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  1. ul Haq N, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Saleem F, Aljadhey H
    PMID: 22866752 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-91
    The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  2. Zyoud SH, Daraghmeh DN, Mezyed DO, Khdeir RL, Sawafta MN, Ayaseh NA, et al.
    BMC Nephrol, 2016 04 27;17(1):44.
    PMID: 27117687 DOI: 10.1186/s12882-016-0257-z
    BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis (HD) is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). HD can bring about significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and outcomes. Therefore, we sought to describe the patterns of HRQOL and determine the independent factors associated with poor HRQOL in Palestinian patients on HD.

    METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed from June 2014 to January 2015 using the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions instrument (EQ-5D-5L) for the assessment of HRQOL. ESRD patients undergoing HD in all dialysis centres in the West Bank of Palestine were approached and recruited for this study. Multiple linear regression was carried out to identify factors that were significantly associated with HRQOL.

    RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients were participated in the current study giving response rate of 96 %. Overall, 139 (52.1 %) were male, and the mean ± standard deviation age was 53.3 ± 16.2 years. The reported HRQOL as measured by mean EQ-5D-5L index value and Euro QOL visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score was 0.37 ± 0.44 and 59.38 ± 45.39, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between the EQ-VAS and the EQ-5D-5L index value (r = 0.42, p life.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life/psychology*
  3. Zyoud SH, Al-Jabi SW, Sweileh WM, Wildali AH, Saleem HM, Aysa HA, et al.
    Int. J. Cardiol., 2013 Oct 3;168(3):2981-3.
    PMID: 23647601 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.04.105
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  4. Zuria Idura A.M., Noorlaili M.T., Rosdinom R., Azlin B.., Tuti Iryani M.D.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Caring for those with dementia affects the quality of life for both the caregivers and the patients themselves, particularly in the informal care system here in Malaysia. To date, only a few studies have explored from the family caregivers’ perspectives in the communities of different cultural background. The purpose of this study is to describe the Malaysian family caregivers’ perspectives of their experiences in providing care to for their family members suffering from moderate to severe dementia in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: This qualitative study involved in-depth individual interviews with twelve caregivers to patients with moderate to severe dementia. Participants were recruited via purposive sampling from the outpatient psycho-geriatric clinic at UKM Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcribed data was later analysed using a thematic approach. Results: Four themes identified in this study were; i) the feeling that ‘it is like caring for a baby’, ii) the caregivers’ perception of inadequate knowledge and skills, iii) the need for caregivers’ support system and iv) the importance of spirituality in enhancing care giving experiences. Conclusions: The framework of care shared by the caregivers in this study demonstrated strong cultural and spirituality influences in addition to the common issues of the challenges in managing the behavioural and psychological symptoms in people with dementia. Hence, culture and spirituality aspects should be addressed in the development of appropriate intervention to manage the needs of informal caregivers in this community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  5. Zulkifli MM, Kadir AA, Elias A, Bea KC, Sadagatullah AN
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Jul;11(2):7-14.
    PMID: 29021872 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1707.003
    Introduction: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt a Malay version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and to evaluate its psychometric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Materials and Methods: The English version KOOS was translated into a Malay version using forward and backward translation process, followed by face validity and content validity. Two hundred and twenty-six knee OA patients attending the Outpatient and Orthopaedic Clinics, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, completed the Malay version KOOS. Construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and internal reliability assessment were performed. Results: The results showed that the original five-factor model with 42 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, indicating poor model fit. A new five-factor model of 26 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index= 0.929, incremental fit index= 0.930, Tucker Lewis fit index= 0.920, root mean square error of approximation= 0.073 and Chisquared/degree of freedom= 2.183) indices to signify a model fit. The Cronbach's alpha value for the new model ranged from 0.776 to 0.946. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.819 and 0.921, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. Conclusion: The five-factor model with 26 items in the Malay version of KOOS questionnaire demonstrated a good degree of goodness of fit and was found to be valid, reliable and simple as an assessment tool for symptoms, pain, activity of daily living, sports and recreational activity and quality of life for Malaysian adults suffering from knee osteoarthritis.

    Study site: Outpatient and orthopedic clinics, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  6. Zulfarina MS, Syarifah-Noratiqah SB, Nazrun SA, Sharif R, Naina-Mohamed I
    Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci, 2019 May 31;17(2):145-154.
    PMID: 30905115 DOI: 10.9758/cpn.2019.17.2.145
    Panic disorder (PD) being one of the most intensively investigated anxiety disorders is considered a heterogeneous psychiatric disease which has difficulties with early diagnosis. The disorder is recurrent and usually associated with low remission rates and high rates of relapse which may exacerbated social and quality of life, causes unnecessary cost and increased risk for complication and suicide. Current pharmacotherapy for PD are available but these drugs have slow therapeutic onset, several side effects and most patients do not fully respond to these standard pharmacological treatments. Ongoing investigations indicate the need for new and promising agents for the treatment of PD. This article will cover the importance of immediate and proper treatment, the gap in the current management of PD with special emphasis on pharmacotherapy, and evidence regarding the novel anti-panic drugs including the drugs in developments such as metabotropic glutamate (mGlu 2/3) agonist and levetiracetam. Preliminary results suggest the anti-panic properties and the efficacy of duloxetine, reboxetine, mirtazapine, nefazodone, risperidone and inositol as a monotherapy drug. Apart for their effectiveness, the aforementioned compounds were generally well tolerated compared to the standard available pharmacotherapy drugs, indicating their potential therapeutic usefulness for ambivalent and hypervigilance patient. Further strong clinical trials will provide an ample support to these novel compounds as an alternative monotherapy for PD treatment-resistant patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  7. Zubaidah, J.O., Hejar, A.R., Lim, Y.W., Chin, K.T., Muhd Aizuddin, Z., Mud Hazeman, Z.
    MyJurnal
    Cancer pain is a complex experience and is one of the most common and distressing symptom of breast cancer which affects patients’ functioning in daily activities, their quality of life (QOL), and mood. Yet, there is a great lack of data on breast cancer and pain in Malaysia.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study using the Breast Cancer Patient Version of Quality of Life (QOL) Instrument (translated into Malay) and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were conducted on 87 female breast cancer patients to investigate the impact of pain interference level on their quality of life and depressive level.
    Results: The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their rating of how pain and aches have been a problem to them (i.e not a problem [n=18 (20.7%)], mild[n=29 (33.3%)], moderate [n=18 (20.7%)] and severe [n=22(25.3%). Pain and aches ware reported to be the most severe interference problems in QOL physical domain by patients (mean=5.8, SD=2.8), followed by fatigue (mean=6.0, SD=3.1) and sleep changes (mean=6.2, SD=3.5). Patients who reported that pain and aches had severely affected them showed significantly lower score on many aspects of quality of life (Fs > 5, p < 0.005; p < 0.0001) and patients reported pain was not a problem at all demonstrated highest score on all aspects of QOL. Patients with most severe pain interference level showed highest depressive score [F (3, 84) =3, p < 0.05].
    Conclusion: The study underscores the impact of pain interference on patients’ quality of life and depressive level. The pain assessment deserves significant attention and therefore a comprehensive biopsychosocial assessment of pain to rule out any related underlying issues is warranted in the management of breast cancer to ensure appropriate intervention given to the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  8. Zhang Y, Ma ZF, Zhang H, Pan B, Li Y, Majid HA, et al.
    JGH Open, 2019 Apr;3(2):173-178.
    PMID: 31061894 DOI: 10.1002/jgh3.12125
    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are a chronic condition that can significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Therefore, this paper will review the roles of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polypols (FODMAP) diet in treating IBS, particularly in an Asian setting. About 20% of the general population is diagnosed with IBS. However, there are limited effective medical therapies available for treating IBS. Therefore, IBS presents a major challenge to the health-care providers. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of a diet low in FODMAP for the treatment of IBS. A low FODMAP diet can decrease the delivery of readily fermentable substrates to the small intestine and colon, thereby improving functional gastrointestinal symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  9. Zalina, N., Ruqaiyah, B. R., Hamizah, I., Roszaman, R., Mokhtar, A., Rozihan, I., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) is a highly prevalent disease which varies by geography
    and culture. It influences the quality of life and has social implication. The objectives of this study are to
    estimate the prevalence of LUTS among women attending our gynaecology clinic, the associated risk factors
    and their quality of life. Method: This is a cross sectional study on women attending gynaecology clinic in a
    tertiary centre. Participants were given 3 sets of validated self-answered questionnaire, UDI-6, IIQ-7 and
    OAB V8. Results: the prevalence of luts is 50.6% which is common among Malay women. Forty nine percent
    is due to stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The risk of LUTS is significantly associated with obesity (AOR =
    12.14 95% CI = 1.21 to 121.99, p – value = 0.034), higher parity (AOR = 1.68 95% CI = 1.26 to 2.24, p – value =
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  10. Zalina Abu Zaid, Kathryn Jackson, Lynne Cobiac, Mirnalini Kandiah
    Malays J Nutr, 2017;23(3):375-384.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Malnutrition is associated with poorer outcomes following treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study evaluates the relationship between nutritional status using scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) with the validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ C30) which consists of five functional scales, three symptoms scales and one item of global health/quality of life (QOL).
    Methods: A total of 42 CRC patients at oncology outpatient clinics from two hospitals in Malaysia participated in the study from March 2011 to March 2012. The participants were classified as either well-nourished (PG-SGA A) or malnourished (PG-SGA B and C).
    Results: The majority of patients were Chinese, male, with a mean age of 57.1 ± 9.8 years and had been diagnosed with stage 2 CRC. Well-nourished patients had statistically significantly better QOL scores on symptom scales: fatigue (p<0.001), nausea and vomiting (p<0.05), and pain (p<0.001) compared to malnourished patients. PG-SGA was strongly correlated with the main domains of the QOL: global health status (r = -0.395, p<0.05), fatigue (r = 0.816, p<0.001), nausea and vomiting (r = 0.730, p<0.001) and pain (r= 0.629, p<0.001). The better the nutritional status (lower total mean score of PG-SGA), the higher the QOL (high mean score of global health status).
    Conclusion: The scored PG-SGA is suitable for use as a nutrition assessment tool to identify malnutrition and it is associated
    with QOL among this population.
    Key words: Chemotherapy, colorectal cancer patient, malnutrition, nutritional status, PGSGA score, quality of life
    Study site: Oncology clinics, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital Selayang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  11. Zalina AZ, Lee VC, Kandiah M
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Aug;18(2):255-64.
    PMID: 24575671 MyJurnal
    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  12. Zakaria ZF, Bakar AA, Hasmoni HM, Rani FA, Kadir SA
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2009 Dec 31;8(1):10.
    PMID: 20084190 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-8-10
    BACKGROUND: Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life.

    METHODS: A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview.

    RESULTS: A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 +/- 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8%) of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 +/- 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%), had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p < 0.0005) which indicated the deterioration of this domain as patients became older. Male respondents had better scores in most of the QOL dimensions especially in the physical functioning domain (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between QOL with different education levels, employment status and marital status. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and existence co-morbidities scored lower in most of the QOL domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  13. Zainuddin AA, Grover SR, Shamsuddin K, Mahdy ZA
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 2013 Dec;26(6):296-304.
    PMID: 23507003 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpag.2012.08.004
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the commonest cause of ambiguous genitalia for female newborns and is one of the conditions under the umbrella term of "Disorders of Sex Development" (DSD). Management of these patients require multidisciplinary collaboration and is challenging because there are many aspects of care, such as the most appropriate timing and extent of feminizing surgery required and attention to psychosexual, psychological, and reproductive issues, which still require attention and reconsideration, even in developed nations. In developing nations, however, additional challenges prevail: poverty, lack of education, lack of easily accessible and affordable medical care, traditional beliefs on intersex, religious, and cultural issues, as well as poor community support. There is a paucity of long-term outcome studies on DSD and CAH to inform on best management to achieve optimal outcome. In a survey conducted on 16 patients with CAH and their parents in a Malaysian tertiary center, 31.3% of patients stated poor knowledge of their condition, and 37.5% did not realize that their medications were required for life. This review on the research done on quality of life (QOL) of female patients with CAH aims: to discuss factors affecting QOL of female patients with CAH, especially in the developing population; to summarize the extant literature on the quality of life outcomes of female patients with CAH; and to offer recommendations to improve QOL outcomes in clinical practice and research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  14. Zaini S, Guan NC, Sulaiman AH, Zainal NZ, Huri HZ, Shamsudin SH
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1431-1455.
    PMID: 29484993 DOI: 10.2174/1389450119666180226125026
    Cancer patients are commonly associated with various physical and psychological symptoms. In palliative setting, the aims are to relieve those symptoms, improve quality of life, and increase medication adherence among cancer patients. Antidepressants are generally accepted for the treatment of depression among patients with or without cancer. Some other potential benefits of the antidepressants have been reported in cancer patients.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review the use of antidepressants for physical and psychological symptoms in cancer patients.

    RESULTS: Our findings showed the mixed result of positive and negative findings in various symptoms associated with cancer patients. These studies are categorised according to the hierarchy of evidence from high to low level, namely randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, case reports, as well as other type of publications. The majority of antidepressants used in cancer patients seem to be beneficial for the treatment of depression, anxiety, hot flashes and other symptoms such as sexual dysfunction, fatigue, nicotine dependence, vasomotor symptoms, executive functions, sleep problems, pruritus, as well as for hypochondriasis. While fluoxetine was found to be associated with the reduction of antiemetic property in ondansetron, mirtazapine was identified to be a good alternative in treating nausea and cachexia among cancer patients.

    CONCLUSION: More research studies with adequate statistical power are warranted to validate the use of antidepressants among cancer patients in treating these physical and psychological symptoms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  15. Zainab, S., Ismail, N.M., Norbanee, T.H., Ismail, A.R.
    MyJurnal
    This study aims to determine the prevalence of denture wearing among elderly and to compare the oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between elderly with dentures and those without dentures. This cross sectional study involved 506 randomly selected edentulous elderly in the district of Badang, Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Consented participants were interviewed in the Kelantanese dialect at their homes by a single trained interviewer using the short version Oral Health Impact Profile [S-OHIP(M)] which had been translated into the Malay language, tested and validated for use in Malaysian population. Denture wearing and self rated denture status was noted. The prevalence of denture wearing was 46.2% (95% CI=41.83, 50.70). There was a significant difference in sex, smoking status, self perceived treatment need and self perceived satisfaction between denture wearers and non denture wearers. Denture wearers reported better overall OHRQoL compared to non denture wearers (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  16. Zahran MH, Fahmy O, El-Hefnawy AS, Ali-El-Dein B
    Climacteric, 2016 Dec;19(6):546-550.
    PMID: 27649461
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of radical cystectomy and urinary diversion on female sexual function.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Medline search was conducted according to the PRISMA statement for all English full-text articles published between 1980 and 2016 and assessing female sexual function post radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Eligible studies were subjected to critical analysis and revision. The primary outcomes were the reporting methods for female sexual dysfunction (FSD), manifestations of FSD, and factors associated with FSD, postoperative recoverability of FSD, and awareness level regarding FSD.

    RESULTS: From the resulting 117 articles, 11 studies were finally included in our systematic review, with a total of 361 women. Loss of sexual desire and orgasm disorders were the most frequently reported (49% and 39%). Dyspareunia and vaginal lubrication disorders were reported in 25% and 9.5%, respectively. The incidence of sexual dysfunction was 10% in 30 patients receiving genital- or nerve-sparing cystectomy vs. 59% receiving conventional cystectomy.

    CONCLUSION: Although female sexual function is an important predictor of health-related quality of life post radical cystectomy and urinary diversion, the available literature is not enough to provide proper information for surgeons and patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  17. Zahilah, Z., Fadzil, A., Jamal, R.
    MyJurnal
    Life (QOL) of patients with childhood leukaemias presenting at the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). The objectives of this pilot study were 1) To assess the feasibility and applicability of assessing quality of life in leukaemia patients using the adult-based SF-36 questionnaire. 2) To compare the differences of QOL scores among patients based on gender and treatment status. The Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF36) was used. The items in SF-36 were drawn from the original 245-item MOS questionnaire, which includes multi-item scales that measured the eight dimensions of quality of life namely physical function, role limitations (physical problems), bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role limitations (emotional problems) and mental health. Patients with acute leukaemias were chosen to participate in the study. Twenty-eight patients were recruited, twelve were males and 16 were females. Ten patients had completed therapy whilst 18 others were still undergoing treatment. The results showed that those patients off treatment have a better quality of life than those on chemotherapy. However, this was only significant with respect to the role limitation pertaining to physical problems. Although the use of the SF-36 was feasible, there were limitations especially in the younger age group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  18. Zahari Z, Ishak A, Justine M
    PMID: 31356191 DOI: 10.3233/BMR-181305
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an overview of patient education and the effects of patient education for older people with low back pain (LBP).

    METHODS: The search strategies were performed via EBSCO MEDLINE, EBSCO CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed, and PEDro databases from 2006 to 2016. The keywords "patient education", "low back pain", "elderly", "older adults", "older persons" and "older people" were used during the literature search. Boolean operators were used to expand or limit the searching scope and manual exclusion were performed to choose articles eligible for this study.

    RESULTS: A total of 2799 articles were retrieved but only five articles were related with patient education for older people with LBP. Findings suggest that patient education for older people may differ in terms of its contents such as health education, self-management, video education, and postural education. The high methodological quality of the studies revealed that patient education showed improvement in terms of pain, disability and quality of life among older people with LBP.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patient education improved pain and had positive effects on disability and quality of life among older people with LBP. However, due to the limited number of RCTs more studies are needed to provide evidence for its effectiveness.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  19. Zafar Ahmed, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Aisha Abdussalam, Mahmud Hanesh, Suriati Sukeri, Joseph, Leonard
    Int J Public Health Res, 2012;2(1):65-74.
    MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a one of the major cause of death and disability worldwide. This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QOL), Activity of Daily Living (ADL), Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) and general health symptoms pre and after hospital-based respiratory physiotherapy program among COPD patients. METHODS. Pre and post intervention study was conducted between January and July 2010. A total of 54 subjects aged between 30 to 40 years old were recruited for this study using universal sampling method from Alzawia Teaching Hospital, Libya. Data collected were socio-demographic data, QOL (before and after the intervention) using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, ADL using the Barthel Index and the General Health Symptoms.
    RESULTS.. The mean SF-36 score for QOL is 30.13 (SD = 8.06) and 63.46 (SD = 13.53) before and after the physiotherapy respectively (with the p <0.0001). Patients’ Activity of Daily Living mean scores are 70.18, (SD = 16.50) and mean = 88.89 (SD = 13.28) before and after program (p< 0.0001). The general medical condition mean score after respiratory physiotherapy is 3.72 as compared to 4.96 before the respiratory physiotherapy (p< 0.0001). Pulmonary Function Test shows improvement in actual/predicted FEV1 ratio in all 54 cases with mean improvement from 55.85 before to 81.67 after the pulmonary physiotherapy (with the p <0.0001).
    CONCLUSION. Hospital based respiratory physiotherapy program had significantly improved QOL, pulmonary function and activities of daily living among the subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  20. Zack R, Okunade O, Olson E, Salt M, Amodeo C, Anchala R, et al.
    Hypertension, 2019 Apr 01.
    PMID: 30929516 DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.11916
    High blood pressure is the leading modifiable risk factor for mortality, accounting for nearly 1 in 5 deaths worldwide and 1 in 11 in low-income countries. Hypertension control remains a challenge, especially in low-resource settings. One approach to improvement is the prioritization of patient-centered care. However, consensus on the outcomes that matter most to patients is lacking. We aimed to define a standard set of patient-centered outcomes for evaluating hypertension management in low- and middle-income countries. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement convened a Working Group of 18 experts and patients representing 15 countries. We used a modified Delphi process to reach consensus on a set of outcomes, case-mix variables, and a timeline to guide data collection. Literature reviews, patient interviews, a patient validation survey, and an open review by hypertension experts informed the set. The set contains 18 clinical and patient-reported outcomes that reflect patient priorities and evidence-based hypertension management and case-mix variables to allow comparisons between providers. The domains included are hypertension control, cardiovascular complications, health-related quality of life, financial burden of care, medication burden, satisfaction with care, health literacy, and health behaviors. We present a core list of outcomes for evaluating hypertension care. They account for the unique challenges healthcare providers and patients face in low- and middle-income countries, yet are relevant to all settings. We believe that it is a vital step toward international benchmarking in hypertension care and, ultimately, value-based hypertension management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
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