Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1923 in total

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  1. van der Werf ET, Redmond NM, Turnbull S, Thornton H, Thompson M, Little P, et al.
    Br J Gen Pract, 2019 Apr;69(681):e236-e245.
    PMID: 30858333 DOI: 10.3399/bjgp19X701837
    BACKGROUND: Severity assessments of respiratory tract infection (RTI) in children are known to differ between parents and clinicians, but determinants of perceived severity are unknown.

    AIM: To investigate the (dis)agreement between, and compare the determinants of, parent and clinician severity scores.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study of 8394 children presenting to primary care with acute (≤28 days) cough and RTI.

    METHOD: Data on sociodemographic factors, parent-reported symptoms, clinician-reported findings, and severity assessments were used. Kappa (κ)-statistics were used to investigate (dis) agreement, whereas multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with illness severity.

    RESULTS: Parents reported higher illness severity (mean 5.2 [standard deviation (SD) 1.8], median 5 [interquartile range (IQR) 4-7]), than clinicians (mean 3.1 [SD 1.7], median 3 [IQR 2-4], P<0.0001). There was low positive correlation between these scores (+0.43) and poor inter-rater agreement between parents and clinicians (κ 0.049). The number of clinical signs was highly correlated with clinician scores (+0.71). Parent-reported symptoms (in the previous 24 hours) that were independently associated with higher illness severity scores, in order of importance, were: severe fever, severe cough, rapid breathing, severe reduced eating, moderate-to-severe reduced fluid intake, severe disturbed sleep, and change in cry. Three of these symptoms (severe fever, rapid breathing, and change in cry) along with inter/subcostal recession, crackles/crepitations, nasal flaring, wheeze, and drowsiness/irritability were associated with higher clinician scores.

    CONCLUSION: Clinicians and parents use different factors and make different judgements about the severity of children's RTI. Improved understanding of the factors that concern parents could improve parent-clinician communication and consultation outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  2. van Roekel EH, Trijsburg L, Assi N, Carayol M, Achaintre D, Murphy N, et al.
    Nutrients, 2018 May 22;10(5).
    PMID: 29789452 DOI: 10.3390/nu10050654
    Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  3. van Duijnhoven FJB, Jenab M, Hveem K, Siersema PD, Fedirko V, Duell EJ, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2018 03 15;142(6):1189-1201.
    PMID: 29114875 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31146
    Evidence from in vivo, in vitro and ecological studies are suggestive of a protective effect of vitamin D against pancreatic cancer (PC). However, this has not been confirmed by analytical epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and PC incidence in European populations. We conducted a pooled nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study's second survey (HUNT2) cohorts. In total, 738 primary incident PC cases (EPIC n = 626; HUNT2 n = 112; median follow-up = 6.9 years) were matched to 738 controls. Vitamin D [25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 combined] concentrations were determined using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression models with adjustments for body mass index and smoking habits were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Compared with a reference category of >50 to 75 nmol/L vitamin D, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 0.71 (0.42-1.20); 0.94 (0.72-1.22); 1.12 (0.82-1.53) and 1.26 (0.79-2.01) for clinically pre-defined categories of ≤25; >25 to 50; >75 to 100; and >100 nmol/L vitamin D, respectively (p for trend = 0.09). Corresponding analyses by quintiles of season-standardized vitamin D concentrations also did not reveal associations with PC risk (p for trend = 0.23). Although these findings among participants from the largest combination of European cohort studies to date show increasing effect estimates of PC risk with increasing pre-diagnostic concentrations of vitamin D, they are not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  4. van Dongen MC, Wijckmans-Duysens NEG, den Biggelaar LJ, Ocké MC, Meijboom S, Brants HA, et al.
    Nutrition, 2019 06;62:39-46.
    PMID: 30826598 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.10.015
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for The Maastricht Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    METHODS: Item selection for the FFQ was based on explained variation and contribution to intake of energy and 24 nutrients. For validation, the FFQ was completed by 135 participants (25-70 y of age) of the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study. Per person, on average 2.8 (range 1-5) telephone-based 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs), two 24-h urinary samples, and one blood sample were available. Validity of 54 nutrients and 22 food groups was assessed by ranking agreement, correlation coefficients, attenuation factors, and ultimately deattenuated correlation coefficients (validity coefficients).

    RESULTS: Median correlation coefficients for energy and macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups were 0.45, 0.36, and 0.38, respectively. Median deattenuated correlation coefficients were 0.53 for energy and macronutrients, 0.45 for micronutrients, and 0.64 for food groups, being >0.50 for 18 of 22 macronutrients, 16 of 30 micronutrients and >0.50 for 17 of 22 food groups. The FFQ underestimated protein and potassium intake compared with 24-h urinary nitrogen and potassium excretion by -18% and -2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.50 and 0.55 for (fatty) fish intake and plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and from 0.26 to 0.42 between fruit and vegetable intake and plasma carotenoids.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the validity of the 253-item Maastricht FFQ was satisfactory. The comprehensiveness of this FFQ make it well suited for use in The Maastricht Study and similar populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  5. de Vries B, Narayan R, McGeechan K, Santiagu S, Vairavan R, Burke M, et al.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2018 Jun;97(6):668-676.
    PMID: 29450884 DOI: 10.1111/aogs.13310
    INTRODUCTION: Cesarean section rates continue to increase globally. Prediction of intrapartum cesarean section could lead to preventive measures. Our aim was to assess the association between sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation and cesarean section among women planning a vaginal birth. The population was women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relation between cervical length and cesarean section in labor.

    RESULTS: Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  6. de Souza RJ, Dehghan M, Mente A, Bangdiwala SI, Ahmed SH, Alhabib KF, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2020 07 01;112(1):208-219.
    PMID: 32433740 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa108
    BACKGROUND: The association of nuts with cardiovascular disease and deaths has been investigated mostly in Europe, the USA, and East Asia, with few data available from other regions of the world or from low- and middle-income countries.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of nuts with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    METHODS: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study is a large multinational prospective cohort study of adults aged 35-70 y from 16 low-, middle-, and high-income countries on 5 continents. Nut intake (tree nuts and ground nuts) was measured at the baseline visit, using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or major cardiovascular event [nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or heart failure].

    RESULTS: We followed 124,329 participants (age = 50.7 y, SD = 10.2; 41.5% male) for a median of 9.5 y. We recorded 10,928 composite events [deaths (n = 8,662) or major cardiovascular events (n = 5,979)]. Higher nut intake (>120 g per wk compared with <30 g per mo) was associated with a lower risk of the primary composite outcome of mortality or major cardiovascular event [multivariate HR (mvHR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0048]. Significant reductions in total (mvHR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.87; P-trend <0.0001), cardiovascular (mvHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P-trend = 0.048), and noncardiovascular mortality (mvHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.96; P-trend = 0.0046) with a trend to reduced cancer mortality (mvHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00; P-trend = 0.081) were observed. No significant associations of nuts were seen with major CVD (mvHR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14), stroke (mvHR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.14; P-trend = 0.76), or MI (mvHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.04; P-trend = 0.29).

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher nut intake was associated with lower mortality risk from both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular causes in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  7. de Maio M, Chatrath V, Hart S, Hoo AJS, Marchac A, Sykianakis D, et al.
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Jul;20(7):2069-2082.
    PMID: 33977669 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.14216
    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive patient assessment and planning are central to esthetic treatment with injectables. MD ASA™ (Multi-Dimensional Aesthetic Scan Assessment) is a novel tool developed for this purpose.

    AIMS: To describe the MD ASA technique and present its preliminary application.

    METHODS: MD ASA breaks down the face into five hierarchies (H1-H5). H1 shifts patients' focus from "distractions" (individual lines and folds) toward the overall messages their face portrays, based on eight Emotional Attributes: four negative (tired, sad, angry, and saggy); four positive (youthful, attractive, contoured, and feminine/masculine). Three priority Emotional Attributes are selected for each patient. This is followed by a process of narrowing down through facial thirds (H2), periorbital and perioral dynamics (H3), facial units (H4), and subunits (H5), to arrive at a final assessment. Based on the key facial signs identified, this can be translated into MD Codes equations and thus a treatment formula. A retrospective analysis was performed based on 12 female patients injected by expert clinicians at an educational event. All patients were selected for, and treated using, a single MD Codes formula derived from a common MD ASA work-up.

    RESULTS: There were substantial differences between patients and clinicians in their views of which anatomical areas needed treatment-but good alignment on priority Emotional Attributes. Patients were treated only for three negative Emotional Attributes, but improvements were observed across all eight attributes.

    CONCLUSIONS: MD ASA provides a practical method for translating facial messages into actionable injectable treatment plans and facilitates greater patient-clinician alignment. Prospective studies are warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  8. de Carvalho LP, Gao F, Chen Q, Hartman M, Sim LL, Koh TH, et al.
    Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, 2014 Dec;3(4):354-62.
    PMID: 24598820 DOI: 10.1177/2048872614527007
    the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients from three major ethnicities of Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  9. de Carvalho LP, Fong A, Troughton R, Yan BP, Chin CT, Poh SC, et al.
    Thromb. Haemost., 2018 02;118(2):415-426.
    PMID: 29443374 DOI: 10.1160/TH17-08-0564
    Studies on platelet reactivity (PR) testing commonly test PR only after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been performed. There are few data on pre- and post-PCI testing. Data on simultaneous testing of aspirin and adenosine diphosphate antagonist response are conflicting. We investigated the prognostic value of combined serial assessments of high on-aspirin PR (HASPR) and high on-adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist PR (HADPR) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). HASPR and HADPR were assessed in 928 ACS patients before (initial test) and 24 hours after (final test) coronary angiography, with or without revascularization. Patients with HASPR on the initial test, compared with those without, had significantly higher intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) (8.6 vs. 1.2%, p ≤ 0.001) and higher 30-day major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; 5.2 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.05), but not 12-month MACCE (13.0 vs. 15.1%, p = 0.50). Patients with initial HADPR, compared with those without, had significantly higher IPTE (4.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.004), but not 30-day (3.5 vs. 2.3%, p = 0.32) or 12-month MACCE (14.0 vs. 12.5%, p = 0.54). The c-statistic of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score alone, GRACE score + ASPR test and GRACE score + ADPR test for discriminating 30-day MACCE was 0.649, 0.803 and 0.757, respectively. Final ADPR was associated with 30-day MACCE among patients with intermediate-to-high GRACE score (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-17.66), but not low GRACE score (adjusted OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.13-10.79). In conclusion, both HASPR and HADPR predict ischaemic events in ACS. This predictive utility is time-dependent and risk-dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  10. Zuo H, Ueland PM, Midttun Ø, Vollset SE, Tell GS, Theofylaktopoulou D, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2018 01 01;78(1):302-308.
    PMID: 29070616 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-1923
    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but analysis of a larger numbers of cases are needed to deepen the significance of this study. Here, we conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 521,330), which included 892 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748 controls matched by center, gender, date of blood collection, and date of birth. The association of PAr with risk of lung cancer was evaluated by using conditional logistic regression. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced higher risk of lung cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a doubling in PAr levels associated with 52% higher odds of lung cancer after adjustment for tobacco smoking, serum cotinine levels, educational attainment, and BMI [OR, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81; P < 0.001]. Additional adjustment for intake of vegetables and fruits and physical activity did not materially affect risk association. The association of PAr with lung cancer risk was similar in both genders but slightly stronger in former smokers and in participants diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. This study provides robust evidence that increased vitamin B6 catabolism is independently associated with a higher risk of future lung cancer.Significance: This large cohort study firmly establishes an association between an index of vitamin B6 levels with lung cancer risk. Cancer Res; 78(1); 302-8. ©2017 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  11. Zulkarnain S, Yunus N, Kandasamy R, Zun AB, Mat Zin AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Oct 01;21(10):3085-3091.
    PMID: 33112571 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.10.3085
    OBJECTIVE: Glioma is the commonest primary malignant brain tumour. Diagnosis is made based on cytology smear, frozen section and histopathological examination. Intraoperative pathological diagnosis using either cytology smear, frozen section or combination of both, plays a crucial role in patient's future management and prognosis. This study aims to determine the accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section in glioma, and to compare the difference between both techniques.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 22 cases of glioma diagnosed intraoperatively from January 2013 until August 2019 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The selected tissues were processed for cytology smear and frozen section. The remaining tissues were proceeded for paraffin section. The diagnosis was categorized as either low-grade or high-grade glioma based on cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitotic count, microvascular proliferation and necrosis. The sensitivity and specificity of frozen section and cytology smears were determined based on paraffin section being as the gold standard. The accuracy of both techniques was compared using statistical analysis.

    RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology smear were 100% and 76.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the sensitivity and specificity of frozen section were 100% and 84.6%. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between cytology smear and frozen section in glioma (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Cytology smears provides an alternative method for frozen section due to good cellularity and morphology on smear. Cytology smear is rapid, inexpensive, small amount of tissue requirement and less technical demand. This finding may benefit to the hospital or treatment centres where frozen section facility is unavailable.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  12. Zulfiqar MA, Noryati M, Hamzaini AH, Thambidorai CR
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):199-203.
    PMID: 16898311 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pneumatic reduction of intussusception using equipment readily available in the hospital. Twenty-two children aged between four months and four years had pneumatic reduction of intussusception. The device used was assembled using (i) a hand-held pump attached to a pressure gauge, and (ii) a 3-way Foley's balloon catheter. There was a 73% success rate and there were no complications. The device used was effective and safe for the pneumatic reduction of intussusception.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  13. Zreaqat M, Hassan R, Samsudin AR, Stas Y, Hanoun A
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2021 Jul 01;22(7):850-853.
    PMID: 34615793
    AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical utility of body mass index (BMI), tonsil size, and Mallampati scoring in predicting both the presence of and severity of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study comprised 78 growing children in the age range of 11-14 years with polysomnography (PSG)-proven OSA and 86 non-OSA corresponding controls. BMI, tonsil size (Friedman grading scale), and Mallampati score were determined for both groups, and related differences were assessed with a t-test, while their independent association with OSA severity was tested with a regression analysis. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05.

    RESULTS: Male gender, BMI, tonsil size, and Mallampati score were significantly higher in the OSA group (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was recorded between the Mallampati score and OSA severity (p < 0.01), but not with BMI or tonsil size (p > 0.05). For every 1-point increase in the Mallampati scale, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) increased by more than five events per hour in the bivariate analysis and by more than three events per hour in the multivariate analysis.

    CONCLUSION: Male gender, increased BMI, high tonsil, and Mallampati scores were clinical indicators of the presence of OSA. However, only Mallampati scale had a significant association with OSA severity. Clinical diagnostic indicators should be established and encouraged especially in community-based studies.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical diagnostic indicators are very useful in examining and screening children who are at risk of developing OSA as PSG is expensive and unsuitable for universal use in the pediatric population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  14. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Tan MP
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2017 Mar;17(3):463-470.
    PMID: 26822931 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12741
    AIM: The presemt study aimed to determine the association between the risk of recurrent and injurious falls with polypharmacy, fall risk-increasing drugs (FRID) and FRID count among community-dwelling older adults.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 202) were aged ≥65 years with two or more falls or one injurious fall in the past year, whereas controls (n = 156) included volunteers aged ≥65 years with no falls in the past year. A detailed medication history was obtained alongside demographic data. Polypharmacy was defined as "regular use of five or more prescription drugs." FRID were identified as cardiovascular agents, central nervous system drugs, analgesics and endocrine drugs; multiple FRID were defined as two or more FRID. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders.

    RESULTS: The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was independently associated with an increased risk of falls. Univariate analyses showed both polypharmacy (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.39-3.56; P = 0.001) and the use of two or more FRID (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5; P = 0.0001) were significantly more likely amongst fallers. After adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities, blood pressure, and physical performance scores, polypharmacy was no longer associated with falls (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.9; P = 0.102), whereas the consumption of two or more FRID remained a significant predictor for falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.3; P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Among high risk fallers, the use of two or more FRID was an independent risk factor for falls instead of polypharmacy. Our findings will inform clinical practice in terms of medication reviews among older adults at higher risk of falls. Future intervention studies will seek to confirm whether avoidance or withdrawal of multiple FRID reduces the risk of future falls. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 463-470.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  15. Zheng B, Huo Y, Lee SW, Sawhney JPS, Kim HS, Krittayaphong R, et al.
    Clin Cardiol, 2020 Sep;43(9):999-1008.
    PMID: 32618009 DOI: 10.1002/clc.23400
    BACKGROUND: Despite guideline recommendations, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is frequently used for longer than 1 year after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. In Asia, information on antithrombotic management patterns (AMPs), including DAPT post discharge, is sparse. This analysis evaluated real-world AMPs up to 2 years post discharge for ACS.

    HYPOTHESIS: There is wide variability in AMP use for ACS management in Asia.

    METHODS: EPICOR Asia (NCT01361386) is a prospective observational study of patients discharged after hospitalization for an ACS in eight countries/regions in Asia, followed up for 2 years. Here, we describe AMPs used and present an exploratory analysis of characteristics and outcomes in patients who received DAPT for ≤12 months post discharge compared with >12 months.

    RESULTS: Data were available for 12 922 patients; of 11 639 patients discharged on DAPT, 2364 (20.3%) received DAPT for ≤12 months and 9275 (79.7%) for >12 months, with approximately 60% still on DAPT at 2 years. Patients who received DAPT for >12 months were more likely to be younger, obese, lower Killip class, resident in India (vs China), and to have received invasive reperfusion. Clinical event rates during year 2 of follow-up were lower in patients with DAPT >12 vs ≤12 months, but no causal association can be implied in this non-randomized study.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most ACS patients remained on DAPT up to 1 year, in accordance with current guidelines, and over half remained on DAPT at 2 years post discharge. Patients not on DAPT at 12 months are a higher risk group requiring careful monitoring.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  16. Zhao D, Kim MH, Pastor-Barriuso R, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, et al.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2014 Oct;55(10):6244-50.
    PMID: 25183763 DOI: 10.1167/iovs.14-14151
    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  17. Zhang S, Ching CK, Huang D, Liu YB, Rodriguez-Guerrero DA, Hussin A, et al.
    Heart Rhythm, 2020 03;17(3):468-475.
    PMID: 31561030 DOI: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.09.023
    BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are underutilized in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. The Improve SCA Study is the largest prospective study to evaluate the benefit of ICD therapy in underrepresented geographies. This analysis reports the primary objective of the study.

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to determine whether patients with primary prevention (PP) indications with specific risk factors (1.5PP: syncope, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, premature ventricular contractions >10/h, and low ventricular ejection fraction <25%) are at a similar risk of life-threatening arrhythmias as patients with secondary prevention (SP) indications and to evaluate all-cause mortality rates in 1.5PP patients with and without devices.

    METHODS: A total of 3889 patients were included in the analysis to evaluate ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation therapy and mortality rates. Patients were stratified as SP (n = 1193) and patients with PP indications. The PP cohort was divided into 1.5PP patients (n = 1913) and those without any 1.5PP criteria (n = 783). The decision to undergo ICD implantation was left to the patient and/or physician. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compute hazard ratios.

    RESULTS: Patients had predominantly nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The rate of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation in 1.5PP patients was not equivalent (within 30%) to that in patients with SP indications (hazard ratio 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.57) but was higher than that in PP patients without any 1.5PP criteria (hazard ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.97) (P = .03). There was a 49% relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality in ICD implanted 1.5PP patients. In addition, the number needed to treat to save 1 life over 3 years was 10.0 in the 1.5PP cohort vs 40.0 in PP patients without any 1.5PP criteria.

    CONCLUSION: These data corroborate the mortality benefit of ICD therapy and support extension to a selected PP population from underrepresented geographies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  18. Zhang S, Wang W, Sawhney JPS, Krittayaphong R, Kim HS, Nhan VT, et al.
    Int J Cardiol, 2020 07 01;310:16-22.
    PMID: 32192746 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.01.008
    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases account for approximately half of all deaths in Asia. The present analysis aimed to evaluate characteristics, antithrombotic management patterns (AMPs), and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent in-hospital percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and survived to hospital discharge, using data from the EPICOR Asia registry (NCT01361386).

    METHODS: Two-year post-discharge follow-up data were analyzed from 8757 ACS PCI patients from EPICOR Asia (218 centers, eight countries). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; death, non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], non-fatal ischemic stroke), PCI characteristics, and AMPs were recorded. For MACE, time - to - event was analyzed using Cox regression.

    RESULTS: Primary PCI was performed in 62.0% of ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), 38.7% of non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and 24.2% of unstable angina (UA) patients. At 12 months, 88.1% of patients were on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), with no differences by index event. Most (61.5%) still received DAPT at 2 years. Two-year incidences of mortality, composite MACE, and bleeding were 3.6%, 6.2%, and 6.6%, respectively. Risk of death and MACE was increased with STEMI and NSTEMI vs. UA. Patients from East Asia showed lower mortality and more bleeding vs. Southeast Asia/India.

    CONCLUSIONS: Many patients in EPICOR Asia underwent PCI and received DAPT up to 2 years post-discharge. These real-world findings improve our understanding of AMP impact on outcomes in Asian patients with ACS undergoing PCI.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  19. Zamzuri Z, Yusof M, Hyzan MY
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Mar;59(1):15-9.
    PMID: 15535330
    This is a prospective study of a series of 26 patients with closed unstable comminuted intra-articular fracture distal end of the radius treated with two different methods of treatment to compare their anatomical and functional results. The external fixation group consisted of 12 patients and internal fixation group consisted of 14 patients. The anatomical and functional assessments were performed at six months and one year. The anatomical results at six months and one year showed that the internal fixation group was effective in maintaining the reduction compared to the external fixation group. The radial height, volar tilt and radial inclination were well maintained. However, the functional results at six months and one year showedno differences between these two types of fixation. The complication rate was higher in external fixation group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
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