METHODS: Out of the 44 healthy individuals screened, 31 (14 females; mean age: 28.4 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled and underwent GES using the standardized egg-white meal. All participants were randomly assigned to either 99mTc-SP or 99mTc-SC on the first GES session before crossed over to the other formulation after 2 weeks.
RESULTS: Both kits achieved the radiochemical purities of > 95%. The median rate (95th upper normative limit) of gastric emptying, reported as total gastric meal retention between 99mTc-SP and 99mTc-SC, was found to be comparable at all measured time points: 0.5 h [85.0% (96.6%) vs. 82.0% (94.0%)], 1 h [70.0% (86.4%) vs. 65.0% (86.6%)], 2 h [31.0% (55.8%) vs. 25.0% (64.4%)], 3 h [7.0% (26.3%) vs. 5.0% (29.9%)], and 4 h [3.0% (10.3%) vs. 2.0% (9.9%)]; P > 0.05. In addition, both radiotracers correlated well (Kendall's Tau (τ) coefficient = 0.498, P
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study included 65 patients who required surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars with Class II or position B impaction (Pell and Gregory classification). Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, or placebo (control). Surgery was performed with patients under local anesthesia. Baseline measurements were obtained preoperatively, and subsequent assessments were made on postoperative day 1, 2, 5, and 7 to measure postoperative facial swelling by use of 2 linear measurements: interincisal mouth opening width and visual analog scale score for pain. The amount of analgesics consumed was recorded. Wound healing also was assessed on postoperative day 7. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at P
METHODS: Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1,247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, and 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. The 1,220 participants were followed up 3 weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy.
RESULTS: Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first 3 weeks postpartum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (p < 0.001), and Chinese mothers showered less and were more likely to depend on confinement nannies during this period than mothers from the two other ethnic groups (p < 0.001 for all). Malay mothers tended to make greater use of massage therapy (p < 0.001), whilst Indian mothers tended to have their mothers or mothers-in-law as assistant caregivers (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Most Singapore mothers follow confinement practices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later childrearing practices.
Methods: A prospective, observational single-centre study was conducted where all 504 cases that were consecutively admitted for pneumonia were enrolled. Blood and sputum samples obtained were used to identify pathogens using standard microbiological culture methods. The urine samples collected were tested using the ImmunocatchTMLegionella immunochromatographic (ICT) urine antigen test.
Results: A microbiological diagnosis was only achieved in 104 cases (20.6%) and a Gram-negative infection predominance was observed. Culture-positive cases required longer hospitalisation (8.46 days versus 5.53 days; P < 0.001) and the higher usage of antipseudomonal antibiotics (23.1% versus 8.3%; P < 0.001). Only 3 cases (0.6%) were diagnosed with Legionella pneumonia.
Conclusion: The local pathogen distribution is diverse compared to other regions. Culture-negative pneumonia is common and significantly differs from culture-positive pneumonia. Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 is not a common cause of pneumonia and LUAT did not help demystify the cause of culture-negative pneumonia.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study among ALHIV and matched HIV-uninfected controls aged 12-18 years was conducted at 9 sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam from July 2013 to March 2017. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview at weeks 0, 48, 96, and 144. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement >1000 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors for VF.
RESULTS: Of 250 ALHIV and 59 HIV-uninfected controls, 58% were Thai and 51% females. The median age was 14 years at enrollment; 93% of ALHIV were perinatally infected. At week 144, 66% of ALHIV were orphans vs. 28% of controls (P < 0.01); similar proportions of ALHIV and controls drank alcohol (58% vs. 65%), used inhalants (1% vs. 2%), had been sexually active (31% vs. 21%), and consistently used condoms (42% vs. 44%). Of the 73% of ALHIV with week 144 VL testing, median log VL was 1.60 (interquartile range 1.30-1.70) and 19% had VF. Over 70% of ALHIV had not disclosed their HIV status. Self-reported adherence ≥95% was 60% at week 144. Smoking cigarettes, >1 sexual partner, and living with nonparent relatives, a partner or alone, were associated with VF at any time.
CONCLUSIONS: The subset of ALHIV with poorer adherence and VF require comprehensive interventions that address sexual risk, substance use, and HIV-status disclosure.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models with BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer risk among metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.28) and metabolically unhealthy/overweight (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94) participants, but not among metabolically healthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.65-1.42). Among the overweight individuals, lower colorectal cancer risk was observed for metabolically healthy/overweight individuals compared with metabolically unhealthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). These associations were generally consistent when waist circumference was used as the measure of adiposity. To our knowledge, there is no universally accepted clinical definition for using C-peptide level as an indication of hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore, a possible limitation of our analysis was that the classification of individuals as being hyperinsulinaemic-based on their C-peptide level-was arbitrary. However, when we used quartiles or the median of C-peptide, instead of tertiles, as the cut-point of hyperinsulinaemia, a similar pattern of associations was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that individuals with the metabolically healthy/overweight phenotype (with normal insulin levels) are at lower colorectal cancer risk than those with hyperinsulinaemia. The combination of anthropometric measures with metabolic parameters, such as C-peptide, may be useful for defining strata of the population at greater risk of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 201 patients who underwent endoscopic nasojejunal wire-guided feeding tube insertions for obstruction of either the esophagus or the stomach including both benign and malignant pathologies between January 2015 to June 2018 in Hospital Sungai Buloh and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Malaysia. The indications for tube insertion, insertion technique, and tube-related problems were described.
RESULTS: The nasojejunal tube was used to establish enteral feeding in patients with obstructing tumors of the distal esophagus in 65 patients (32.3%) and gastric outlet obstruction in 72 patients (35.8%). There were 54 patients (26.9%) who required reinsertion. The most common reason for reinsertion was unintentional dislodgement, where 32 patients (15.9%) followed by tube blockage 20 patients (10.0%). Using our method of advancement under direct vision, we had only 2 cases of malposition due to severely deformed anatomy. We had no incidence of aspiration in this group of patients and overall, the patients tolerated the tube well.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function is a safe and effective method of delivery of enteral nutrition in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction. These tubes if inserted properly are well tolerated with almost no risk of malposition and are tolerated well even for prolonged periods of time until definitive surgery could be performed.
METHODS: This study involved 307 adults aged 60 years and older. Participants had their hearing and cognition measured using pure tone audiometry and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively.
RESULTS: Pure tone average (low) accounted for significant but minimal amount of variance in measure of MMSE. Multiple regression analyses were also performed on normal and impaired hearing cohorts and cohorts with younger (60-69 years) and older (≥70 years) groups. The results revealed a significant relationship between PTA (low) and MMSE only in the younger age group. In contrast, no significant relationship was found between PTA (high) and cognition in any of the cohorts.
CONCLUSION: Pure tone average (low) is significantly but minimally related to measure of general cognitive status. Similar relationship is not observed between high-frequency hearing and cognition. Further research using a more comprehensive cognitive test battery is needed to confirm the lack of association between high-frequency hearing and cognition.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the neonatal intensive care units of two public hospitals in Malaysia. Neonates with a gestational age greater than 34 weeks who were started on empiric antibiotics within 72 h of life were screened. The data were then stratified according to de-escalation and non-de-escalation practices, where de-escalation practice was defined as narrowing down or discontinuation of empiric antibiotic within 72 h of treatment.
RESULTS: A total of 1045 neonates were screened, and 429 were included. The neonates were then divided based on de-escalation (n = 207) and non-de-escalation (n = 222) practices. Neonates under non-de-escalation practices showed significantly longer durations of antibiotic use compared to those under de-escalation practices (p