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1/FEV6 <0.75 compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms (scores <5).
    Conclusion: With the availability of a simple screening questionnaire and the COPD-6, there is an opportunity easily to make patients more aware of their lung symptoms and to encourage the provision of early treatment. The proposed dual assessment approach, which we termed the VitalQPlus, may play a profound role in the early diagnosis of COPD, which is crucial in improving the clinical management of the disease.
    Keywords: spirometry, pulmonary function test, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
    airway obstruction
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  3. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2014 Nov 20;14:163.
    PMID: 25410585 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-14-163
    BACKGROUND: The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score.
    METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12.
    CONCLUSIONS: The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be appropriate for use in a primary care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  4. Lim KK, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    Singapore Med J, 2015 May;56(5):291-7.
    PMID: 25597751 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015019
    As the population ages, the prevalence of hypertension also increases. Although primary care is usually the patient's first point of contact for healthcare, little is known about the management of hypertension among elderly patients at the primary care level. This study aimed to determine the antihypertensive prescription trend for elderly patients, the predictors of antihypertensive use and any inappropriate prescribing practices in both public and private primary care settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  5. Wong JS, Rahimah N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):411-7.
    PMID: 15727390 MyJurnal
    Achieving glycaemic goals in diabetics has always been a problem, especially in a developing country with inadequate facilities such as in Sarawak in Malaysia. There are no reported studies on the control of diabetes mellitus in a diabetic clinic in the primary health care setting in Sarawak. This paper describes the profile of 1031 patients treated in Klinik Kesihatan Tanah Puteh Health Centre. The mean age was 59 years, the mean BMI 27 kg/m2. There was a female preponderance and mainly type-2 diabetes. Mean HbA1c was 7.4%. Glycaemic control was optimal in 28% (HbA1c <6.5%), fair in 34% (HbA1c 6.5-7.5%) and poor in 38% (HbA1c >7.5%). Reasonable glycaemic control can be achieved in the primary health care setting in Sarawak.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Tanah Puteh, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  6. Sazlina SG, Zaiton A, Nor Afiah MZ, Hayati KS
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2012 May;16(5):498-502.
    PMID: 22555798 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-012-0038-8
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the health related quality of life and its predictive factors among older people with non-communicable diseases attending primary care clinics.
    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
    SETTING: Three public primary care clinics in a district in Selangor, Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Registered patients aged 55 years and above.
    MEASUREMENTS: A face-to-face interview was conducted using a validated questionnaire of Medical Outcome Study 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). The outcome measure was the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and other factors measured were socio demography, physical activity, social support (Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire), and presence of non-communicable diseases.
    RESULTS: A total of 347 participants had non-communicable diseases which included hypertension (41.8%), type 2 diabetes (33.7%), asthma (4.8%), hyperlipidaemia (1.7%), coronary heart disease (1.2%), and osteoarthritis (0.2%). Age ≥ 65 years old (OR =2.23; 95%CI=1.42, 3.50), single (OR=1.75; 95%CI=1.06,2.90), presence of co-morbid condition (OR=1.66; 95%CI=1.06, 2.61), and poorer social support (OR=2.11; 95%CI=1.27, 3.51; p=0.002) were significant predictors of poorer physical component of HRQoL . In predicting lower mental health component of HRQoL, the significant predictors were women (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.44, 3.62), Indian ethnicity (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.08, 3.21) and poorer social support (OR=2.71; 95%CI=1.63, 4.51). No interactions existed between these predictors.
    CONCLUSION: Older people with non-communicable diseases were susceptible to lower health related quality of life. Increasing age, single, presence of co-morbid conditions, and poorer social support were predictors of lower physical health component of HRQoL. While the older women, Indian ethnicity and poorer social support reported lower mental health component of HRQoL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  7. Eldem B, Lai TYY, Ngah NF, Vote B, Yu HG, Fabre A, et al.
    Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2018 May;256(5):963-973.
    PMID: 29502232 DOI: 10.1007/s00417-017-3890-8
    PURPOSE: To describe intravitreal ranibizumab treatment frequency, clinical monitoring, and visual outcomes (including mean central retinal thickness [CRT] and visual acuity [VA] changes from baseline) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in real-world settings across three ranibizumab reimbursement scenarios in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Non-interventional multicenter historical cohort study of intravitreal ranibizumab use for nAMD in routine clinical practice between April 2010 and April 2013. Eligible patients were diagnosed with nAMD, received at least one intravitreal ranibizumab injection during the study period, and had been observed for a minimum of 1 year (up to 3 years). Reimbursement scenarios were defined as self-paid, partially-reimbursed, and fully-reimbursed.

    RESULTS: More than three-fourths (n = 2521) of the analysis population was partially-reimbursed for ranibizumab, while 16.4% (n = 532) was fully-reimbursed, and 5.8% was self-paid (n = 188). The average annual ranibizumab injection frequency was 4.1 injections in the partially-reimbursed, 4.7 in the fully-reimbursed and 2.6 in the self-paid populations. The average clinical monitoring frequency was estimated to be 6.7 visits/year, with similar frequencies observed across reimbursement categories. On average, patients experienced VA reduction of -0.7 letters and a decrease in CRT of -44.4 μm. The greatest mean CRT change was observed in the self-paid group, with -92.6 μm.

    CONCLUSIONS: UNCOVER included a large, heterogeneous ranibizumab-treated nAMD population in real-world settings. Patients in all reimbursement scenarios attained vision stability on average, indicating control of disease activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  8. Price D, David-Wang A, Cho SH, Ho JC, Jeong JW, Liam CK, et al.
    J Asthma, 2016 09;53(7):761-9.
    PMID: 27096388 DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2016.1141951
    OBJECTIVE: We examined the physician perspectives on asthma management in Asia.

    METHODS: An online/face-to-face, questionnaire-based survey of respiratory specialists and primary care physicians from eight Asian countries/region was carried out. The survey explored asthma control, inhaler selection, technique and use; physician-patient communications and asthma education. Inclusion criteria were >50% of practice time spent on direct patient care; and treated >30 patients with asthma per month, of which >60% were aged >12 years.

    RESULTS: REALISE Asia (Phase 2) involved 375 physicians with average 15.9(±6.8) years of clinical experience. 89.1% of physicians reporting use of guidelines estimated that 53.2% of their patients have well-controlled (GINA-defined) asthma. Top consideration for inhaler choice was asthma severity (82.4%) and lowest, socio-economic status (32.5%). Then 54.7% of physicians checked their patients' inhaler techniques during consultations but 28.2(±19.1)% of patients were using their inhalers incorrectly; 21.1-57.9% of physicians could spot improper inhaler techniques in video demonstrations. And 79.6% of physicians believed combination inhalers could increase adherence because of convenience (53.7%), efficacy (52.7%) and usability (18.9%). Initial and follow-up consultations took 16.8(±8.4) and 9.2(±5.3) minutes, respectively. Most (85.1%) physicians used verbal conversations and least (24.5%), video demonstrations of inhaler use; 56.8% agreed that patient attitudes influenced their treatment approach.

    CONCLUSION: Physicians and patients have different views of 'well-controlled' asthma. Although physicians informed patients about asthma and inhaler usage, they overestimated actual usage and patients' knowledge was sub-optimal. Physician-patient interactions can be augmented with understanding of patient attitudes, visual aids and ancillary support to perform physical demonstrations to improve treatment outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Cheung TK, Lim PW, Wong BC
    Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2007 Aug 15;26(4):597-603.
    PMID: 17661763 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03403.x
    BACKGROUND: Non-cardiac chest pain is an important disorder in Asia. The practice and views of gastroenterologists on non-cardiac chest pain in this region are not known.
    AIMS: To determine the current understanding, diagnostic practice and treatment strategies among gastroenterologists on the management of non-cardiac chest pain in Asia.
    METHODS: A 24-item questionnaire was sent to gastroenterologists in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand.
    RESULTS: 186 gastroenterologists participated with a response rate of 74%. 98% of gastroenterologists managed patients with non-cardiac chest pain over the last 6 months. 64% felt that the number of non-cardiac chest pain patients was increasing and 85% believed that the most common cause of non-cardiac chest pain was GERD. 94% of the gastroenterologists believed that they should manage non-cardiac chest pain patients, but only 41% were comfortable in diagnosing non-cardiac chest pain. The average number of investigations performed was four in non-cardiac chest pain patients, and oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy was the most commonly used initial test. A proton pump inhibitor was considered the first-line treatment in non-cardiac chest pain and was reported as the most effective treatment by the gastroenterologists.
    CONCLUSION: Most gastroenterologists were practicing evidence-based medicine, but frequent use of investigations and a lack of awareness of the role of visceral hypersensitivity in non-cardiac chest pain patients were noted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  10. Teng CL, Hanafi NS, Ng CJ, Chia YC, Atiya AS
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2006 Oct;42(10):612-7.
    PMID: 16972968 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2006.00937.x
    AIM: Fever in children, a mostly benign and self-limiting illness, is often viewed with consternation by the care givers. It results in early consultation and excessive use of antipyretics and antibiotics. In this study, we document the prescribing practice of doctors from three primary care settings in Malaysia and identify the predictors of antibiotic prescription.
    METHODS: Interview of care givers bringing febrile children (age = 12 years) to three primary care settings: public primary care clinics, private general practice clinics and a university-based primary care clinic.
    RESULTS: Data from 649 children were analysed. Mean age of children 4.1 years and 55% were boys. One-third of the children had prior consultation for the same episode of fever. About 80% of the febrile children were diagnosed to have upper respiratory tract infection, viral fever and gastroenteritis. Overall antibiotic prescribing rate was 36.6% (public primary care clinic 26.8%, private general practice clinic 70.0% and university-based primary care clinic 32.2%). Independent predictors of antibiotic prescription were: clinic setting, longer duration of fever (>7 days), higher temperature (>38 degrees C) and the diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections. After controlling for demographic and clinical factors, antibiotic prescription in private general practice clinic was seven times higher than public primary care clinic (odds ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval 4.0-12.7), and 1.6 times higher than university-based primary care clinic (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.5).
    CONCLUSION: Differences in the patients' demographic and clinical characteristics could not adequately explain the high antibiotic prescribing rate in private general practice clinics. This inappropriately high antibiotic prescribing for febrile children in private general practice clinics is a suitable target for future intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Parameshvara Deva M
    Int Rev Psychiatry, 2014 Feb-May;16(1-2):167-76.
    PMID: 15276949 DOI: 10.1080/09540260310001635203
    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be severe shortages of other professionals such as clinical psychologists and social workers in mental health services. There are a few specialists, and specialized services in child, adolescent, forensic, rehabilitative, liaison or research fields of mental health. In the area of services for women and children, as well as the disabled in the community, there are strong efforts to improve the care and provide services that are in keeping with a caring society. New legislation on these are being passed every year and the setting up of a Ministry for Women's Affairs is one such move in recent years. Mental health in Malaysia has been slow in developing but has in the past decade seen important strides to bring it on par with other branches of medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  12. Zulkifli A, Khairul Anuar A, Atiya AS
    PMID: 10695800
    A cross-sectional survey of the nutritional status of children aged 1-10 years old from the Kuala Betis resettlement villages was carried out. A total of 620 children were examined, of which 329 were preschool children and 291 were schoolchildren. The age was determined and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and MUAC were taken. The nutritional status was assessed by looking at the distributions of the z-scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) in relation to the growth charts of the National Center for Health Statistics reference population. It was found that the nutritional status of the Orang Asli children was poor, with a prevalence of 33.7-65.3% underweight, 55.3-74.4% stunting and 4.4-29.7% wasting based on the NCHS reference values. The prevalence of malnutrition among the Malay children was lower, underweight--7.3-34.1%, stunting--9.8-34.1% and wasting--1.7-17.1%. The nutritional status of the Orang Asli children were poorer compared to the Malay children. More preschool Orang Asli children were stunted compared to the Orang Asli schoolchildren. This may be due to the poor economic base of the Orang Asli community during the transformation period after resettlement. A comprehensive primary health care program is essential, especially targeting the preschool Orang Asli children in these resettlement villages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  13. Salleh NM, Tan BA, Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1986 Jun;4(1):20-8.
    PMID: 12268569
    PIP: The effectiveness and impact of the Population and Family Health Project in the rural areas of Malaysia is evaluated. A total of 790 women who delivered during the past 3 years from the time of the survey, were identified from 2,013 women aged 15-49 years, during the 2nd Family and Health Survey (1979) in Peninsular Malaysia. The rural health districts which were selected by random sampling include: Perlis, Kubang Pasu, Sebeang Perai Selatan, Kuala Selangor, Hulu Langat, Melaka Utara, Kota Bharu/Tumpat, and Pasir Mas. The pattern of maternal care during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium are examined with respect to selected variables. These women are further classified into 2 groups by type of birth attendant at delivery and these 2 groups are also examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. The major proportion of women had their 1st antenatal visit during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The highest % (28.3%) of 1st antenatal visits occurred during the 5th month of pregnancy. Use of a trained medical practitioner is preferred (82.5%), while only 17.5% of women preferred the services of traditonal birth attendants. Women in this latter group had less education and were in lower income groups, than the former group of women. Majority of women in all ethnic and age groups had no postnatal check after their last childbirth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  14. Rosenfield AG
    Med Today, 1973;7(3-4):80-94.
    PMID: 12309877
    PIP: Organizational and content features of various national family planning programs are reviewed. The Thai program is cited as an example of a family planning program organized on a massive unipurpose compaign basis. The Korean and Taiwan programs have utilized special field workers while upgrading the general health care network. 3 major problems with family planning programs are: 1) the lack of experience with such programs; 2) lack of commitment at the highest political levels; and 3) medical conservatism. Utilization of all available contraceptive methods instead of reliance on 1 method would improve most programs. Nursing and auxiliary personnel could be trained to take over the work of physicians in family planning programs. This is already being done with IUD insertion and pill prescription in several programs. The postpartum tubal ligation approach has proven effective and should be extended. There is a place in all national programs for both the private and the commercial sectors. Incentives for clinics, personnel, and acceptors might spread family planning more rapidly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  15. Teng CL, Tong SF, Khoo EM, Lee V, Zailinawati AH, Mimi O, et al.
    Aust Fam Physician, 2011 May;40(5):325-9.
    PMID: 21597554
    Background: Overprescription of antibiotics is a continuing problem in primary care. This study aims to assess the antibiotic prescribing rates and antibiotic choices for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and urinary tract infections (UTI) in Malaysian primary care.
    Method: Antibiotic prescribing data for URTI and UTI was extracted from a morbidity survey of randomly selected primary care clinics in Malaysia.
    Results: Analysis was performed of 1163 URTI and 105 UTI encounters. Antibiotic prescribing rates for URTI and UTI were 33.8% and 57.1% respectively. Antibiotic prescribing rates were higher in private clinics compared to public clinics for URTI, but not for UTI. In URTI encounters, the majority of antibiotics prescribed were penicillins and macrolides, but penicillin V was notably underused. In UTI encounters, the antibiotics prescribed were predominantly penicillins or cotrimoxazole.
    Discussion: Greater effort is needed to bring about evidence based antibiotic prescribing in Malaysian primary care, especially for URTIs in private clinics.
    Keywords: general practice, prescriptions, drug; upper respiratory tract infection; urinary tract infection; antibiotics, guideline; evidence based medicine
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  16. Ching SM, Zakaria ZA, Paimin F, Jalalian M
    PMID: 23802882 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-148
    BACKGROUND: Limited study on the use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly in primary -care settings. This study seeks to understand the prevalence, types, expenditures, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of CAM use among patients with DM visiting outpatient primary care clinics.
    METHODS: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 240 diabetic patients. CAM is defined as a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional Western medicine. Data analysis was done using SPSS v. 19 and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of CAM use.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of CAM use was 62.5 percent. Female were 1.8 times more likely than male in using CAM. Malays (75%) were the most frequent users, followed Indians (18%) and Chinese (6%). Biological therapy (50.0%) were the most widely used, followed by manipulative-body based systems (9.2%), energy system (8.8%), alternative medicine systems (4.6%) and mind-body system (1.7%). In biological therapy, a total of 30.4 percent, 24.2 percent, 13.3 percent, and 7.9 percent of diabetic patients consumed bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia), followed by Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth), garlic (Allium Sativum), and Sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus Nutans Lindau) respectively. The mean of the expenditure on CAM usage was RM 52.8 ± 101.9 (US $16.9 ± 32.5) per month. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, being Muslim (OR 5.258, 95 percent CI 2.952-9.368) had significant positive association with CAM use.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  17. Ishak IH, Low WY, Othman S
    J Sex Med, 2010 Sep;7(9):3080-7.
    PMID: 20584130 DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01848.x
    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent sexual health problem but poorly investigated at the primary care level.
    AIM: This article examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its possible risk factors associated with women at high risk of FSD in a hospital-based primary practice.
    METHODS: A validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) was utilized to determine FSD in a cross-sectional study design, involving 163 married women, aged 18-65 years, in a tertiary hospital-based primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic, marital profile, health, and lifestyle for women at high risk of FSD and those who were not at high risk were compared and their risk factors were determined.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of FSD in Malaysian women based on the MVFSFI, and its risk factors for developing FSD.
    RESULTS: Some 42 (25.8%) out of 163 women had sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with age. Sexual dysfunctions were detected as desire problem (39.3%), arousal problem (25.8%), lubrication problem (21.5%), orgasm problem (16.6%), satisfaction problem (21.5%) and pain problems (16.6%). Women at high risk of FSD were significantly associated with age (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.0), husband's age (OR 4.3 95% C.I 1.9 to 9.3), duration of marriage (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.8), medical problems (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3 to 21.7), menopausal status (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.1 to 14.3), and frequency of sexual intercourse (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 31.7). Multivariate analysis showed that medical problem (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 14.0) and frequency of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.0) were associated with increased risk of having FSD. Those who practiced contraception were less likely to have FSD.
    CONCLUSION: Sexual health problems are prevalent in women attending primary care clinic where one in four women were at high risk of FSD. Thus, primary care physician should be trained and prepared to address this issue.
    Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  18. Teng CL, Achike FI, Phua KL, Nurjahan MI, Mastura I, Asiah HN, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Aug;61(3):323-31.
    PMID: 17240584
    We assessed the effectiveness of an educational intervention in reducing antibiotic prescribing in public primary care clinics in Malaysia. Twenty-nine medical officers in nine clinics received an educational intervention consisting of academic detailing from the resident Family Medicine Specialist, as well as an information leaflet. The antibiotic prescribing rates were assessed for six months - three months before and three months after the intervention. A total of 28,562 prescriptions were analyzed. Among participating doctors, general antibiotic prescribing rates for pre- and post-intervention phases were 14.3% and 11.0% (post-intervention vs pre-intervention RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.83). The URTI-specific antibiotic prescribing rates for pre- and post-intervention phases were 27.7% and 16.6%, respectively (post-intervention vs pre-intervention RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.66). No significant change in antibiotic prescribing rates was observed among primary care practitioners who did not participate in the study. This low cost educational intervention using both active and passive strategies focusing on URTI produced a statistically significant (and clinically important) reduction in antibiotic prescribing.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  19. Wee HL, Loke WC, Li SC, Fong KY, Cheung YB, Machin D, et al.
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2007 Jun;36(6):403-8.
    PMID: 17597964
    INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to cross-culturally adapt and evaluate the validity of the Singaporean Malay and Tamil versions of the EQ-5D.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EQ- 5D was cross-culturally adapted and translated using an iterative process following standard guidelines. Consenting adult Malay- and Tamil-speaking subjects at a primary care facility in Singapore were interviewed using a questionnaire (including the EQ-5D, a single item assessing global health, the SF-8 and sociodemographic questions) in their respective language versions. Known-groups and convergent construct validity of the EQ-5D was investigated by testing 30 a priori hypotheses per language at attribute and overall levels.
    RESULTS: Complete data were obtained for 94 Malay and 78 Indian patients (median age, 54 years and 51 years, respectively). At the attribute level, all 16 hypotheses were fulfilled with several reaching statistical significance (Malay: 4; Tamil: 5). At the overall level, 42 of 44 hypotheses related to the EQ-5D/ EQ-VAS were fulfilled (Malay: 22; Tamil: 20), with 21 reaching statistical significance (Malay: 9; Tamil: 12).
    CONCLUSION: In this study among primary care patients, the Singapore Malay and Tamil EQ-5D demonstrated satisfactory known-groups and convergent validity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
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