Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 200 in total

  1. Hun Lee T, Hau Lee C, Alia Azmi N, Kavita S, Wong S, Znati M, et al.
    Chem. Biodivers., 2020 Jan;17(1):e1900419.
    PMID: 31721431 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201900419
    This work investigated the polar (PC: protein, amino acid and metabolite) and non-polar (NPC: fatty acid) compounds and bioactivity characteristics of the EBN harvested from the state of Johor in Malaysia. The electrophoretic gels exhibited 15 protein bands (16-173 kD) with unique protein profile. Amino acids analysis by AccQ⋅Tag method revealed 18 types of amino acids in EBN. Metabolite profiling was performed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HPLC-QTOF/MS) technique and a total of 54 compounds belonging to different groups were detected and identified. These findings help to uncover the relation of therapeutic activity of EBN. The EBN was further extracted with AcOEt and BuOH. The AcOEt extract was fractionated into three fractions (F1 -F3 ), and the high triglyceride content in F2 was verified by gC-FID. The three groups of fatty acids discovered in EBN are 48.43 % of poly-unsaturated (PUFA), 25.35 % of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 24.74 % of mono-unsaturated fat (MUFA). This is the first time to report results ofEBN, BuOH, and AcOEt extracts and of fraction F2 (TEBN) on their analysis for their antioxidant activities by DPPH, ABTS and catalase assay and for their paraoxonase and anti-tyrosinase activities. The results showed that TEBN exhibited the significant bioactivity in all assays. These findings suggest that TEBN is a good source for natural bioactive compounds in promoting body vigor. Current work widened the content of EBN especially on the triglyceride and also marked the content of specific location (Johor, Malaysia) of EBN origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proteins/analysis*
  2. Kwan SH, Ismail MN
    Biomed. Chromatogr., 2019 Dec;33(12):e4686.
    PMID: 31452214 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.4686
    Researchers frequently use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) prior to mass spectrometric analysis in a proteomics approach. The i2D-PAGE method, which 'inverts' the dimension of protein separation of the conventional 2D-PAGE, is presented in this publication. Protein lysate of Channa striata, a freshwater snakehead fish, was separated based on its molecular weight in the first dimension and its isoelectric point in the second dimension. The first-dimension separation was conducted on a gel-free separation device, and the protein mixture was fractionated into 12 fractions in chronological order of increasing molecular weight. The second-dimension separation featured isoelectric focusing, which further separated the proteins within the same fraction according to their respective isoelectric point. Advantages of i2D-PAGE include better visualisation of the isolated protein, easy identification on protein isoforms, shorter running time, customisability and reproducibility. Erythropoietin standard was applied to i2D-PAGE to show its effectiveness for separating protein isoforms. Various staining methods such as Coomassie blue staining and silver staining are also applicable to i2D-PAGE. Overall, the i2D-PAGE separation method effectively separates protein lysate and is suitable for application in proteomics research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/analysis
  3. Wei LK, Quan LS
    Comput Biol Chem, 2019 Dec;83:107116.
    PMID: 31561071 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2019.107116
    According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment, ischemic stroke is classified into five subtypes. However, the predictive biomarkers of ischemic stroke subtypes are still largely unknown. The utmost objective of this study is to map, construct and analyze protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for all subtypes of ischemic stroke, and to suggest the predominant biological pathways for each subtypes. Through 6285 protein data retrieved from PolySearch2 and STRING database, the first PPI networks for all subtypes of ischemic stroke were constructed. Notably, F2 and PLG were identified as the critical proteins for large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), lacunar, cardioembolic, stroke of other determined etiology (SOE) and stroke of undetermined etiology (SUE). Gene ontology and DAVID analysis revealed that GO:0030193 regulation of blood coagulation and GO:0051917 regulation of fibrinolysis were the important functional clusters for all the subtypes. In addition, inflammatory pathway was the key etiology for LAA and lacunar, while FOS and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways might contribute to cardioembolic stroke. Due to many risk factors associated with SOE and SUE, the precise etiology for these two subtypes remained to be concluded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Proteins/analysis*
  4. Liew JWK, Selvarajoo S, Tan W, Ahmad Zaki R, Vythilingam I
    Infect Dis Poverty, 2019 Sep 03;8(1):71.
    PMID: 31477185 DOI: 10.1186/s40249-019-0584-y
    BACKGROUND: Dengue is a global disease, transmitted by the Aedes vectors. In 2018, there were 80 615 dengue cases with 147 deaths in Malaysia. Currently, the nationwide surveillance programs are dependent on Aedes larval surveys and notifications of lab-confirmed human infections. The existing, reactive programs appear to lack sensitivity and proactivity. More efficient dengue vector surveillance/control methods are needed.

    METHODS: A parallel, cluster, randomized controlled, interventional trial is being conducted for 18 months in Damansara Damai, Selangor, Malaysia, to determine the efficacy of using gravid oviposition sticky (GOS) trap and dengue non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen test for early surveillance of dengue among Aedes mosquitoes to reduce dengue outbreaks. Eight residential apartments were randomly assigned into intervention and control arms. GOS traps are set at the apartments to collect Aedes weekly, following which dengue NS1 antigen is detected in these mosquitoes. When a dengue-positive mosquito is detected, the community will be advised to execute vector search-and-destroy and protective measures. The primary outcome concerns the the percentage change in the (i) number of dengue cases and (ii) durations of dengue outbreaks. Whereas other outcome measures include the change in density threshold of Aedes and changes in dengue-related knowledge, attitude and practice among cluster inhabitants.

    DISCUSSION: This is a proactive and early dengue surveillance in the mosquito vector that does not rely on notification of dengue cases. Surveillance using the GOS traps should be able to efficiently provide sufficient coverage for multistorey dwellings where population per unit area is likely to be higher. Furthermore, trapping dengue-infected mosquitoes using the GOS trap, helps to halt the dengue transmission carried by the mosquito. It is envisaged that the results of this randomized controlled trial will provide a new proactive, cheap and targeted surveillance tool for the prevention and control of dengue outbreaks.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: This is a parallel-cluster, randomized controlled, interventional trial, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03799237), on 8th January 2019 (retrospectively registered).

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Nonstructural Proteins/analysis*
  5. Noisang C, Prosser C, Meyer W, Chemoh W, Ellis J, Sawangjaroen N, et al.
    Malar. J., 2019 Aug 15;18(1):275.
    PMID: 31416468 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-019-2903-y
    BACKGROUND: Drug resistance within the major malaria parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum threatens malaria control and elimination in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium vivax first-line treatment drug is chloroquine together with primaquine, and the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria is artemisinin in combination with a partner drug. Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites resistant to their respective first-line therapies are now found within Southeast Asia. The resistance perimeters may include high transmission regions of Southern Thailand which are underrepresented in surveillance efforts.

    METHODS: This study investigated blood samples from malaria centres in Southern Thailand. Genetic loci associated with drug resistance were amplified and sequenced. Drug resistance associated genes Pvmdr1, Pvcrt-o, Pvdhfr, and Pvdhps were characterized for 145 cases of P. vivax malaria, as well as the artemisinin resistance-associated Pfkelch13 gene from 91 cases of P. falciparum malaria.

    RESULTS: Plasmodium vivax samples from Southern Thai provinces showed numerous chloroquine and antifolate resistance-associated mutations, including SNP and Pvcrt-o K10-insertion combinations suggestive of chloroquine resistant P. vivax phenotypes. A high proportion of the C580Y coding mutation (conferring artemisinin resistance) was detected in P. falciparum samples originating from Ranong and Yala (where the mutation was previously unreported).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate a risk of chloroquine and antifolate resistant P. vivax phenotypes in Southern Thailand, and artemisinin resistant P. falciparum observed as far south as the Thai-Malaysian border region. Ongoing surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers is called for in Southern Thailand to inform case management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Protozoan Proteins/analysis*
  6. Mitra SR, Tan PY
    Br. J. Nutr., 2019 05;121(9):1002-1017.
    PMID: 30761964 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114519000345
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Hipcref (high-protein, energy-restricted, high-vitamin E and high-fibre) diet in Malaysian adults on body composition and metabolic parameters after an intervention period of 6 months. Overweight/obese Malaysian adults (n 128; BMI≥23 kg/m2) were randomised to the Hipcref (n 65) or control diet (n 63). The intervention group received Hipcref diet charts based on their personal preferences. The control group followed a generalised dietary advice based on Malaysian Dietary Guidelines, 2010. All participants were responsible for preparing their own meals. There was a significant treatment group×time effect on anthropometric parameters (P<0·05) on an intention-to-treat basis. Pairwise comparisons revealed that Hipcref diet participants had significant reduction in weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and percentage body fat at months 3 and 6 compared with baseline (P<0·001). The control group had significant increase in weight and BMI at months 3 and 6 compared with baseline (P<0·05). The Hipcref diet group had higher reduction in fasting insulin, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein levels compared with the control group at month 6 (P<0·05). Post-intervention, compared with the control group, the Hipcref diet group was found to consume significantly higher percentage energy from protein, and PUFA, higher energy-adjusted vitamin E (mg) and fibre (g), and lower total energy, lower percentage energy from fat and carbohydrate (P<0·05). The success of the Hipcref diet on overweight/obese Malaysian adults may be due to the combined effect of the nutrient composition of the Hipcref diet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Proteins/analysis
  7. Hassan H, Amiruddin MD, Weckwerth W, Ramli US
    Electrophoresis, 2019 01;40(2):254-265.
    PMID: 30370930 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800232
    Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruit and is of global economic and nutritional relevance. While the understanding of oil biosynthesis in plants is improving, the fundamentals of oil biosynthesis in oil palm still require further investigations. To gain insight into the systemic mechanisms that govern oil synthesis during oil palm fruit ripening, the proteomics approach combining gel-based electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to profile protein changes and classify the patterns of protein accumulation during these complex physiological processes. Protein profiles from different stages of fruit ripening at 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18 and 20 weeks after anthesis (WAA) were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). The proteome data were then visualised using a multivariate statistical analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) to get an overview of the proteome changes during the development of oil palm mesocarp. A total of 68 differentially expressed protein spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and functionally classified using ontology analysis. Proteins related to lipid production, energy, secondary metabolites and amino acid metabolism are the most significantly changed proteins during fruit development representing potential candidates for oil yield improvement endeavors. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD009579. This study provides important proteome information for protein regulation during oil palm fruit ripening and oil synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/analysis*
  8. Marin-Mogollon C, Salman AM, Koolen KMJ, Bolscher JM, van Pul FJA, Miyazaki S, et al.
    PMID: 31058097 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00096
    Transgenic malaria parasites expressing fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins are valuable tools to interrogate malaria-parasite biology and to evaluate drugs and vaccines. Using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology a transgenic Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) NF54 line was generated that expresses a fusion of mCherry and luciferase genes under the control of the Pf etramp10.3 gene promoter (line mCherry-luc@etramp10.3). Pf etramp10.3 is related to rodent Plasmodium uis4 and the uis4 promoter has been used to drive high transgene expression in rodent parasite sporozoites and liver-stages. We examined transgene expression throughout the complete life cycle and compared this expression to transgenic lines expressing mCherry-luciferase and GFP-luciferase under control of the constitutive gapdh and eef1a promoters. The mCherry-luc@etramp10.3 parasites express mCherry in gametocytes, sporozoites, and liver-stages. While no mCherry signal was detected in asexual blood-stage parasites above background levels, luciferase expression was detected in asexual blood-stages, as well as in gametocytes, sporozoites and liver-stages, with the highest levels of reporter expression detected in stage III-V gametocytes and in sporozoites. The expression of mCherry and luciferase in gametocytes and sporozoites makes this transgenic parasite line suitable to use in in vitro assays that examine the effect of transmission blocking inhibitors and to analyse gametocyte and sporozoite biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/analysis*
  9. Lau BYC, Othman A
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(8):e0221052.
    PMID: 31415606 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221052
    Protein solubility is a critical prerequisite to any proteomics analysis. Combination of urea/thiourea and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) have been routinely used to enhance protein solubilization for oil palm proteomics studies in recent years. The goals of these proteomics analysis are essentially to complement the knowledge regarding the regulation networks and mechanisms of the oil palm fatty acid biosynthesis. Through omics integration, the information is able to build a regulatory model to support efforts in improving the economic value and sustainability of palm oil in the global oil and vegetable market. Our study evaluated the utilization of sodium deoxycholate as an alternative solubilization buffer/additive to urea/thiourea and CHAPS. Efficiency of urea/thiourea/CHAPS, urea/CHAPS, urea/sodium deoxycholate and sodium deoxycholate buffers in solubilizing the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis var. Tenera) mesocarp proteins were compared. Based on the protein yields and electrophoretic profile, combination of urea/thiourea/CHAPS were shown to remain a better solubilization buffer and additive, but the differences with sodium deoxycholate buffer was insignificant. A deeper mass spectrometric and statistical analyses on the identified proteins and peptides from all the evaluated solubilization buffers revealed that sodium deoxycholate had increased the number of identified proteins from oil palm mesocarps, enriched their gene ontologies and reduced the number of carbamylated lysine residues by more than 67.0%, compared to urea/thiourea/CHAPS buffer. Although only 62.0% of the total identified proteins were shared between the urea/thiourea/CHAPS and sodium deoxycholate buffers, the importance of the remaining 38.0% proteins depends on the applications. The only observed limitations to the application of sodium deoxycholate in protein solubilization were the interference with protein quantitation and but it could be easily rectified through a 4-fold dilution. All the proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD013255. In conclusion, sodium deoxycholate is applicable in the solubilization of proteins extracted from oil palm mesocarps with higher efficiency compared to urea/thiourea/CHAPS buffer. The sodium deoxycholate buffer is more favorable for proteomics analysis due to its proven advantages over urea/thiourea/CHAPS buffer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/analysis*
  10. Rusmili MRA, Othman I, Abidin SAZ, Yusof FA, Ratanabanangkoon K, Chanhome L, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(12):e0227122.
    PMID: 31887191 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227122
    Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) is a medically important snake species found in Southeast Asia. The neurotoxic effects of envenoming present as flaccid paralysis of skeletal muscles. It is unclear whether geographical variation in venom composition plays a significant role in the degree of clinical neurotoxicity. In this study, the effects of geographical variation on neurotoxicity and venom composition of B. candidus venoms from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand were examined. In the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, all venoms abolished indirect twitches and attenuated contractile responses to nicotinic receptor agonists, with venom from Indonesia displaying the most rapid neurotoxicity. A proteomic analysis indicated that three finger toxins (3FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors were common toxin groups in the venoms. In addition, venom from Thailand contained L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine rich secretory protein (CRISP), thrombin-like enzyme (TLE) and snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP). Short-chain post-synaptic neurotoxins were not detected in any of the venoms. The largest quantity of long-chain post-synaptic neurotoxins and non-conventional toxins was found in the venom from Thailand. Analysis of PLA2 activity did not show any correlation between the amount of PLA2 and the degree of neurotoxicity of the venoms. Our study shows that variation in venom composition is not limited to the degree of neurotoxicity. This investigation provides additional insights into the geographical differences in venom composition and provides information that could be used to improve the management of Malayan krait envenoming in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reptilian Proteins/analysis
  11. Jamil NAM, Rahmad N, Rosli NHM, Al-Obaidi JR
    Electrophoresis, 2018 12;39(23):2954-2964.
    PMID: 30074628 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800185
    Wax apple is one of the underutilized fruits that is considered a good source of fibers, vitamins, minerals as well as antioxidants. In this study, a comparative analysis of the developments of wax fruit ripening at the proteomic and metabolomic level was reported. 2D electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF was used to compare the proteome profile from three developmental stages named immature, young, and mature fruits. In general, the protein expression profile and the identified proteins function were discussed for their potential roles in fruit physiological development and ripening processes. The metabolomic investigation was also performed on the same samples using quadrupole LC-MS (LC-QTOF/MS). Roles of some of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolites are discussed in relation to wax apple ripening during the development. This is the first study investigating the changes in the proteins and metabolites in wax apple at different developmental stages. The information obtained from this research will be helpful in developing biomarkers for breeders and help the plant researchers to avoid wax apple cultivation problems such as fruit cracking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/analysis
  12. Gobinathan S, Zainol SS, Azizi SF, Iman NM, Muniandy R, Hasmad HN, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 12;29(17):2051-2067.
    PMID: 29983100 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2018.1485814
    Amniotic membrane has the potential to be used as scaffold in various tissue engineering applications. However, increasing its biostability at the same time maintaining its biocompatibility is important to enhance its usage as a scaffold. This studied characteristics genipin-crosslinked amniotic membrane as a bioscaffold. Redundant human amniotic membranes (HAM) divided into native (nAM), decellularized (dAM) and genipin-crosslinked (clAM) groups. The dAM and clAM group were decellularized using thermolysin (TL) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Next, clAM group was crosslinked with 0.5% and 1.0% (w/v) genipin. The HAM was then studied for in vitro degradation, percentage of swelling, optical clarity, ultrastructure and mechanical strength. Meanwhile, fibroblasts isolated from nasal turbinates were then seeded onto nAM, dAM and clAM for biocompatibility studies. clAM had the slowest degradation rate and were still morphologically intact after 30 days of incubation in 0.01% collagenase type 1 solution. The dAM had a significantly highest percentage of swelling than other groups (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix Proteins/analysis
  13. Lim CY, Junit SM, Aziz AA, Jayapalan JJ, Hashim OH
    Electrophoresis, 2018 12;39(23):2965-2973.
    PMID: 30280388 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201800258
    The hypolipidemic effects of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract (Ti-FPE) have been earlier reported but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still uncertain. In this study, hamsters fed with Ti-FPE, both in the absence and presence of high-cholesterol diet, were shown to have significantly reduced levels of serum triglyceride, LDL-C and total cholesterol. The Ti-FPE-fed non-hypercholesterolemic hamsters also showed significant enhanced levels of serum apolipoprotein A1, antithrombin III, transferrin and vitamin D binding protein. In diet-induced hypercholesterolemic hamsters, apolipoprotein A1, antithrombin III and transferrin, which were relatively low in levels, became significantly enhanced when the hamsters were fed with Ti-FPE. These Ti-FPE-fed hypercholesterolemic hamsters also showed significant higher levels of serum vitamin D binding protein. When the different treated groups of hamsters were analyzed for the levels of the four serum proteins by ELISA, similar altered abundance were detected. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the Ti-FPE modulated serum proteins singled out "Lipid metabolism, molecular transport, small molecule biochemistry" as the top network. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effects of Ti-FPE are associated with alterations of serum proteins that are known to be cardioprotective and involved in the metabolism of lipids. The MS data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD010232.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Proteins/analysis*
  14. Ngoh YY, Gan CY
    Food Chem, 2018 Nov 30;267:124-131.
    PMID: 29934146 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.166
    Five Pinto bean peptides with α-amylase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were successfully identified using the integrated bioinformatics approach. By using PEAKS studio, 511 peptide sequences were first shortlisted based on their de novo sequence property and average local confidence (ALC) yield of ≥60%. Subsequently, only five peptides were found to have high potential (score ≥0.80) for contributing bioactivy. The important sites which were potentially bound by the peptides: (a) Trp58, Trp59, Tyr 62, Asp96, Arg195, Asp197, Glu233, His299, Asp300 and His305 for α-amylase; (b) His353, Ala354, His383, Glu384, His387, Glu411, Lys511, His513, Tyr520 and Tyr523 for ACE had corresponded to the catalytic and substrate binding sites of the two enzymes. A validation assay was then conducted and IC50 values were determined. The range of the values for α-amylase inhibitory activity was 10.03-23.33mM, whereas the values for ACE inhibitory activity were of 1.52-31.88μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Proteins/analysis
  15. Kai-Cheen A, Lay-Harn G
    Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 2018 Nov;65(6):876-882.
    PMID: 30132993 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1687
    Differentially expressed aqueous soluble proteins between Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and H37Rv were identified. The protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve proteins were detected to be differentially expressed significantly between virulent strain H37Rv and attenuated strain H37Ra. The differentially expression of these proteins was validated by a recently isolated clinical virulent strains of M. tuberculosis, TB138. Out of the 12 proteins identified, which consisted of ten upregulated and two downregulated proteins, nine were belonged to intermediate metabolism and respiration protein group, two were in lipid metabolism, and one protein was involved in information pathways and virulence. Among these proteins, two of the upregulated proteins, namely, mmsA and pntAa, showed a consistent expression pattern in both virulent mycobacterium strains. These proteins can serve as potential biomarkers for the intervention treatment of TB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/analysis*
  16. Kunalan S, Othman I, Syed Hassan S, Hodgson WC
    Toxins (Basel), 2018 Oct 26;10(11).
    PMID: 30373186 DOI: 10.3390/toxins10110434
    Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Ophiophagus hannah (OH) are two medically important snakes found in Malaysia. While some studies have described the biological properties of these venoms, feeding and environmental conditions also influence the concentration and distribution of snake venom toxins, resulting in variations in venom composition. Therefore, a combined proteomic approach using shotgun and gel filtration chromatography, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, was used to examine the composition of venoms from these Malaysian snakes. The analysis revealed 114 proteins (15 toxin families) and 176 proteins (20 toxin families) in Malaysian Calloselasma rhodostoma and Ophiophagus hannah species, respectively. Flavin monoamine oxidase, phospholipase A₂, phosphodiesterase, snake venom metalloproteinase, and serine protease toxin families were identified in both venoms. Aminopeptidase, glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase along with ankyrin repeats were identified for the first time in CR venom, and insulin, c-type lectins/snaclecs, hepatocyte growth factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor together with tumor necrosis factor were identified in OH venom for the first time. Our combined proteomic approach has identified a comprehensive arsenal of toxins in CR and OH venoms. These data may be utilized for improved antivenom production, understanding pathological effects of envenoming, and the discovery of biologically active peptides with medical and/or biotechnological value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reptilian Proteins/analysis*
  17. Ernieenor FCL, Ernna G, Jafson AS, Mariana A
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2018 Sep;76(1):99-107.
    PMID: 30151715 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-018-0285-4
    The occurrence of Suidasia medanensis (= S. pontifica) mites in Malaysian house dust was first reported in 1984. The taxonomy of this storage mite is, however, quite confusing. Therefore, we need an accurate identification to resolve morphological problems due to its minute size and some overlapping characters between species. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the application of partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for the identification of S. medanensis by PCR. Identity of the mite was first determined by observing morphological characters under a light microscope. Genomic DNA of S. medanensis mites was successfully extracted prior to PCR and DNA sequencing using COI universal primers. The length of the COI sequences obtained was 378 bp. BLAST analysis of amplicon sequences showed that local S. medanensis COI region had 99% maximum identity with S. medanensis nucleotide sequence (AY525568) available in the GenBank. As the phylogenetic tree generated indicated, COI sequences from this study were clustered with S. medanensis from Korea and the UK in one major clade, supported with high bootstrap value (> 85%). Results of the phylogenetic analysis of this COI gene were congruent with the morphological identification and provided strong support for a single clade of local S. medanensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arthropod Proteins/analysis
  18. Anada RP, Wong KT, Jayapalan JJ, Hashim OH, Ganesan D
    Electrophoresis, 2018 09;39(18):2308-2315.
    PMID: 29570807 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201700407
    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which classifies patients into mild, moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a system used to prioritize treatment and prognosticate the severity of head injury. In this study, sera of patients with various stages of TBI, as well as control subjects, were analyzed to screen for proteins that may be used to complement the GCS system. By subjecting pooled serum samples to iTRAQ analysis for quantitative comparison of protein abundance, and attesting their altered levels using ELISA, we have detected increased levels of serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, fibronectin, vitronectin and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in patients across all strata of TBI relative to the controls. However, kininogen was decreased only in moderate and severe TBI, whereas apolipoprotein E and zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein were only increased in severe TBI. Hence, we propose a panel of serum biomarkers, which if analyzed within 24 h of the injury, can be used to diagnose patients with TBI into mild, moderate or severe stratification objectively, thus complementing the traditional GCS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blood Proteins/analysis*
  19. Takaoka H, Low VL, Tan TK, Huang YT, Fukuda M, Ya'cob Z
    J. Med. Entomol., 2018 06 28;55(4):884-892.
    PMID: 29538704 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjy028
    A new black fly species, Simulium haiduanense Takaoka, Low & Huang (Diptera: Simuliidae), is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Taiwan. This new species is placed in the Simulium argentipes species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) and is characterized by the yellowish female legs, ovipositor valves rounded apically and with its inner margin concave, claw with a small subbasal tooth, male style without a basal protuberance, pupal gill with eight filaments, corbicular cocoon, and larval abdomen lacking paired protuberances. It represents the first record of the S. argentipes species-group from Taiwan. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from all eight species in the same species-group. The phylogenetic relationships of this new species with four related species are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insect Proteins/analysis
  20. Chua LH, Tan SC, Liew MWO
    J. Biotechnol., 2018 Jun 20;276-277:34-41.
    PMID: 29679607 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.04.012
    An intensified process was developed that enables high level production of recombinant core streptavidin (cSAV), a non-glycosylated tetrameric protein utilised in a wide range of applications. A pH-stat fed-batch feeding strategy was employed to achieve high-cell-density and improve volumetric yield of cSAV which was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs). The effect of induction at different cell densities (OD 20, 60 and 100) on volumetric and specific yield were then studied. Highest volumetric yield of cSAV (1550 mg L-1) was obtained from induction at OD 100 without significant reductions in specific yield. To recover active cSAV from IBs, the possibility of refolding using a temperature-based refolding method was investigated. Refolded cSAV obtained from temperature-based refolding were then compared against cSAV refolded with conventional dialysis and dilution methods using quantitative and qualitative metrics. The temperature-based refolding method was found to improve the yield of cSAV by 6-18% in comparison to conventional methods without compromising quality. Intensification was achieved by reductions in process volumes and a more concentrated product stream. Using the newly developed process, the volumetric yield of cSAV IBs was improved by thirty-six fold in comparison to low-cell-density shake flask cultivation, and 33% of cSAV can be recovered from IBs at 90% purity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/analysis
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