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  1. Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Bebakar WM, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S3-9.
    PMID: 23647715 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70003-2
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in the ASEAN cohort of the A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Type 2 diabetes patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed BIAsp 30 therapy were included. The primary outcome was evaluation of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were changes in hypoglycaemic events, serious adverse events (SAEs) and effectiveness parameters.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 2798 patients (insulin-naive, 1903; insulin-experienced, 895) with mean age ± SD, 55.3 ± 10.8 years, BMI, 24.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration, 7.5 ± 5.9 years. Baseline HbA1c in the entire cohort was poor (9.9%, 85 mmol/mol). A total of 15 SAEs were reported in 7 insulin-experienced patients (1 moderate event was related to BIAsp 30). Overall hypoglycaemia at Week 24 was 0.88 events/patient-year compared to 1.71 events/patient-year reported at baseline (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). No major hypoglycaemia was reported at Week 24. BIAsp 30 significantly improved glucose control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose, p < 0.001) at Week 24. The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% at Week 24 was 35.3% compared to 3.5% at baseline. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure also improved significantly (p < 0.001). Quality of life was positively impacted (mean change in visual analogue scores from EQ-5D = 10.6 ± 13.8 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    BIAsp 30 was well-tolerated and improved glucose control while decreasing the risk of hypoglycaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  2. Bebakar WM, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S17-23.
    PMID: 23647713 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70005-6
    AIM:
    To examine the clinical safety and effectiveness of insulin aspart (IAsp) therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients from the ASEAN cohort of the international, 24-week, non-interventional A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    T2D patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore, who started IAsp therapy with or without oral glucose-lowering drugs, were included. The primary endpoint was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs), including major hypoglycaemic events. Secondary endpoints included hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial plasma glucose [PPPG], systolic blood pressure [SBP], body weight and lipids. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the EQ-5D questionnaire.

    RESULTS:
    Overall, 312 T2D patients (222 insulin-naive and 90 insulin-experienced) with a mean ± SD age of 56.6 ± 11.2 years, BMI of 24.2 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration of 7.0 ± 5.7 years were included. The mean daily IAsp dose was 0.51 ± 0.31 U/kg at baseline titrated up to 0.60 ± 0.29 U/kg at Week 24. No SADRs or major hypoglycaemic events were reported in the entire subgroup. The proportion of patients who reported overall hypoglycaemia decreased from baseline to Week 24 (7.1% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.0001). The mean HbA1c improved from 9.5 ± 1.6% at baseline to 7.6 ± 1.3% after 24 weeks (p < 0.001). The mean FPG, post-breakfast PPPG and SBP also improved (p < 0.001). Health-related QoL scores increased in the entire subgroup (mean increase: 9.8 ± 14.6 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    Starting IAsp therapy was well-tolerated and was associated with significantly improved overall glycaemic control in the ASEAN cohort.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  3. Soewondo P, Mohamed M, Jain AB, Sy RA, Khoo CM
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S10-6.
    PMID: 23647712 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70004-4
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir (IDet) in type 2 diabetes patients from the ASEAN cohort of the A1chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed IDet at the discretion of their physicians were included. The primary outcome was the incidence of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary endpoints included changes in the frequency of hypoglycaemia, serious adverse events and effectiveness assessments.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 1540 patients (insulin-naive, 1239; insulin-experienced, 301) with mean age ± SD 56.4 ± 10.9 years, BMI 25.4 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration 6.9 ± 5.3 years. Insulin-naive patients received a baseline IDet dose of 0.24 ± 0.11 U/kg titrated up to 0.37 ± 0.21 U/kg by Week 24. The pre-study insulin dose in insulin-experienced patients was 0.41 ± 0.25 U/kg and baseline IDet dose was 0.31 ± 0.24 U/kg titrated up to 0.40 ± 0.20 U/kg by Week 24. Overall hypoglycaemia decreased from 1.73 to 0.46 events/patient-year from baseline to Week 24 (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). At Week 24, 1 major hypoglycaemic event was reported in 1 insulin-experienced patient. IDet significantly improved glucose control (p < 0.001) at Week 24. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure improved (p < 0.001) and body weight did not change significantly. Quality of life was positively impacted (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    IDet was well-tolerated and improved glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia or weight gain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  4. Hussein Z, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Goh SY, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S24-9.
    PMID: 23647714 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70006-8
    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  5. Nagandla K, De S
    Postgrad Med J, 2013 Jul;89(1053):402-10.
    PMID: 23524988 DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-131634
    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensory motor neurological disorder that is characterised by an irresistible urge to move the legs that significantly affects the quality of life of the patient. Prevalence in the general population is 5-25% and it is twice as prevalent in women as in men. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy with a fourfold increased risk of developing this disorder later in life. The pathophysiology of RLS is centred on dopaminergic dysfunction, reduced central nervous system iron, genetic linkages, or alteration in neurotransmitters such as hypocretins, endorphins levels and immune dysfunction and inflammatory mechanisms. With the emergence of new evidence, there are changes to the previous treatment recommendations for RLS. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that dopamine agonists such as rotigotine transdermal patch, pramipexole, ropinirole, gabapentin enacarbil, pregabalin and gabapentin are effective in the short-term treatment of RLS and rotigotine, followed by gabapentin enacarbil, ropinirole, pramipexole and gabapentin for long-term treatment. Based on expert consensus, the recommendation for daily RLS is dopamine agonists or gabapentin or low-potency opioids. Levodopa is less preferred for treating daily RLS due to its high risk of augmentation. For intermittent RLS, it is levodopa or dopamine agonists or low-potency opioids or benzodiazepines. For refractory RLS, the choice is to change to gabapentin or a different dopamine agonist, addition of a second agent like gabapentin or benzodiazepine to the existing drug or changing to a high-potency opioid or tramadol. Medications with safety record in pregnancy include opioids and antiepileptics such as carbamazepine and gabapentin. There are concerns that patients with RLS are at risk for metabolic deregulation, autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. However, a recent study concluded that RLS is not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  6. Wu YL, Kim JH, Park K, Zaatar A, Klingelschmitt G, Ng C
    Lung Cancer, 2012 Aug;77(2):339-45.
    PMID: 22494567 DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.03.012
    Maintenance therapy, commenced immediately after the completion of first-line chemotherapy, is a promising strategy for improving treatment outcomes in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The global phase III SequentiAl Tarceva in UnResectable NSCLC (SATURN) study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib as maintenance treatment in NSCLC patients without progression after first-line chemotherapy. We report a retrospective subanalysis of Asian patients enrolled in SATURN. Patients with advanced NSCLC with no evidence of progression after four cycles of chemotherapy were randomized to receive erlotinib 150 mg/day or placebo, until progressive disease or limiting toxicity. The co-primary endpoints of SATURN were progression-free survival (PFS) in all patients and in those with positive EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC) status. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), disease control rate, safety, quality of life (QoL) and biomarker analyses. In total, 126 patients from East and South-East Asian centers were randomized (14% of the intent-to-treat population): 88 from Korea, 28 from China and 10 from Malaysia; one patient was excluded from this analysis due to Indian ethnicity. PFS was significantly prolonged in the erlotinib treatment arm, both overall (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.57; p=0.0067) and in patients with EGFR IHC-positive disease (HR=0.50; p=0.0057). There was a trend towards an increase in OS, which reached statistical significance in the EGFR IHC-positive subgroup (p=0.0233). The overall response rate was significantly higher with erlotinib compared with placebo (24% versus 5%; p=0.0025). Erlotinib was generally well tolerated and had no negative impact on QoL in this subpopulation. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash, diarrhea and pruritus. Erlotinib was effective and well tolerated in Asian patients, producing benefits consistent with those observed in the overall SATURN population. Maintenance treatment with erlotinib appears to be a useful option for the management of Asian patients with advanced NSCLC without progression after first-line chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  7. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Oct;37(5):536-43.
    PMID: 22380577 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2012.01335.x
    Pharmacists have been involved in providing comprehensive interventions to osteoporosis patients, but pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) encountered during such interventions have not been well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document PCIs encountered by post-menopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  8. Hon KL, Tsang YC, Pong NH, Lee VW, Luk NM, Chow CM, et al.
    Hong Kong Med J, 2015 Oct;21(5):417-25.
    PMID: 26314567 DOI: 10.12809/hkmj144472
    To investigate patient acceptability, efficacy, and skin biophysiological effects of a cream/cleanser combination for childhood atopic dermatitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  9. Chow PK, Poon DY, Khin MW, Singh H, Han HS, Goh AS, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(3):e90909.
    PMID: 24614178 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090909
    The safety and tolerability of sequential radioembolization-sorafenib therapy is unknown. An open-label, single arm, investigator-initiated Phase II study (NCT0071279) was conducted at four Asia-Pacific centers to evaluate the safety and efficacy of sequential radioembolization-sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) not amenable to curative therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  10. Hashim H, Azmin S, Razlan H, Yahya NW, Tan HJ, Manaf MR, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(11):e112330.
    PMID: 25411976 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112330
    Previous studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to controls. H. pylori infection affects levodopa absorption and its eradication significantly improves clinical response to levodopa. Here, we studied the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its eradication effects among our PD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  11. Lee PY, Lee YK, Khoo EM, Ng CJ
    Prim Care Diabetes, 2014 Apr;8(1):49-55.
    PMID: 24315732 DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2013.11.003
    Aims: To explore how health care professionals (HCPs) assess patients when initiating insulintherapy in type 2 diabetes.
    Methods: Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 healthcare professionals in Malaysia in 2010–2011. A semi-structured topic guide was used for theinterview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Nvivo9 softwarebased on a thematic approach.
    Results: HCPs were less likely to initiate insulin therapy in patients who were older, withirregular dietary patterns and poor financial status. They also assessed patients’ knowl-edge, views and misconceptions of insulin. However, there was a variation in how doctors assessed patients’ comorbidities before starting insulin therapy. Medical officers were more likely to initiate insulin therapy in patients with comorbidities and complications, whereas family medicine specialists were more cautious. In addition, most HCPs considered patients’ psychosocial status, including self-care ability, social support and quality of life.
    Conclusions: HCPs’ assessment of patients’ need to start insulin therapy depends on their perception rather than objective evaluation of patients’ background, knowledge, perception and abilities. The background and the type of practice of HCPs influence their assessment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  12. Ibrahim N, Ming Moy F, Awalludin IA, Mohd Ali Z, Ismail IS
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(12):e0167123.
    PMID: 27935988 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167123
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.

    METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

    RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p<0.001), 2-hour post glucose by -0.58 mmol/l (-0.91 to -0.24, p<0.001), HbA1C by -0.24% (-0.34 to -0.15, p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure by -2.63 mmHg (-3.79 to -1.48, p<0.01), and waist circumference by -2.44 cm (-4.75 to -0.12, p<0.05) whereas HDL cholesterol increased by 0.12 mmol/l (0.05 to 0.13, p<0.01), compared to the usual care group. Significant improvements were also found in HRQOL for both physical component (PCS) by 6.51 points (5.21 to 7.80, p<0.001) and mental component (MCS) by 7.79 points (6.44 to 9.14, p<0.001). Greater proportion of participants from the Co-HELP group met the clinical recommended target of 5% or more weight loss from the initial weight (24.6% vs 3.4%, p<0.001) and physical activity of >600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001) compared to the usual care group.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk factors and improvement of HRQOL. Collaboration with existing community partners demonstrated a promising channel for the wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention at the community level. Further studies are required to determine whether similar outcomes could be achieved in communities with different socioeconomic backgrounds and geographical areas.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT201104106163N1.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  13. Azami G, Soh KL, Sazlina SG, Salmiah MS, Aazami S, Mozafari M, et al.
    J Diabetes Res, 2018;2018:4930157.
    PMID: 30225268 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4930157
    In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on the role of nonpharmacological self-management in the care of patients with diabetes. Studies have reported that nurses, compared to other healthcare professionals, are more likely to promote preventive healthcare seeking behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a nurse-led diabetes self-management education on glycosylated hemoglobin. A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial with the blinded outcome assessors was designed. One hundred forty-two adults with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either usual diabetes care (control group) or usual care plus a nurse-led diabetes self-management education (intervention group). Duration of the intervention was 12 weeks. The primary outcome was glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values). Secondary outcomes were changes in blood pressure, body weight, lipid profiles, self-efficacy (efficacy expectation and outcome expectation), self-management behaviors, quality of life, social support, and depression. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at 12-week and 24-week postrandomizations. Patients in the intervention group showed significant improvement in HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, and diabetes self-management behaviors. The beneficial effect of a nurse-led intervention continued to accrue beyond the end of the trial resulting in sustained improvements in clinical, lifestyle, and psychosocial outcomes. This trial is registered with IRCT2016062528627N1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  14. Chasen M, Urban L, Schnadig I, Rapoport B, Powers D, Arora S, et al.
    Support Care Cancer, 2017 01;25(1):85-92.
    PMID: 27557833
    PURPOSE: Addition of rolapitant to standard antiemetic therapy improved protection against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in phase 3 trials of patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Here, we assessed the impact of CINV on the daily lives of patients receiving HEC or MEC using the Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE).

    METHODS: In three double-blind phase 3 studies, patients receiving HEC or MEC were randomized 1:1 to receive oral rolapitant 180 mg or placebo prior to chemotherapy plus 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone therapy. Patients completed the FLIE questionnaire on day 6 of cycle 1. Endpoints included FLIE total score, nausea and vomiting domain scores, and the proportion of patients with no impact on daily life (total score >108 [range 18-126]). We performed a prespecified analysis of the MEC/anthracycline-cyclophosphamide (AC) study and a post hoc analysis of two pooled cisplatin-based HEC studies.

    RESULTS: In the pooled HEC studies, rolapitant significantly improved the FLIE total score (114.5 vs 109.3, p life with rolapitant than with control in the MEC/AC study (73.2 vs 67.4, p = 0.027).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with control, rolapitant improved quality of life in patients receiving HEC or MEC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  15. Rahman MM, Mahadeva S, Ghoshal UC
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2017 Oct 07;23(37):6788-6801.
    PMID: 29085223 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i37.6788
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, common in clinic and in the community. It has a significant impact on both society and patients' quality of life. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of IBS may vary in different geographical regions due to differences in diet, gastrointestinal infection, socio-cultural and psycho-social factors, religious and illness beliefs, symptom perception and reporting. Although previous reviews and consensus reports on IBS in Asia have been published, Asia is quite diverse socio-demographically. In this context, India, Bangladesh and Malaysia share some similarities, including: (1) large proportion of the population living in rural areas; (2) rapid development and associated lifestyle changes in urban areas; and (3) dietary, cultural and religious practices. The present review explores the clinical and epidemiological data on IBS from these three major nations in South and South-East Asia. In-depth review of the literature revealed important differences between IBS in the East, as revealed by studies from these three countries, and the West; these include a predominantly rural profile, differences in bowel habit and symptom profile, raising concern with regards to diagnostic criteria and subtyping of IBS, higher dietary fiber consumption, frequent lactose malabsorption, parasitosis, and possible overlap between post-infectious IBS and tropical sprue. Moreover, the current perception on difference in prevalence of the disorder in these countries, as compared to the West, might be related to variation in survey methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  16. Goh V, Nihalani D, Yeung KWS, Corbet EF, Leung WK
    J. Periodont. Res., 2018 Jun;53(3):324-333.
    PMID: 29105779 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12517
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Risk for deterioration in treated aggressive periodontitis (AgP) individuals remained unclear. This retrospective cohort study investigated 7-26 years of periodontal outcomes and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of young adults with advanced periodontitis.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine previously treated patients with AgP were re-examined. Clinical and radiographic parameters before treatment discontinuation and at re-examination were compared. OHRQoL at re-call was assessed with the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14S).

    RESULTS: None of the subjects adhered to suggested periodontal therapy and maintenance after discharge. Mean percentage of sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥6 mm at re-examination was 4.5 ± 5.9%. A total of 182 teeth had been lost over time. Tooth loss rate was 0.14/patient/year. From 68 subjects with documented favorable treatment outcomes, higher percentage of sites with PPD ≥6 mm at re-examination and higher radiographic proximal bone loss was associated with current smoking status. Patients with AgP with <20 teeth at re-call had worse OHRQoL than those with ≥20 teeth. Patients with higher full-mouth mean PPD also reported poorer OHRQoL.

    CONCLUSION: Treatment in patients with AgP who smoke and neglect proper supportive care, risk periodontal disease progression. Substantial tooth loss and higher full-mouth mean PPD led to poorer OHRQoL in this cohort.

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  17. Pittock SJ, Berthele A, Fujihara K, Kim HJ, Levy M, Palace J, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2019 08 15;381(7):614-625.
    PMID: 31050279 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1900866
    BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a relapsing, autoimmune, inflammatory disorder that typically affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. At least two thirds of cases are associated with aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) and complement-mediated damage to the central nervous system. In a previous small, open-label study involving patients with AQP4-IgG-positive disease, eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, was shown to reduce the frequency of relapse.

    METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, time-to-event trial, 143 adults were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either intravenous eculizumab (at a dose of 900 mg weekly for the first four doses starting on day 1, followed by 1200 mg every 2 weeks starting at week 4) or matched placebo. The continued use of stable-dose immunosuppressive therapy was permitted. The primary end point was the first adjudicated relapse. Secondary outcomes included the adjudicated annualized relapse rate, quality-of-life measures, and the score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), which ranges from 0 (no disability) to 10 (death).

    RESULTS: The trial was stopped after 23 of the 24 prespecified adjudicated relapses, given the uncertainty in estimating when the final event would occur. The mean (±SD) annualized relapse rate in the 24 months before enrollment was 1.99±0.94; 76% of the patients continued to receive their previous immunosuppressive therapy during the trial. Adjudicated relapses occurred in 3 of 96 patients (3%) in the eculizumab group and 20 of 47 (43%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.20; P<0.001). The adjudicated annualized relapse rate was 0.02 in the eculizumab group and 0.35 in the placebo group (rate ratio, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.15; P<0.001). The mean change in the EDSS score was -0.18 in the eculizumab group and 0.12 in the placebo group (least-squares mean difference, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.59 to 0.01). Upper respiratory tract infections and headaches were more common in the eculizumab group. There was one death from pulmonary empyema in the eculizumab group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with AQP4-IgG-positive NMOSD, those who received eculizumab had a significantly lower risk of relapse than those who received placebo. There was no significant between-group difference in measures of disability progression. (Funded by Alexion Pharmaceuticals; PREVENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01892345; EudraCT number, 2013-001150-10.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  18. Sahathevan S, Se CH, Ng S, Khor BH, Chinna K, Goh BL, et al.
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2018 06;25:68-77.
    PMID: 29779821 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.04.002
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Poor dietary intake is commonly associated with malnutrition in the dialysis population and oral nutritional supplementation is strategized to redress dietary inadequacy. Knowledge on clinical efficacy of whey protein supplementation (WPS) as an option to treat malnutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is limited.

    METHODS: This multicenter, parallel, open-label, randomized controlled trial investigated the clinical efficacy of WPS in 126 malnourished CAPD patients with serum albumin <40 g/L and body mass index (BMI) <24 kg/m2. Patients randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 65) received protein powder (27.4 g) for 6 months plus dietary counseling (DC) while the control group (CG, n = 61) received DC only. Anthropometry, biochemistry, malnutrition-inflammation-score (MIS), dietary intake inclusive of dialysate calories, handgrip strength (HGS) and quality of life (QOL) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed by effect size (Cohen's d) comparisons within and between groups.

    RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (n = 37 per group) completed the study. Significantly more IG patients (59.5%) achieved dietary protein intake (DPI) adequacy of 1.2 g/kg per ideal body weight (p  0.05). A higher DPI paralleled significant increases in serum urea (mean Δ: IG = +2.39 ± 4.36 mmol/L, p = 0.002, d = 0.57 vs CG = -0.39 ± 4.59 mmol/L, p > 0.05, d = 0.07) and normalized protein catabolic rate, nPCR (mean Δ: IG = +0.11 ± 0.14 g/kg/day, p  0.05, d = 0.09) for IG compared to CG patients. Although not significant, comparison for changes in post-dialysis weight (mean Δ: +0.64 ± 1.16 kg vs +0.02 ± 1.36 kg, p = 0.076, d = 0.58) and mid-arm circumference (mean Δ: +0.29 ± 0.93 cm vs -0.12 ± 0.71 cm, p = 0.079, d = 0.24) indicated trends favoring IG vs CG. Other parameters remained unaffected by treatment comparisons. CG patients had a significant decline in QOL physical component (mean Δ = -6.62 ± 16.63, p = 0.020, d = 0.47). Using changes in nPCR level as a marker of WPS intake within IG, 'positive responders' achieved significant improvement in weight, BMI, skinfold measures and serum urea (all p  0.05).

    CONCLUSION: A single macronutrient approach with WPS in malnourished CAPD patients was shown to achieve DPI adequacy and improvements in weight, BMI, skin fold measures, serum urea and nPCR level. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03367000).

    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  19. Taniguchi H
    JOICFP News, 1985 Nov;?(137):1-5.
    PMID: 12280293
    PIP: Resolutions adopted by the 12th Annual Asian Parasite Control/Family Planning (APCO/FP) Conference held in Colombo, Sri Lanka urge the incorporation of quality of life issues of all dimensions in projects of all participating countries. 1 study discussed during the conference concerned health volunteers of the integrated project in Sri Lanka, which analyzes motivating factors which make community young people work on a voluntary basis. Another topic covered was the role of women in the achievement of primary health care. Video reports were presented by Bangladesh on family planning and parasite control activities, Brazil on utilization of existing organizations to improve successful integrated projects, China on making twin concerns of family planning and primary health care, Indonesia on strengthening urban FP/MCH clinics, Korea on health promotion through the integrated project, Malaysia on the NADI program, the Philippines on the Cebu model of integrated health care, and Thailand on fee charging urban programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life
  20. Tan Poo Chang, Kwok Kwan Kit, Tan Boon Ann, Shyamala Nagaraj, Tey Nai Peng, Siti Norazah Zulkifli
    Asia Pac Popul J, 1987 Mar;2(1):3-20.
    PMID: 12341034
    PIP: Morality in Peninsular Malaysia has reached a level that is quite similar to that prevailing in the low mortality countries. This article systematically documents changes in mortality levels and differentials in Malaysia over time and relates these to changes in development indicators and health-related policies. Remedial measures undertaken by the authorities including the expansion of hospital and health services into the estates, together with a comprehensive malaria-eradication program, improvements in sanitation laws, and increased provision of public utilities and education, resulted in beriberi being eliminated and the incidence of malaria, typhus, and smallpox being greatly reduced by the time of World War II. The gain in life expectancy over the period of 1957-1979 was greatest for the Malay, the most significant period being 1957-1967, which saw the introduction of rural health programs. The infant mortality rate and the neonatal and post-neonatal rates declined substantially for all ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia for the same time period. Although the lower infant mortality of the Chinese can be explained by their advantageous socioeconomic position the same reason cannot explain the lower decline in infant mortality levels of the Indians. Much still needs to be done to narrow, if not to eliminate, the existing mortality differentials of different groups in the country. Overall, the quality of life of the general population can be further enhanced by reducing the high mortality level of disadvantaged groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality of Life*
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