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  1. Liew AC, Peh KK, Tan BS, Zhao W, Tangiisuran B
    Support Care Cancer, 2019 Dec;27(12):4515-4524.
    PMID: 30911917 DOI: 10.1007/s00520-019-04724-1
    PURPOSE: This observational study aimed to compare the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) amongst breast cancer patients using Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and those not using CHM during chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A prospective, non-randomised longitudinal study was conducted in two government integrated hospitals over an 8-month period. Early-stage breast cancer patients who were (1) either already using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or not and (2) who were on a regime of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide were included in the study. Patients who agreed to receive CHM were assigned to receive individualised CHM prescriptions deemed suitable for the individual at a particular time. Those who were not willing to take Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) were assigned to the non-CHM control group. Blood profile and chemotherapy-induced AE were recorded whilst HRQOL assessment was done using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire on first, third, and sixth cycles.

    RESULTS: Forty-seven patients [32 female vs. 1 male, p = 0.31; mean year of age: 52.2(SD = 7.6), p = 0.28)}] were recruited during the study period. Demographics of both groups were comparable. Fifty percent of respondents reported using some kind of CAM before chemotherapy. Diet supplements (40.6%) were the most common CAM used by the respondents. The study showed that patients using CHM had significantly less fatigue (p = 0.012), nausea (p = 0.04), and anorexia (p = 0.005) during chemotherapy. There were no significant differences in patients' HRQOL (p = 0.79). There were no AEs reported during the study.

    CONCLUSION: The use of CHM as an adjunct treatment with conventional chemotherapy have been shown to reduce fatigue, nausea, and anorexia in breast cancer patients but did not reduce chemotherapy-associated hematologic toxicity. The sample size of this study was not powered to assess the significance of HRQOL between two groups of patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  2. Cheong WL, Mohan D, Warren N, Reidpath DD
    Disabil Rehabil, 2019 Nov 26.
    PMID: 31769306 DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2019.1695000
    Background: The needs of patients with multiple sclerosis have been well-studied in high-income, high-prevalence countries but few studies have been based in low- and middle-income countries where resources are relatively scarce. As such, little is known about the needs of patients living in these countries.Objective: The study seeks to develop an understanding of the needs of patients with multiple sclerosis living in Malaysia in order to generate insights and contribute to a global database of patients' experienceMethod: 12 patients with multiple sclerosis participated in this qualitative study and took part in a semi-structured interview. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using an iterative thematic analysis approach.Results: The experiences, challenges and needs of the patients were reported. Five themes were developed (Daily living, Financial, Emotional and psychological, Healthcare, and Family). These predominantly revolved around the struggles of coping and adapting to the symptoms and disabilities imposed by multiple sclerosis, their heavy reliance on personal finances to cope with the increased costs of living for themselves and their families, as well as the limited healthcare services and treatments available to help them to manage the physical and emotional symptoms of multiple sclerosis.Conclusion: Patients with multiple sclerosis in Malaysia have complex needs that are neglected due perceived lack of importance of the disease and the poor understanding of multiple sclerosis in general. Patients rely heavily on their finances to improve their quality of life. This perpetuates health inequities and reform of the national health financing system is needed to provide patients with the healthcare and support they need.Implications for rehabilitationPatients with multiple sclerosis in Malaysia prioritize being able to cope and adapt to their disabilities in order to continue performing their activities of daily living.There is a need to increase the availability and accessibility of healthcare professionals that are experienced with the management of multiple sclerosis.Healthcare professionals need to improve their understanding of the patients' needs and what they consider to be important in order to provide therapy that is effective and relevant.Patients also require financial support to help them with the increased costs of living associated with MS as well as the costs of healthcare services such as physiotherapy and rehabilitation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  3. Husin MH, Lim YK
    PMID: 31729282 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2019.1615999
    Background/Purpose: Visual impairment is a disability more commonly caused by diseases that lead to several disadvantages to the daily activities amongst those blind. For almost a century since the white cane was first introduced, the cane has remained as the most reliable tool for those affected by blindness.Methods: By using a combination of the capabilities of Internet of Things (IoT) and existing devices, such as mobile phones, an InWalker system is proposed to expand the functionality of the typical white cane, so as to introduce several new features that enhance the safety and confidence amongst people who are blind. As such, this paper explores the existing works and projects to comprehend the motivation and the standard practices for each proposed feature. Each of the strength and drawback has been assessed thoroughly to refine the scope of this project.Results: The proposed project, InWalker, is an intelligent system that has an embedded board system with various sensors to enhance the usability of white cane. The inputs from the sensor are processed on a microcontroller, which then pass the data to a smartphone via Bluetooth for additional features, such as global positioning system (GPS) tracking and SMS services.Conclusions: Based on the initial user testing, the proposed system has successfully fulfilled most of the users' need.Implication for RehabilitationVisual impairment is a disability more commonly caused by diseases that lead to several disadvantages amongst those blind.The white cane has been seen as the most reliable tool for the visual impaired.This tool could be further improved with the integration of additional sensors that works with today's mobile devices.The proposed system, InWalker, is able to improve the overall quality of life among people who are blind through several features: obstacle detection, GPS tracking and a light illumination in dark environments for increased safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  4. Lim R, Liong ML, Lim KK, Leong WS, Yuen KH
    Urology, 2019 Nov;133:91-95.
    PMID: 31415780 DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2019.08.004
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life (ICIQ-LUTSqol) using both anchor-based and distribution-based methods for women with stress urinary incontinence undergoing nonsurgical treatment.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a randomized clinical trial evaluating efficacy of a nonsurgical intervention in women with stress urinary incontinence were used for analyses. The overall score of ICIQ-UI SF ranges from 0 to 21, with greater values indicating increased severity. The ICIQ-LUTSqol ranges from 19 to 76, with greater values indicating increased impact on quality of life. Instruments used in the anchor-based method were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, patient satisfaction, 1-hour pad test and the incontinence episode frequency. The distribution-based method used an effect size of 0.5 standard deviation. Triangulation of findings was used to converge on a single value of MCID.

    RESULTS: At 12-month post-treatment, 106 (88.3%) participants completed the follow-up and were included in the analysis. Anchor-based MCIDs of the ICIQ-UI SF were between 3.4 and 4.4, while the distribution-based MCID was 1.7. Anchor-based MCIDs of the ICIQ-LUTSqol were between 4.8 and 6.9, while the distribution-based MCID was 5.2. Triangulation of findings showed that MCIDs of 4 for ICIQ-UI SF and 6 for ICIQ-LUTSqol were the most appropriate.

    CONCLUSION: For women undergoing nonsurgical treatments for incontinence, reductions of 4 and 6 points in ICIQ-UI SF and ICIQ-LUTSqol, respectively are perceived as clinically meaningful.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  5. Inn FX, Ahmed N, Hou LG, Abidin ZAZ, Yi LL, Zainuddin ZM
    Int Urol Nephrol, 2019 Nov;51(11):1949-1953.
    PMID: 31441009 DOI: 10.1007/s11255-019-02262-7
    PURPOSE: The internal drainage provided by a ureteral stent helps with the relief and prevention of ureteral obstruction. By definition, correct stent placement is one with a complete loop in both the renal pelvis and bladder. This prevents stent migration proximally or distally despite urinary flow, patient movement, and ureteral peristalsis.

    METHODS: We performed a comparative prospective cross-sectional study assessing the impact of intravesical stent position on the quality of life in 46 patients with a ureteral stent. This is done using the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ).

    RESULTS: 52.5% of patients had an ipsilateral positioned intravesical stent, while the remaining had their stent positioned contralaterally. Intravesical stent position significantly influenced the quality of life. The USSQ score was worse for the contralateral group. Subscore analysis found that urinary symptoms and body pain index contribute significantly to the morbidity. Majority of patients in the ipsilateral group reported no discomfort as compared to the contralateral group.

    CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing the impact of intravesical stent position on the quality of life in the Asian population. Intravesical stent position has a significant influence on patient's morbidity and quality of life in particular towards their urinary irritative symptoms and body pain. It is imperative to ensure correct distal placement of ureteric stent that does not cross the midline to the contralateral site. We believe that the USSQ should be used in daily clinical practice in assessing the symptoms related to indwelling ureteric stents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  6. Klimova B, Valis M, Kuca K, Masopust J
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Nov 01;19(1):781.
    PMID: 31676005 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4641-9
    BACKGROUND: Present demographic trends show a considerable rise in elderly populations with aging disorders, such as dementia. The current article focused on the exploitation of e-learning as an informal support for caregivers of people with dementia and considered its benefits and limitations to provide proper and relevant care for this target group of people as well as maintain the quality of life of their caregivers.

    METHODS: The methodology of this study is based on a literature review of accessible peer-review articles from three recognized databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. The findings of the selected studies were compared and evaluated.

    RESULTS: The findings showed that e-learning educational programs/courses helped caregivers feel more confident about dementia care, reduced their perceived stress and enhanced their feelings of empathy, understanding and concern.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal that the exploitation of e-learning as a support tool, especially for informal caregivers, in the management of dementia may be a promising method, but its implementation requires professional training of informal caregivers in the use of this technology. More evidence-based studies are needed on this topic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  7. Teo CH, Chin YS, Lim PY, Masrom SAH, Shariff ZM
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Oct 30;19(1):1427.
    PMID: 31666034 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7708-y
    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition among school children may contribute to adverse health consequences such as non-communicable diseases, poor cognitive performance, psychological distress and poor quality of life that may persist into adulthood. In order to prevent childhood malnutrition, an intervention programme that integrates nutrition education and healthy school food environment is needed to provide nutrition information and reinforce the skills on healthy eating behaviours in schools. This paper describes a study protocol of a school-based intervention programme that integrates nutrition education and healthy school food environment, namely School Nutrition Programme (SNP). The SNP is a primary prevention programme that promotes healthy lifestyle among primary school children in light of the high prevalence of malnutrition in Malaysian children.

    METHODS/DESIGN: This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SNP between intervention and comparison groups before and after the SNP, and after a 3-month follow-up. The SNP consisted of two main components, whereby three nutrition education sessions were implemented by trained teachers using three standardised modules, and healthy school food environment was implemented by the canteen food handlers with the provision of healthy menu to children during school recess times. Children from intervention group participated in the SNP, in addition to the standard Physical and Health Curriculum. The comparison group attended only the standardised Physical and Health Curriculum and the school canteen food handlers were reminded to follow the standard canteen guidelines from the Ministry of Education Malaysia. The assessment parameters in evaluating the effectiveness of the programme were knowledge, attitude and practice on nutrition, eating behaviours, physical activity, body composition, psychological distress, cognitive performance and health-related quality of life. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up.

    DISCUSSION: It was hypothesised that the SNP would be effective in promoting healthy lifestyle among school children, and further contributes in preventing malnutrition problem, enhancing cognitive performance and improving health-related quality of life among school children. Findings of the present study can be expanded to other schools in future on ways to improve nutrition education and healthy school food environment.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000032914 (Date of registration: 7th June 2018, retrospectively registered).

    PROTOCOL VERSION: 16th September 2019 & Version 4.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  8. Lew YL, Ismail F, Abdul Aziz SA, Mohamed Shah N
    J Cancer Educ, 2019 Oct 28.
    PMID: 31659620 DOI: 10.1007/s13187-019-01637-9
    Most people with cancer have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Providing good quality cancer-related information enables patients to be better prepared for treatment and improves their adherence. This study aimed to determine the level of information received and the perceived usefulness of the sources of information to cancer patients. A 4-month study was conducted at a day care oncology unit and oncology ward of a tertiary care centre in Malaysia using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Information Module (EORTC QLQ-INFO 25). In total, 103 patients successfully completed the questionnaire. Level of information received was moderate. Patients were well-informed about medical tests (mean ± SD = 74.2 ± 17.8) followed by the disease itself (mean ± SD = 68.0 ± 13.6). Patients received less information on both other services (mean ± SD = 47.6 ± 18.1) and different places of care (mean ± SD = 41.3 ± 22.3). Although the correlation between age and level of information received was poor (r = - 0.201; P = .042), younger patients (≤ 65 years old) were found to have higher level of information received than older patients (mean ± SD = 61.5 ± 11.2 versus 57.8 ± 6.6; P = .046). Doctors (mean ± SD = 88.1 ± 17.1), nurses (mean ± SD = 83.7 ± 20.3), and family members (mean ± SD = 81.1 ± 24.9) were the most useful sources of information by cancer patients. There is still a need for improvement in the provision of information by the healthcare team and prioritisation should depend on patients' individual characteristics and their needs of information. More attention is needed in delivering required information especially to older patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  9. Iqbal MZ, Khan AH, Iqbal MS, Syed Sulaiman SA
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2019 10 18;11(4):299-309.
    PMID: 31619911 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_138_19
    A strict and adherence treatment is required by the patient with diabetes mellitus and it demands a proper self-medication by the patient. Pharmacists are involved in providing self-management support to the patients. This review evaluates the interventions of pharmacist for patients to improve self-management with diabetes mellitus and also to improve the clinical outcomes of diabetes mellitus. A comprehensive literature search was performed by using different keywords "pharmacist-led intervention," "diabetes," "effect of pharmacist on outcome of diabetes," and "self-management of diabetes" with the help of various electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from the beginning of the database through September 2018. The primary outcome was glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), whereas the secondary outcomes were blood glucose level, blood pressure (BP) measure, body mass index, lipids, adherence to medication, and quality of life. Twenty-five studies comprising 2997 diabetic patients were included in the analysis. Pharmacist-led intervention was involved in all included studies in the form of education on diabetes and its complications, medication adherence, lifestyle, and education about self-management skills. Pharmacist-led interventions are able to reduce HbA1c levels with a mean of 0.75%. Most studies do not expose the material and methods used in pharmacist-led intervention. The variation in the reduction of HbA1c, fasting blood sugar, BP, and lipid profile was due to the lack of this standardization. The included studies indicated that pharmacist-led interventions in diabetes mellitus can significantly improve the outcomes of diabetes mellitus and its complication later on. Hence, these long-term improvements in outcomes added more value of pharmacists in health-care system of the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  10. Rehman IU, Chohan TA, Bukhsh A, Khan TM
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2019 Oct 17;55(10).
    PMID: 31627446 DOI: 10.3390/medicina55100699
    : Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated pruritus is a common and disturbing condition which has a negative impact on sleep quality, as well as overall health-related quality of life of patients receiving hemodialysis. To date, no systematic review has been undertaken, and there is a lack of concise evidence that statistically quantifies the impact of pruritus based on published data. A systematic search was done for original articles published in peer-reviewed English journals from database inception on 20 December, 2018, in the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid, CINHAL, ProQuest, and Scopus. A total of 9217 research articles were identified. After removal of duplicates and screening for titles and abstracts, 28 articles were selected. The prevalence of disturbed sleep was 4-94%, while the pooled proportion on random effect in the study was 40% (95% CI = 0.30 to 0.49); I2 = 99.8%. However, the prevalence of disturbed sleep quality and quantity due to pruritus was 9-76%, and the pooled proportion on random effect in the study was 50% (95% CI = 0.37 to 0.64); I2 = 99.8%. Patients undergoing hemodialysis who are affected by CKD-associated pruritus have a higher chance of experiencing sleep disturbances. The prevalence of disturbed sleep due to CKD-associated pruritus was found to be 9-76% in the included studies for patients receiving hemodialysis therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  11. Kua CH, Mak VS, Lee SWH
    BMJ Open, 2019 Oct 11;9(10):e030106.
    PMID: 31604786 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030106
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the determinants of deprescribing among health professionals in nursing homes, focusing on knowledge, practice and attitude.

    DESIGN: This was a qualitative study comprising semi-structured face-to-face interviews guided by 10 open-ended questions. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved and no new ideas were formed. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed for themes. To derive themes, we employed directed content analysis of transcript data. Coding was completed using a combination of open, axial and selective coding.

    SETTING: Four nursing homes in Singapore.

    PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 17 participants (comprising 4 doctors, 4 pharmacists and 9 nurses).

    RESULTS: Two key themes were identified, enablers and challenges. These were enablers and challenges faced by doctors, pharmacists and nurses towards deprescribing. The identified subthemes for enablers of deprescribing were: (1) awareness of medications that are unnecessary or could be targeted for deprescribing; (2) improving quality of life for patients with limited life expectancy; (3) improving communication between doctors, pharmacists and nurses; (4) systematic deprescribing practice and educational tools and (5) acknowledgement of possible benefits of deprescribing. The identified subthemes for challenges of deprescribing were: (1) symptoms not acknowledged as possibly drug-related; (2) lack of knowledge in patient's and family members' preferences; (3) lack of coordination between health professionals in hospitals and nursing homes and (4) limited tools for deprescribing. The development of a local guideline, mentoring nurses, case discussions, better shared decision-making and improving multidisciplinary communication, may help to support the process of deprescribing.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study highlighted that deprescribing in the nursing homes is perceived by health professionals to be challenging and future research could assess how routine case studies, mentoring and better multidisciplinary communication could improve deprescribing knowledge and process in the nursing homes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  12. Nazir MA, Izhar F, Akhtar K, Almas K
    J Family Community Med, 2019 10 2;26(3):206-212.
    PMID: 31572052 DOI: 10.4103/jfcm.JFCM_55_19
    BACKGROUND: Oral health is integral to systemic health. There is a growing body of evidence of an association between periodontal and systemic diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness of dentists regarding link between oral and systemic health.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected using a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Dentists awareness about link between oral and systemic link was assessed on five point likert scale. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS.

    RESULTS: Of the 588 dentists, 500 completed the questionnaire (response rate 85.03%). About 93% of the participants (mean age 25.82 ± 4.21 years) agreed that oral health was associated with systemic health. Most dentists were aware of a connection between periodontal disease and diabetes (84.4%) and heart disease (70.2%). Similarly, 85.6% believed in the negative impact of oral disease on the quality of life of patients. More female than male dentists were aware of the relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.001). Most dentists (97%) believed that more patients would seek oral care if they were aware of the oral-systemic link. After adjustments, private dentists were 4.65 times more likely than public dentists to believe in improving access to oral care with increased patient awareness of the oral-systemic connection (P = 0.011).

    CONCLUSIONS: Most dentists were aware of the oral-systemic link. They believed that patients' access to oral care would improve if they were aware of a connection between oral and systemic health. Therefore, patients should be informed of the oral-systemic link to improve their oral health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  13. Kosalishkwaran G, Parasuraman S, Singh DKJ, Natarajan E, Elamvazuthi I, George J
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2019 Oct;57(10):2305-2318.
    PMID: 31444622 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-019-02026-6
    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common condition in elderly population that can be painful and can significantly affect individual's quality of life. Diagnosis of DDD allows prompt corrective actions but it is challenging due to the absence of any symptoms at early stages. In studying disc degeneration, measurement of the range of motion (RoM) and loads acting on the spine are crucial factors. However, direct measurement of RoM involves increased instrumentation and risk. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed for calculating RoM, emphasizing repeatability and reliability by considering the posterior thickness of the spine. This is achieved by offsetting the position of markers in relation to the actual vertebral loci. Three geometrically identical finite element models of L3-L4 are developed from a CT scan with different types of elements, and thereafter, mesh element-related metrics are provided for the assessment of the quality of models. The model with the best mesh quality is used for further analysis, where RoM are within ranges as reported in literature and in vivo experiment results. Various kinds of stresses acting on individual components including facet joints are analysed for normal and abnormal loading conditions. The results showed that the stresses in abnormal load conditions for all components including cortical (76.67 MPa), cancellous (69.18 MPa), annulus (6.30 MPa) and nucleus (0.343 MPa) are significantly greater as compared to normal loads (49.96 MPa, 44.2 MPa, 4.28 MPa and 0.23 MPa respectively). However, stress levels for both conditions are within safe limits (167-215 MPa for cortical, 46 MPa for the annulus and 3 MPa for facets). The results obtained could be used as a baseline motion and stresses of healthy subjects based on their respective lifestyles, which could benefit clinicians to suggest corrective actions for those affected by DDD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  14. Wan Yusuf WN, Wan Mohammad WMZ, Gan SH, Mustafa M, Abd Aziz CB, Sulaiman SA
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2019 Oct;9(4):249-256.
    PMID: 31453119 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.05.003
    This is the first study to report on the effects of honey in asymptomatic HIV positive subjects in ameliorating CD4 count, viral load (VL) and quality of life (QOL). It is a randomized, controlled, open labelled study, comparing the effects of Tualang honey (TH) administration for six months at three different doses: 20 g (THL), 40 g (THI) or 60 g (THH) daily compared with control (no administered treatment, THC). Only asymptomatic HIV positive subjects (n=95) having CD4 count 250-600 cell/ml, not on antiretrovirals were enrolled. Blood, (together with QOL questionnaires administration) were investigated at baseline, three and six months (CD4 cell count) while VL was determined only at baseline and six months. Significant reductions in CD4 counts in THL and THC groups (p= 0.003 for both) were seen with no significant reductions in the CD4 counts in THI and THH groups (p=0.447 and 0.053 respectively). There was improvement in VL in THC and THI (130% and 32% respectively) and reductions in THL and THH (26% and 8% respectively). Within and between group analyses for VL indicated significant differences between THL and THH compared to THC. In addition, significant improvement in QOL of groups which received TH was noted. TH has the potential to improve the QOL (physical and psychological) and CD4 counts. There was a trend of lower VL in asymptomatic HIV subjects following TH administration thus supporting the possible role of TH in boosting the immune system by improving CD4 counts, causing VL reductions in HIV positive subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  15. Low HL, Ismail MNBM, Taqvi A, Deeb J, Fuller C, Misbahuddin A
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg, 2019 Oct;185:105466.
    PMID: 31466022 DOI: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105466
    OBJECTIVE: To compare posterior subthalamic area deep brain stimulation (PSA-DBS) performed in the conventional manner against diffusion tensor imaging and tractography (DTIT)-guided lead implantation into the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRTT).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Double-blind, randomised study involving 34 patients with either tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Patients were randomised to Group A (DBS leads inserted using conventional landmarks) or Group B (leads guided into the DRTT using DTIT). Tremor (Fahn-Tolosa-Marin) and quality-of-life (PDQ-39) scores were evaluated 0-, 6-, 12-, 36- and 60-months after surgery.

    RESULTS: PSA-DBS resulted in marked tremor reduction in both groups. However, Group B patients had significantly better arm tremor control (especially control of intention tremor), increased mobility and activities of daily living, reduced social stigma and need for social support as well as lower stimulation amplitudes and pulse widths compared to Group A patients. The better outcomes were sustained for up to 60-months from surgery. The active contacts of Group B patients were consistently closer to the centre of the DRTT than in Group A. Speech problems were more common in Group A patients.

    CONCLUSION: DTIT-guided lead placement results in better and more stable tremor control and fewer adverse effects compared to lead placement in the conventional manner. This is because DTIT-guidance allows closer and more consistent placement of leads to the centre of the DRTT than conventional methods.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  16. Fong CY, Ng K, Kong AN, Ong LC, Rithauddin MA, Thong MK, et al.
    Arch. Dis. Child., 2019 Oct;104(10):972-978.
    PMID: 31122923 DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-316394
    AIM: Evaluation of impaired quality of life (QOL) of Malaysian children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and its possible risk factors.

    METHOD: Cross-sectional study on 68 parents of Malaysian children aged 2-18 years with TSC. QOL was assessed using proxy-report Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) V.4.0, and scores compared with those from a previous cohort of healthy children. Parents also completed questionnaires on child behaviour (child behaviour checklist (CBCL)) and parenting stress (parenting stress index-short form). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine sociodemographic, medical, parenting stress and behavioural factors that impacted on QOL.

    RESULTS: The mean proxy-report PedsQL V.4.0 total scale score, physical health summary score and psychosocial health summary score of the patients were 60.6 (SD 20.11), 65.9 (SD 28.05) and 57.8 (SD 19.48), respectively. Compared with healthy children, TSC patients had significantly lower mean PedsQL V.4.0 total scale, physical health and psychosocial health summary scores (mean difference (95% CI): 24 (18-29), 20 (12-27) and 26 (21-31) respectively). Lower total scale scores were associated with clinically significant CBCL internalising behaviour scores, age 8-18 years and Chinese ethnicity. Lower psychosocial health summary scale scores were associated with clinically significant CBCL internalising behaviour scores, Chinese ethnicity or >1 antiepileptic drug (AED).

    CONCLUSION: Parents of children with TSC reported lower PedsQL V.4.0 QOL scores in all domains, with psychosocial health most affected. Older children, those with internalising behaviour problems, of Chinese ethnicity or on >1 AED was at higher risk of lower QOL. Clinicians need to be vigilant of QOL needs among children with TSC particularly with these additional risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  17. Kongpakwattana K, Dejthevaporn C, Krairit O, Dilokthornsakul P, Mohan D, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Value Health, 2019 Oct;22(10):1137-1145.
    PMID: 31563256 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2019.04.1937
    BACKGROUND: Although an increase in the burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is evident worldwide, knowledge of costs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with AD in low- and middle-income countries is still lacking.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to collect real-world cost and HRQOL data, and investigate their associations with multiple disease-severity indicators among AD patients in Thailand.

    METHODS: We recruited AD patients aged ≥60 years accompanied by their caregivers at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. A one-time structured interview was conducted to collect disease-severity indicators, HRQOL, and caregiving information using standardized tools. The hospital's database was used to retrieve healthcare resource utilization occurred over 6 months preceding the interview date. Costs were annualized and stratified based on cognitive status. Generalized linear models were employed to evaluate determinants of costs and HRQOL.

    RESULTS: Among 148 community-dwelling patients, average annual total societal costs of AD care were $8014 (95% confidence interval [CI]: $7295-$8844) per patient. Total costs of patients with severe stage ($9860; 95% CI: $8785-$11 328) were almost twice as high as those of mild stage ($5524; 95% CI: $4649-$6593). The major cost driver was direct medical costs, particularly those incurred by AD prescriptions. Functional status was the strongest determinant for both total costs and patient's HRQOL (P value

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  18. Chean KY, Abdulrahman S, Chan MW, Tan KC
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2019 10;10(4):203-215.
    PMID: 31586385 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1657
    BACKGROUND: Despite its excellent psychometric properties, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has not been previously used in measuring respiratory quality of life (RQoL) among traffic police and firefighters who are at risk of poor respiratory health by virtue of their occupations.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the RQoL of the occupationally exposed (firefighters and traffic police) and the occupationally unexposed populations in Penang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: We recruited male traffic police and firefighters from 5 districts of Penang by convenient sampling during June to September 2018. Participants completed the SGRQ. Scores (symptoms, activity, impacts, total) were derived using a scoring calculator. Higher scores indicate poorer RQoL. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were fitted to explore the relationship of the independent predictive factors with participants' RQoL.

    RESULTS: We recruited 706 participants---211 firefighters, 198 traffic police, and 297 from general population. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers in all SGRQ domains. Regardless of smoking status, the "occupationally exposed group" had higher symptoms score than the "occupationally unexposed group," who had higher activity and impact scores. Smoking status, comorbidity status and monthly income were significant independent predictors of SGRQ total score.

    CONCLUSION: In comparison with the general population, firefighters and traffic police reported poorer RQoL; smoking further deteriorated their respiratory health. There is a need to strengthen preventive health measures against occupational disease and smoking cessation among firefighters and traffic police.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
  19. Tan KL
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):389-393.
    PMID: 31649214
    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains the most important modifiable risk factor in preventing a variety of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and has been identified to be a risk factor for obesity, heart disease and cancers. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among the suburban adult population in Port Dickson district, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a community based crosssectional study involving 397 adult respondents conducted in February 2016. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, education level, marital status and monthly income, working hours), current behavioural stage of physical activity and perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity were collected. Physical activity measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with the cut-off point of less than 600 met-min per week was considered to be physically inactive.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity among adult population was 36.3%. Factors significantly associated with physical inactivity included age, gender, marital status, working hours and current behavioural stage of physical activity.

    CONCLUSION: Physical inactivity is high among the adult community in Negeri Sembilan district, Peninsular Malaysia and was strongly associated with age, gender, marital status, working hours and current behavioural stage of physical activity. It is important to identify individuals with physical inactivity and its associated factors early as this could severely affect the quality of life of the individuals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  20. Vidthya S, Sherina MS, Rampal L, Fadhilah SI, Ummavathy P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):405-412.
    PMID: 31649217
    INTRODUCTION: The number of cancer cases in Malaysia has increased from 32,000 cases in 2008 with to 37,000 in 2012 (check figures in text). This number is expected to rise to 56,932 by 2025. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy experience low to moderate level of self-esteem.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the self-esteem among oncology patients receiving chemotherapy in selected government state hospitals, Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using selfadministered questionnaires. 953 respondents were given questionnaires which included socio-demographic profile, physical effect, depression, anxiety, quality of life and self esteem. Inferential analysis was done by using Independent T-test or Pearson's Correlation and the level of significance was p<0.05. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to determine the predictors using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 22.0 RESULTS: All 953 respondents selected participated in this study. The overall mean self-esteem in this study was 22.67, SD=4.98. The significant predictors of self-esteem where pvalue was <0.05 were age; gender; marital status; working status; anxiety; depression; nausea; anemia; hair loss; skin and nail changes; overall quality of life and psychological domain of quality of life. The finding of this study indicates that predictors of selfesteem among patients undergoing chemotherapy should be taken into account to improve their quality of life. Guidelines on how to manage self-esteem in a chemotherapy patient can be done using this study as the baseline.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
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