Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1923 in total

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  1. Loh LC, Codati A, Jamil M, Noor ZM, Vijayasingham P
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):314-9.
    PMID: 16379186
    Delay in commencing treatment in patients diagnosed with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) may promote the spread of PTB in the community. Socio-demographic and clinical data from 169 patients (119 retrospectively and 50 prospectively collected) treated for smear-positive PTB in our hospital Chest Clinic from June 2002 to February 2003 were analysed. One hundred and fifty eight (93.5%) patients were started on treatment in less than 7 days from the time when the report first became available while 11 (6.5%) patients had their treatment started > or = 7 days. The median 'discovery to treatment' window was 1 day (range, 0 to 24 days). Of the factors studied, longevity of symptoms, absence of fever or night sweats and having sought traditional medicine were associated with delay in treatment commencement. The urgency and importance of anti-TB treatment should be emphasized especially to patients who are inclined towards treatment with traditional medicine.
    Keywords: Smear positive, pulmonary tuberculosis, treatment delay, traditional medicine, Malaysia, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  2. Wan Ahmad Hazim, Nur Hidayah Aeshah Ng, Salleha Khalid
    MyJurnal
    Minimally invasive surgery results in faster recovery. The objective of this study is to identify criteria for the feasibility of 24-hour discharge post laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. This is a prospective cross-sectional study that was carried out at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department in Putrajaya Hospital between 1 January and 31 December, 2016. The inclusion criteria were: age between 15 and 45, no comorbidities, no family history of malignancy, BMI of less than 30, mass size less than 18 weeks, single uninoculated simple cyst and no ascites. The exclusion criteria were post-menopause women, known medical illness, family history of malignancy, mass size more than 18 weeks, multiloculated or bilateral ovarian cyst, presence of solid area within the cyst and ascites. The sample size was calculated to be 14. A total of 16 participants were identified. Results showed that using the Visual Analogue Score (VAS), the mean pain score post operatively in the first six hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, two weeks and three months were 3.67, 2.57, 0.5, 0 and 0, respectively. Two of the subjects experienced post-operative nausea and vomiting, one had urinary tract infection and one had minor bleeding from the surgical site. All the participants were discharged within 24 hours post-operatively. There was no readmission. In conclusion, 24-hour discharge post laparoscopic cystectomy is safe and feasible. Factors determining the success must be adhered to closely to ensure a good and satisfactory outcome. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  3. Mat Nawi N, Tagiling N, Mohd Rohani MF, Wan Zainon WMN, Zanial MS, Wong MS, et al.
    BMC Gastroenterol, 2020 Aug 31;20(1):293.
    PMID: 32867699 DOI: 10.1186/s12876-020-01426-5
    BACKGROUND: It is unclear if the 99mTc-sodium phytate (99mTc-SP) is as reliable as the gold-standard 99mTc-sulfur colloid (99mTc-SC) for gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). This study is aimed to compare the emptying rates of both radiotracers in a prospective, randomized cross-over trial and to determine the normative data of a healthy multi-ethnic Asian population.

    METHODS: Out of the 44 healthy individuals screened, 31 (14 females; mean age: 28.4 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled and underwent GES using the standardized egg-white meal. All participants were randomly assigned to either 99mTc-SP or 99mTc-SC on the first GES session before crossed over to the other formulation after 2 weeks.

    RESULTS: Both kits achieved the radiochemical purities of > 95%. The median rate (95th upper normative limit) of gastric emptying, reported as total gastric meal retention between 99mTc-SP and 99mTc-SC, was found to be comparable at all measured time points: 0.5 h [85.0% (96.6%) vs. 82.0% (94.0%)], 1 h [70.0% (86.4%) vs. 65.0% (86.6%)], 2 h [31.0% (55.8%) vs. 25.0% (64.4%)], 3 h [7.0% (26.3%) vs. 5.0% (29.9%)], and 4 h [3.0% (10.3%) vs. 2.0% (9.9%)]; P > 0.05. In addition, both radiotracers correlated well (Kendall's Tau (τ) coefficient = 0.498, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  4. Lua PL, Talib NS
    Subst Use Misuse, 2012 Aug;47(10):1100-5.
    PMID: 22545914 DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2012.679840
    This paper focuses on the evaluation of addiction program effectiveness which involves changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile. This study was conducted from 2007 until 2010 at a rural methadone maintenance treatment center in Malaysia to assess HRQoL outcomes before and after treatment. Fifty-seven respondents completed the WHOQOL-BREF at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques (SPSS 15). Significant and positive HRQoL impacts were demonstrated. Future studies with larger sample are encouraged. This study was supported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  5. Travis RC, Perez-Cornago A, Appleby PN, Albanes D, Joshu CE, Lutsey PL, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2019 01 01;79(1):274-285.
    PMID: 30425058 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2318
    Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; P trend < 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (Pheterogeneity = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  6. Azrina, M.R., Saedah Ali, Mohd Nikman Ahmad, Nik Abdullah, N.M., Ziyadi Mohd Ghazali
    MyJurnal
    Introduction and Objectives: The intensive care unit (ICU) is an uncomfortable and stressful environment for patients. The use of adequate sedation and analgesia is important to reduce stress to patients. The aim of this study was to compare a relatively new sedative agent, dexmedetomidine to current sedative agent used, propofol in the provision of sedation and analgesia, their effects on haemodynamic and respiratory parameters and cost involved on post open heart surgery patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized single-blinded trial was conducted on post open heart surgery patients in the ICU of the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Thirty two patients were randomized to dexmedetomidine or propofol groups. Analgesic requirement, haemodynamic and respiratory parameters, and extubation time were measured and compared. Mean rate of infusion to achieve adequate sedation were used to calculate the cost involved in the use of these two agents. Results: Patients sedated with dexmedetomidine required significantly lower dose of morphine compared to propofol [mean (sd): 12.80 (2.61) versus 15.86 (1.87) mg/kg/min, p=0.00]. Mean heart rate was also significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group compared to propofol group [mean (CI): 74.48 (70.38,78.59) versus 83.85 (79.61,88.09) per minutes, p=0.00]. However there were no significant differences in the other parameters between the two groups. Cost involved the use of dexmedetomidine was slightly higher compared to propofol (RM 9.57 versus RM8.94 per hour). Discussion and Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine is comparable to propofol in the provision of sedation, and its effect on haemodynamic and respiratory parameters. However it has added advantages in the provision of analgesia, and caused a significant reduction in heart rate. This is beneficial in these patients by reducing myocardial oxygen demand, and hence subsequent ischaemia and infarction. However, further larger studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative cardiac morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  7. Muhd Helmi Azmi, Karis Misiran
    Medicine & Health, 2007;2(2):103-109.
    MyJurnal
    This was a prospective randomized double blind controlled study to compare intubating conditions at 60 seconds with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg by using three different induction techniques: propofol-placebo (PP), propofol-ephedrine (PE) and propofol-placebo-crystalloid (PC). Ninety patients were included and randomly allocated to receive one of the three combinations. The  patients  were  induced  using  fentanyl 2 µg/kg,  followed by propofol 2.5 mg/kg with normal saline as placebo (Group PP and Group PC) or ephedrine 70  µg/kg  (Group PE)  given  over  30  seconds. Subsequently, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given over five seconds and endotracheal intubations were performed 60 seconds later. Intubating conditions were clinically acceptable in all patients except in four patients in PP group, who had poor intubating conditions. The proportion of excellent intubating conditions was significantly highest in Group PE (94%) followed by Group PC (81%) and lowest in Group PP (50%). In conclusion, induction with propofol-ephedrine and propofol-placebo-crystalloid combinations rovided significantly better intubating conditions than propofol alone, when rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was used for intubation at 60 seconds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  8. Lim D, Ngeow WC
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2017 Nov;75(11):2278-2286.
    PMID: 28666096 DOI: 10.1016/j.joms.2017.05.033
    PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of preoperative submucosal injection of 4 mg of dexamethasone versus 40 mg of methylprednisolone in reducing postoperative sequelae after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study included 65 patients who required surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars with Class II or position B impaction (Pell and Gregory classification). Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, or placebo (control). Surgery was performed with patients under local anesthesia. Baseline measurements were obtained preoperatively, and subsequent assessments were made on postoperative day 1, 2, 5, and 7 to measure postoperative facial swelling by use of 2 linear measurements: interincisal mouth opening width and visual analog scale score for pain. The amount of analgesics consumed was recorded. Wound healing also was assessed on postoperative day 7. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  9. Solayar GN, Chinappa J, Harris IA, Chen DB, Macdessi SJ
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):45-52.
    PMID: 29021879 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.006
    Introduction: Optimal coronal and sagittal component positioning is important in achieving a successful outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Modalities to determine post-operative alignment include plain radiography and computer tomography (CT) imaging. This study aims to determine the accuracy and reliability of plain radiographs in measuring coronal and sagittal alignment following TKA. Materials and Methods: A prospective, consecutive study of 58 patients undergoing TKA was performed comparing alignment data from plain radiographs and CT imaging. Hip-knee-angle (HKA), sagittal femoral angle (SFA) and sagittal tibial angle (STA) measurements were taken by two observers from plain radiographs and compared with CT alignment. Intra- and inter-observer correlation was calculated for each measurement. Results: Intra-observer correlation was excellent for HKA (r>0.89) with a mean difference of <1.9°. The least intra-observer correlation was for SFA (mean r=0.58) with a mean difference of 8°. Inter-observer correlation was better for HKA (r>0.95) and STA (r>0.8) compared to SFA (r=0.5). When comparing modalities (radiographs vs CT), HKA estimations for both observers showed the least maximum and mean differences while SFA observations were the least accurate. Conclusion: Radiographic estimation of HKA showed excellent intra- and inter-observer correlation and corresponds well with CT imaging. However, radiographic estimation of sagittal plane alignment was less reliably measured and correlated less with CT imaging. Plain radiography was found to be inferior to CT for estimation of biplanar prosthetic alignment following TKA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  10. Fok D, Aris IM, Ho J, Lim SB, Chua MC, Pang WW, et al.
    Birth, 2016 09;43(3):247-54.
    PMID: 27018256 DOI: 10.1111/birt.12233
    BACKGROUND: Confinement (restrictions placed on diet and practices during the month right after delivery) represents a key feature of Asian populations. Few studies, however, have focused specifically on ethnic differences in confinement practices. This study assesses the confinement practices of three ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    METHODS: Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1,247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, and 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. The 1,220 participants were followed up 3 weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy.

    RESULTS: Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first 3 weeks postpartum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (p < 0.001), and Chinese mothers showered less and were more likely to depend on confinement nannies during this period than mothers from the two other ethnic groups (p < 0.001 for all). Malay mothers tended to make greater use of massage therapy (p < 0.001), whilst Indian mothers tended to have their mothers or mothers-in-law as assistant caregivers (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Most Singapore mothers follow confinement practices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later childrearing practices.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  11. Mazlan M, Rajasegaran S, Engkasan JP, Nawawi O, Goh KJ, Freddy SJ
    Toxins (Basel), 2015 Sep;7(9):3758-70.
    PMID: 26402703 DOI: 10.3390/toxins7093758
    This study aims to determine the most efficacious dose of Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) in reducing sialorrhea in Asian adults with neurological diseases. A prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted over 24 weeks. Thirty patients with significant sialorrhea were randomly assigned to receive a BoNT-A (Dysport(®)) injection into the submandibular and the parotid glands bilaterally via an ultrasound guidance. The total dose given per patient was either BoNT-A injection of (i) 50 U; (ii) 100 U; or (iii) 200 U. The primary outcome was the amount of saliva reduction, measured by the differential weight (wet versus dry) of intraoral dental gauze at baseline and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. The secondary outcome was the subjective report of drooling using the Drooling Frequency and Severity Scale (DFS). Saliva reduction was observed in response to all BoNT-A doses in 17 patients who completed the assessments. Although no statistically significant difference among the doses was found, the measured reduction was greater in groups that received higher doses (100 U and 200 U). The group receiving 200 U of Dysport(®) showed the greatest reduction of saliva until 24 weeks and reported the most significant improvement in the DFS score.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  12. Lourdesamy Anthony AI, Zam Z, Hussin N
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Dec;27(6):79-88.
    PMID: 33447136 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.6.8
    Background: In real-life practice, only 20% of hospitalised pneumonia cases have an identified etiology. The usage of Legionella urine antigen test (LUAT) in developed nations revolutionised case detection rates. Accordingly, our objectives were to study the microbiological etiology for hospitalised pneumonia patients and the diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia.

    Methods: A prospective, observational single-centre study was conducted where all 504 cases that were consecutively admitted for pneumonia were enrolled. Blood and sputum samples obtained were used to identify pathogens using standard microbiological culture methods. The urine samples collected were tested using the ImmunocatchTMLegionella immunochromatographic (ICT) urine antigen test.

    Results: A microbiological diagnosis was only achieved in 104 cases (20.6%) and a Gram-negative infection predominance was observed. Culture-positive cases required longer hospitalisation (8.46 days versus 5.53 days; P < 0.001) and the higher usage of antipseudomonal antibiotics (23.1% versus 8.3%; P < 0.001). Only 3 cases (0.6%) were diagnosed with Legionella pneumonia.

    Conclusion: The local pathogen distribution is diverse compared to other regions. Culture-negative pneumonia is common and significantly differs from culture-positive pneumonia. Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 is not a common cause of pneumonia and LUAT did not help demystify the cause of culture-negative pneumonia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  13. Ross JL, Teeraananchai S, Lumbiganon P, Hansudewechakul R, Chokephaibulkit K, Khanh TH, et al.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2019 06 01;81(2):e28-e38.
    PMID: 30865173 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002008
    BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) have poorer adherence and clinical outcomes than adults. We conducted a study to assess behavioral risks and antiretroviral therapy outcomes among ALHIV in Asia.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study among ALHIV and matched HIV-uninfected controls aged 12-18 years was conducted at 9 sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam from July 2013 to March 2017. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview at weeks 0, 48, 96, and 144. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement >1000 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors for VF.

    RESULTS: Of 250 ALHIV and 59 HIV-uninfected controls, 58% were Thai and 51% females. The median age was 14 years at enrollment; 93% of ALHIV were perinatally infected. At week 144, 66% of ALHIV were orphans vs. 28% of controls (P < 0.01); similar proportions of ALHIV and controls drank alcohol (58% vs. 65%), used inhalants (1% vs. 2%), had been sexually active (31% vs. 21%), and consistently used condoms (42% vs. 44%). Of the 73% of ALHIV with week 144 VL testing, median log VL was 1.60 (interquartile range 1.30-1.70) and 19% had VF. Over 70% of ALHIV had not disclosed their HIV status. Self-reported adherence ≥95% was 60% at week 144. Smoking cigarettes, >1 sexual partner, and living with nonparent relatives, a partner or alone, were associated with VF at any time.

    CONCLUSIONS: The subset of ALHIV with poorer adherence and VF require comprehensive interventions that address sexual risk, substance use, and HIV-status disclosure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  14. Murphy N, Cross AJ, Abubakar M, Jenab M, Aleksandrova K, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2016 Apr;13(4):e1001988.
    PMID: 27046222 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001988
    BACKGROUND: Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models with BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer risk among metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.28) and metabolically unhealthy/overweight (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94) participants, but not among metabolically healthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.65-1.42). Among the overweight individuals, lower colorectal cancer risk was observed for metabolically healthy/overweight individuals compared with metabolically unhealthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). These associations were generally consistent when waist circumference was used as the measure of adiposity. To our knowledge, there is no universally accepted clinical definition for using C-peptide level as an indication of hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore, a possible limitation of our analysis was that the classification of individuals as being hyperinsulinaemic-based on their C-peptide level-was arbitrary. However, when we used quartiles or the median of C-peptide, instead of tertiles, as the cut-point of hyperinsulinaemia, a similar pattern of associations was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that individuals with the metabolically healthy/overweight phenotype (with normal insulin levels) are at lower colorectal cancer risk than those with hyperinsulinaemia. The combination of anthropometric measures with metabolic parameters, such as C-peptide, may be useful for defining strata of the population at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  15. Tan JH, Sivadurai G, Tan HCL, Tan YR, Jahit S, Hans Alexander M
    Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech, 2020 Apr;30(2):106-110.
    PMID: 31923160 DOI: 10.1097/SLE.0000000000000754
    BACKGROUND: Provision of enteral nutrition with jejunal feeding in upper gastrointestinal obstruction is highly recommended. Access to jejunum can be obtained surgically, percutaneously, or endoscopically. Our institution routinely and preferentially utilizes a silicone nasojejunal tube that is inserted past the obstruction endoscopically. We use a custom dual channel tube that allows feeding at the distal tip and another channel 40 cm from the tip that enables decompression proximally. This is a report of our experience with this custom nasojejunal tube.

    METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 201 patients who underwent endoscopic nasojejunal wire-guided feeding tube insertions for obstruction of either the esophagus or the stomach including both benign and malignant pathologies between January 2015 to June 2018 in Hospital Sungai Buloh and Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Malaysia. The indications for tube insertion, insertion technique, and tube-related problems were described.

    RESULTS: The nasojejunal tube was used to establish enteral feeding in patients with obstructing tumors of the distal esophagus in 65 patients (32.3%) and gastric outlet obstruction in 72 patients (35.8%). There were 54 patients (26.9%) who required reinsertion. The most common reason for reinsertion was unintentional dislodgement, where 32 patients (15.9%) followed by tube blockage 20 patients (10.0%). Using our method of advancement under direct vision, we had only 2 cases of malposition due to severely deformed anatomy. We had no incidence of aspiration in this group of patients and overall, the patients tolerated the tube well.

    CONCLUSIONS: The novel nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function is a safe and effective method of delivery of enteral nutrition in patients with upper gastrointestinal obstruction. These tubes if inserted properly are well tolerated with almost no risk of malposition and are tolerated well even for prolonged periods of time until definitive surgery could be performed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  16. Mustafa M, Chan WM, Lee C, Harijanto E, Loo CM, Van Kinh N, et al.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2014 Apr;43(4):353-60.
    PMID: 24636429 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.01.017
    Doripenem is approved in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region for treating nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Clinical usage of doripenem (500mg intravenously, infused over 1h or 4h every 8h for 5-14 days) in APAC was evaluated in a prospective, open-label, non-comparative, multicentre study of inpatients (≥18 years) with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. A total of 216 [intention-to-treat (ITT)] patients received doripenem: 53 NP (24.5%); 77 VAP (35.6%); 67 cIAI (31.0%); and 19 cUTI (8.8%). Doripenem MIC90 values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 32, 32, 0.094 and 0.64μg/mL, respectively. Doripenem was used most commonly as monotherapy (86.6%) and as second-line therapy (62.0%). The clinical cure rate in clinically evaluable patients was 86.7% at the end of therapy (EOT) and 87.1% at test of cure (TOC) (7-14 days after EOT). In the ITT population, overall clinical cure rates were 66.2% at EOT and 56.5% at TOC. The median duration of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation was 20, 12 and 10 days, respectively. Of 146 discharged patients, 7 were re-admitted within 28 days of EOT; 1 VAP patient was re-admitted to the ICU. The all-cause mortality rate was 22.7% (49/216). The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea (1.4%) and vomiting (1.4%). Doripenem is a viable option for treating APAC patients with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00986102].
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  17. Koay YY, Tan GCJ, Phang SCW, Ho JI, Chuar PF, Ho LS, et al.
    Nutrients, 2021 Jan 18;13(1).
    PMID: 33477404 DOI: 10.3390/nu13010258
    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a debilitating complication of diabetes, which develops in 40% of the diabetic population and is responsible for up to 50% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Tocotrienols have shown to be a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic agent in animal and clinical studies. This study evaluated the effects of 400 mg tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation daily on 59 DKD patients over a 12-month period. Patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) or positive urine microalbuminuria (urine to albumin creatinine ratio; UACR > 20-200 mg/mmol) were recruited into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized into either intervention group (n = 31) which received tocotrienol-rich vitamin E (Tocovid SupraBioTM; Hovid Berhad, Ipoh, Malaysia) 400 mg daily or a placebo group which received placebo capsules (n = 28) for 12 months. HbA1c, renal parameters (i.e., serum creatinine, eGFR, and UACR), and serum biomarkers were collected at intervals of two months. Tocovid supplementation significantly reduced serum creatinine levels (MD: -4.28 ± 14.92 vs. 9.18 ± 24.96), p = 0.029, and significantly improved eGFR (MD: 1.90 ± 5.76 vs. -3.29 ± 9.24), p = 0.011 after eight months. Subgroup analysis of 37 patients with stage 3 CKD demonstrated persistent renoprotective effects over 12 months; Tocovid improved eGFR (MD: 4.83 ± 6.78 vs. -1.45 ± 9.18), p = 0.022 and serum creatinine (MD: -7.85(20.75) vs. 0.84(26.03), p = 0.042) but not UACR. After six months post washout, there was no improvement in serum creatinine and eGFR. There were no significant changes in the serum biomarkers, TGF-β1 and VEGF-A. Our findings verified the results from the pilot phase study where tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation at two and three months improved kidney function as assessed by serum creatinine and eGFR but not UACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  18. Mukari SZS, Ishak WS, Maamor N, Wan Hashim WF
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 2017 Oct;126(10):697-705.
    PMID: 28845678 DOI: 10.1177/0003489417727547
    OBJECTIVES: Studies in cognitive aging demonstrated inconsistent association between hearing and cognition in older adults. Furthermore, it is still unclear if hearing loss at high frequencies, which is the earliest to be affected, is associated with cognitive functioning. This study aimed to determine the association between global cognitive status and pure tone average (PTA) at 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA low) and PTA at 4 and 8 kHz (PTA high).

    METHODS: This study involved 307 adults aged 60 years and older. Participants had their hearing and cognition measured using pure tone audiometry and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively.

    RESULTS: Pure tone average (low) accounted for significant but minimal amount of variance in measure of MMSE. Multiple regression analyses were also performed on normal and impaired hearing cohorts and cohorts with younger (60-69 years) and older (≥70 years) groups. The results revealed a significant relationship between PTA (low) and MMSE only in the younger age group. In contrast, no significant relationship was found between PTA (high) and cognition in any of the cohorts.

    CONCLUSION: Pure tone average (low) is significantly but minimally related to measure of general cognitive status. Similar relationship is not observed between high-frequency hearing and cognition. Further research using a more comprehensive cognitive test battery is needed to confirm the lack of association between high-frequency hearing and cognition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  19. Ain Ibrahim N, Makmor Bakry M, Mohd Tahir NA, Mohd Zaini NR, Mohamed Shah N
    Paediatr Drugs, 2020 Jun;22(3):321-330.
    PMID: 32185682 DOI: 10.1007/s40272-020-00388-1
    BACKGROUND: Prolonged empiric antibiotic use, resulting from diagnostic uncertainties, in suspected early onset sepsis (EOS) cases constitutes a significant problem. Unnecessary antibiotic use increases the risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, prolonged antibiotic use increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in neonates. Proactive measures including empiric antibiotic de-escalation are crucial to overcome these problems.

    METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the neonatal intensive care units of two public hospitals in Malaysia. Neonates with a gestational age greater than 34 weeks who were started on empiric antibiotics within 72 h of life were screened. The data were then stratified according to de-escalation and non-de-escalation practices, where de-escalation practice was defined as narrowing down or discontinuation of empiric antibiotic within 72 h of treatment.

    RESULTS: A total of 1045 neonates were screened, and 429 were included. The neonates were then divided based on de-escalation (n = 207) and non-de-escalation (n = 222) practices. Neonates under non-de-escalation practices showed significantly longer durations of antibiotic use compared to those under de-escalation practices (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
  20. Noraihan Mohd. Nordin, Sharda, Priya, Zainab Shamsuddin
    MyJurnal
    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of Indonesians obstetrics immigrant and to assess the fetal maternal outcome. Methodology: A prospective cohort study design was used to analyse 54 consecutive Indonesians obstetrics immigrant compared to 56 Malay women. Chi square and student t test were used where appropriate, p < 0.05 was considered to be of statistical significance. Results: There was a reducing trend in the incidence admission of Indonesians from 10.5 in 1999 to 6.5 % in 2002. The maternal mortality ratio showed an increasing trend from 1999 (40.0/100000) to 2001 (162.9/100000) but decreased to 5.8/100000 in 2002. The majority was between 20-40 years old, multiparous and booked, which was similar to the Malay population. Most Malays were in occupational class 1 to 3 and the husband has secondary and tertiary education compared to the Indonesians who were in class 4 and 5 and the husband has primary and no formal education. Significantly more immigrants were housewives compared to Malays who were working women. There was no significant difference in the antenatal complications. There were no significant difference in terms of delivery and most delivered vaginally. The perinatal outcome in terms of gestation, birth weight, Apgar score and admission to neonatal ICU were similar in both populations and there was no perinatal mortality. In conclusion, the incidence admission of Indonesian immigrant was on the decreasing trend. The outcome of these patients managed in MHKL was similar to the Malay population. Further studies with enrollment of a larger number of patients should be carried out to ascertain the significance of these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prospective Studies
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