Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 352 in total

  1. Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Fjeldheim I, Friberg IK, Nankabirwa V, Jani JV, et al.
    BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2016 09 30;16(1):293.
    PMID: 27716088
    BACKGROUND: Electronic health registries - eRegistries - can systematically collect relevant information at the point of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). However, a suite of process and outcome indicators is needed for RMNCH to monitor care and to ensure comparability between settings. Here we report on the assessment of current global indicators and the development of a suite of indicators for the WHO Essential Interventions for use at various levels of health care systems nationally and globally.

    METHODS: Currently available indicators from both household and facility surveys were collated through publicly available global databases and respective survey instruments. We then developed a suite of potential indicators and associated data points for the 45 WHO Essential Interventions spanning preconception to newborn care. Four types of performance indicators were identified (where applicable): process (i.e. coverage) and outcome (i.e. impact) indicators for both screening and treatment/prevention. Indicators were evaluated by an international expert panel against the eRegistries indicator evaluation criteria and further refined based on feedback by the eRegistries technical team.

    RESULTS: Of the 45 WHO Essential Interventions, only 16 were addressed in any of the household survey data available. A set of 216 potential indicators was developed. These indicators were generally evaluated favourably by the panel, but difficulties in data ascertainment, including for outcome measures of cause-specific morbidity and mortality, were frequently reported as barriers to the feasibility of indicators. Indicators were refined based on feedback, culminating in the final list of 193 total unique indicators: 93 for preconception and antenatal care; 53 for childbirth and postpartum care; and 47 for newborn and small and ill baby care.

    CONCLUSIONS: Large gaps exist in the availability of information currently collected to support the implementation of the WHO Essential Interventions. The development of this suite of indicators can be used to support the implementation of eRegistries and other data platforms, to ensure that data are utilised to support evidence-based practice, facilitate measurement and accountability, and improve maternal and child health outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Zuhdi AS, Mariapun J, Mohd Hairi NN, Wan Ahmad WA, Abidin IZ, Undok AW, et al.
    Ann Saudi Med, 2014 1 15;33(6):572-8.
    PMID: 24413861 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2013.572
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Understanding the nature and pattern of young coronary artery disease (CAD) is important due to the tremendous impact on these patients' socio-economic and physical aspect. Data on young CAD in the southeast Asian region is rather patchy and limited. Hence we utilized our National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD)-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) Registry to analyze young patients who underwent PCI in the year 2007 to 2009.

    DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a retrospective study of all patients who had undergone coronary angioplasty from 2007 to 2009 in 11 hospitals across Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from the NCVD-PCI Registry, 2007 to 2009. Patients were categorized into 2 groups-young and old, where young was defined as less than 45 years for men and less than 55 years for women and old was defined as more than or equals to 45 years for men and more than or equals to 55 years for women. Patients' baseline characteristics, risk factor profile, extent of coronary disease and outcome on dis.charge, and 30-day and 1-year follow-up were compared between the 2 groups.

    RESULTS: We analyzed 10268 patients, and the prevalence of young CAD was 16% (1595 patients). There was a significantly low prevalence of Chinese patients compared to other major ethnic groups. Active smoking (30.2% vs 17.7%) and obesity (20.9% vs 17.3%) were the 2 risk factors more associated with young CAD. There is a preponderance toward single vessel disease in the young CAD group, and they had a favorable clinical outcome in terms of all-cause mortality at discharge (RR 0.49 [CI 0.26-0.94]) and 1-year follow-up (RR 0.47 [CI 0.19-1.15]).

    CONCLUSION: We observed distinctive features of young CAD that would serve as a framework in the primary and secondary prevention of the early onset CAD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  3. Feisul IM, Azmi S, Mohd Rizal AM, Zanariah H, Nik Mahir NJ, Fatanah I, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):271-277.
    PMID: 29197881 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: An economic analysis was performed to estimate the annual cost of diabetes mellitus to Malaysia.

    METHODS: We combined published data and clinical pathways to estimate cost of follow-up and complications, then calculated the overall national cost. Costs consisted of diabetes follow-up and complications costs.

    RESULTS: Patient follow-up was estimated at RM459 per year. Complications cost were RM42,362 per patient per year for nephropathy, RM4,817 for myocardial infarction, RM5,345 for stroke, RM3,880 for heart failure, RM5,519 for foot amputation, RM479 for retinopathy and RM4,812 for cataract extraction.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, we estimated the total cost of diabetes as RM2.04 billion per year for year 2011 (both public and private sector). Of this, RM1.40 billion per year was incurred by the government. Despite some limitations, we believe our study provides insight to the actual cost of diabetes to the country. The high cost to the nation highlights the importance of primary and secondary prevention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  4. Lim JJ, Salowi MA, Adnan TH, Anuar NA, Ngah NF, Choo MM
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 03;76(2):190-198.
    PMID: 33742627
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the visual outcomes of phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation (IOL) surgery in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) in Malaysia over a 12-year period and to identify factors that may contribute to poor visual outcome.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was retrieved from the webbased Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry (CSR). Perioperative data for cataract surgery performed from 2007- 2018 were analysed. Inclusion criteria were age ≥40 years, phacoemulsification and IOL and senile cataract. Combined surgeries, surgeries performed by trainees and ocular comorbidities were excluded. Post-operative Best-Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) were compared. Factors affecting poor visual outcomes among those with DM were analysed using multivariate logistic regression to produce adjusted odds ratio (OR) for variables of interest.

    RESULTS: Total number of cases between 2007-2018 was 442,858, of whom 179,210 qualified for our analysis. DM group consisted of 72,087 cases (40.2%). There were 94.5% cases in DM group and 95.0Ź from non-DM group who achieved BCVA ≥6/12 (p<0.001). Among patients with DM, advanced age (70-79 years old, OR: 2.54, 95% Confidence Interva, 95%CI: 1.91, 3.40; 80-89 years old, OR: 5.50, 95%CI: 4.02, 7.51), ≥90 years, OR: 9.77, 95%CI: 4.18, 22.81), poor preoperative presenting visual acuity [<6/18-6/60] (OR: 2.40, 95%CI: 1.84, 3.14) and <6/60-3/60 (OR: 3.00, 95%CI: 2.24, 4.02), <3/60 (OR 3.63, 95%CI: 2.77, 4.74)], presence of intraoperative complication (OR 2.24, 95%CI: 1.86, 2.71) and presence of postoperative complication (OR 5.21, 95%CI: 2.97, 9.16) were significant factors for poor visual outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Visual outcomes following phacoemulsification with IOL implantation surgery among cases with DM were poorer compared to cases without DM. Risk factors for poor visual outcomes among cases with DM were identified.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  5. Borzych-Duzalka D, Shroff R, Ariceta G, Yap YC, Paglialonga F, Xu H, et al.
    Am J Kidney Dis, 2019 08;74(2):193-202.
    PMID: 31010601 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.02.014
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have been recommended as the preferred vascular access for pediatric patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), but data comparing AVFs with other access types are scant. We studied vascular access choice, placement, complications, and outcomes in children.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

    SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 552 children and adolescents from 27 countries on maintenance HD followed up prospectively by the International Pediatric HD Network (IPHN) Registry between 2012 and 2017.

    PREDICTOR: Type of vascular access: AVF, central venous catheter (CVC), or arteriovenous graft.

    OUTCOME: Infectious and noninfectious vascular access complication rates, dialysis performance, biochemical and hematologic parameters, and clinical outcomes.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Univariate and multivariable linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models, and proportional hazards models; cumulative incidence functions.

    RESULTS: During 314 cumulative patient-years, 628 CVCs, 225 AVFs, and 17 arteriovenous grafts were placed. One-third of the children with an AVF required a temporary CVC until fistula maturation. Vascular access choice was associated with age and expectations for early transplantation. There was a 3-fold higher living related transplantation rate and lower median time to transplantation of 14 (IQR, 6-23) versus 20 (IQR, 14-36) months with CVCs compared with AVFs. Higher blood flow rates and Kt/Vurea were achieved with AVFs than with CVCs. Infectious complications were reported only with CVCs (1.3/1,000 catheter-days) and required vascular access replacement in 47%. CVC dysfunction rates were 2.5/1,000 catheter-days compared to 1.2/1,000 fistula-days. CVCs required 82% more revisions and almost 3-fold more vascular access replacements to a different site than AVFs (P<0.001).

    LIMITATIONS: Clinical rather than population-based data.

    CONCLUSIONS: CVCs are the predominant vascular access choice in children receiving HD within the IPHN. Age-related anatomical limitations and expected early living related transplantation were associated with CVC use. CVCs were associated with poorer dialysis efficacy, higher complication rates, and more frequent need for vascular access replacement. Such findings call for a re-evaluation of pediatric CVC use and practices.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  6. Miao H, Hartman M, Verkooijen HM, Taib NA, Wong HS, Subramaniam S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2016 10 21;16(1):820.
    PMID: 27769212
    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting.

    METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).

    RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).

    CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  7. Hwong WY, Bots ML, Selvarajah S, Abdul Aziz Z, Sidek NN, Spiering W, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(11):e0166524.
    PMID: 27846309 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166524
    BACKGROUND: The increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation by selected antihypertensive drugs is said to exhibit neuroprotective properties, but this translation into improvement in clinical outcomes has been inconclusive. We undertook a study to investigate the relationship between types of antihypertensive drugs used prior to a stroke event and ischemic stroke severity. We hypothesized that use of antihypertensive drugs that increase Ang II formation (Ang II increasers) would reduce ischemic stroke severity when compared to antihypertensive drugs that suppress Ang II formation (Ang II suppressors).

    METHODS: From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we included hypertensive patients with first ischemic stroke who presented within 48 hours from ictus. Antihypertensive drugs were divided into Ang II increasers (angiotensin-I receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics) and Ang II suppressors (angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and beta blockers). We evaluated stroke severity during admission with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We performed a multivariable logistic regression with the score being dichotomized at 15. Scores of less than 15 were categorized as less severe stroke.

    RESULTS: A total of 710 patients were included. ACEIs was the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug in patients using Ang II suppressors (74%) and CCBs, in patients prescribed with Ang II increasers at 77%. There was no significant difference in the severity of ischemic stroke between patients who were using Ang II increasers in comparison to patients with Ang II suppressors (OR: 1.32, 95%CI: 0.83-2.10, p = 0.24).

    CONCLUSION: In our study, we found that use of antihypertensive drugs that increase Ang II formation was not associated with less severe ischemic stroke as compared to use of antihypertensive drugs that suppress Ang II formation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries*
  8. Graham WJ, Hussein J
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2006 Sep;94(3):234-42.
    PMID: 16836998
    This paper aims to highlight the importance of aspiring to achieve universal reporting of maternal deaths as a part of taking responsibility for these avoidable tragedies. The paper first discusses the reasons for reporting maternal deaths, distinguishing between individual case notification and aggregate statistics. This is followed by a summary of the status of reporting at national and international levels, as well as major barriers and facilitators to this process. A new framework is then proposed - the REPORT framework, designed to highlight six factors essential to universal reporting. Malaysia is used to illustrate the relevance of these factors. Finally, the paper makes a Call to Action by FIGO to promote REPORT and to encourage health professionals to play their part in improving the quality of reporting on all maternal deaths - not just those directly in their care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries*
  9. Uemura H, Ye D, Kanesvaran R, Chiong E, Lojanapiwat B, Pu YS, et al.
    BJU Int, 2020 04;125(4):541-552.
    PMID: 31868997 DOI: 10.1111/bju.14980
    OBJECTIVES: To document the management of advanced prostate cancer including diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and care, in real-world practice in Asia using the United in Fight against prOstate cancer (UFO) registry.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We established a multi-national, longitudinal, observational registry of patients with prostate cancer presenting to participating tertiary care hospitals in eight Asian countries. A total of 3636 eligible patients with existing or newly diagnosed high-risk localised prostate cancer (HRL), non-metastatic biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (M0), or metastatic prostate cancer (M1), were consecutively enrolled and are being followed-up for 5 years. Patient history, demographic and disease characteristics, treatment and treatment decisions, were collected at first prostate cancer diagnosis and at enrolment. Patient-reported quality of life was prospectively assessed using the European Quality of Life-five Dimensions, five Levels (EQ-5D-5L) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Prostate Cancer questionnaires. In the present study, we report the first interim analysis of 2063 patients enrolled from study start (15 September 2015) until 18 May 2017.

    RESULTS: Of the 2063 enrolled patients, 357 (17%), 378 (19%), and 1328 (64%) had HRL, M0 or M1 prostate cancer, respectively. The mean age at first diagnosis was similar in each group, 56% of all patients had extracapsular extension of their tumour, 28% had regional lymph node metastasis, and 53% had distant metastases. At enrolment, 62% of patients had at least one co-morbidity (mainly cardiovascular disease or diabetes), 91.8% of M1 patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of <2 and the mean EQ-5D-5L visual analogue score was 74.6-79.6 across cohorts. Treatment of M1 patients was primarily with combined androgen blockade (58%) or androgen-deprivation therapy (either orchidectomy or luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues) (32%). Decisions to start therapy were mainly driven by treatment guidelines and disease progression. Decision to discontinue therapy was most often due to disease progression (hormonal drug therapy) or completion of therapy (chemotherapy).

    CONCLUSION: In the UFO registry of advanced prostate cancer in Asia, regional differences exist in prostate cancer treatment patterns that will be explored more deeply during the follow-up period; prospective follow-up is ongoing. The UFO registry will provide valuable descriptive data on current disease characteristics and treatment landscape amongst patients with prostate cancer in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries*
  10. Chew BH, Shariff-Ghazali S, Lee PY, Cheong AT, Mastura I, Haniff J, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Oct;68(5):397-404.
    PMID: 24632869 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes care at different healthcare facilities varied from significantly better at one setting to no difference amongst them. We examined type 2 diabetes patient profiles, disease control and complication rates at four public health facilities in Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed data from diabetes registry database, the Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). The four public health facilities were hospital with specialist (HS), hospital without specialist (HNS), health clinics with family physicians (CS) and health clinic without doctor (CND). Independent risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses.
    RESULTS: The means age and duration of diabetes in years were significantly older and longer in HS (ANOVA, p< 0.0001). There were significantly more patients on insulin (31.2%), anti-hypertensives (80.1%), statins (68.1%) and antiplatelets (51.2%) in HS. Patients at HS had significantly lower means BMI, HbA1c, LDL-C and higher mean HDL-C. A significant larger proportion of type 2 diabetes patients at HS had diabetes-related complications (2-5 times). Compared to the HS, the CS was more likely to achieve HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (adjusted OR 1.2) and BP target < 130/80 mmHg (adjusted OR 1.4), the HNS was 3.4 times more likely not achieving LDL-C target < 2.6 mmol/L.
    CONCLUSION: Public hospitals with specialists in Malaysia were treating older male Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with more complications, and prescribed more medications. Patients attending these hospitals achieved better LDL-C target but poorer in attaining BP and lower HbA1c targets as compared to public health clinics with doctors and family physicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  11. Liew SM, Khoo EM, Ho BK, Lee YK, Mimi O, Fazlina MY, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2015 Jul;19(7):764-71.
    PMID: 26056099 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.14.0767
    OBJECTIVES: To determine treatment outcomes and associated predictors of all patients registered in 2012 with the Malaysian National Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance Registry.
    METHODS: Sociodemographic and clinical data were analysed. Unfavourable outcomes included treatment failure, transferred out and lost to follow-up, treatment defaulters, those not evaluated and all-cause mortality.
    RESULTS: In total, 21 582 patients were registered. The mean age was 42.36 ± 17.77 years, and 14.2% were non-Malaysians. The majority were new cases (93.6%). One fifth (21.5%) had unfavourable outcomes; of these, 46% died, 49% transferred out or defaulted and 1% failed treatment. Predictors of unfavourable outcomes were older age, male sex, foreign citizenship, lower education, no bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar, treatment in tertiary settings, smoking, previous anti-tuberculosis treatment, human immunodeficiency virus infection, not receiving directly observed treatment, advanced chest radiography findings, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extra-pulmonary TB. For all-cause mortality, predictors were similar except for rural dwelling and nationality (higher mortality among locals). Absence of BCG scar, previous treatment for TB and MDR-TB were not found to be predictors of all-cause mortality. Indigenous populations in East Malaysia had lower rates of unfavourable treatment outcomes.
    CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of TB patients had unfavourable outcomes. Intervention strategies should target those at increased risk of unfavourable outcomes and all-cause mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  12. Liew SM, Khoo EM, Ho BK, Lee YK, Mimi O, Fazlina MY, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 01;31(1):61-71.
    PMID: 30541329 DOI: 10.1177/1010539518817980
    This study aims to determine tuberculosis incidence, all-cause mortality, and its associated factors among health care workers (HCWs) registered in 2012 to 2014 with the Malaysian National Tuberculosis (MyTB) Surveillance Registry. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with all-cause mortality. Incidence rates ranged from 135.18 to 156.50/100 000 and were higher for HCWs compared with the general population (risk ratio = 1.70-1.96). The mean age at notification was 34.6 ± 10.55 years; 68.9% were female. Most were paramedics (44.3%) followed by other HCWs (41.9%) and doctors (13.8%). Nearly a quarter (23.8%) had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. There were 23 deaths giving a case fatality rate of 2.4%. Factors associated with death were older age (odds ratio [OR] =1.05; confidence interval [CI] =1.01-1.10), diabetes (OR = 3.83; CI = 1.32-11.08), HIV positivity (OR = 18.16; CI = 4.60-71.68), and not receiving directly observed therapy (DOTS) (OR = 10.97; CI = 3.61-33.38). It is important for HCWs to be aware of these increased risks and for authorities to implement protective measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  13. Chen XW, Shafei MN, Aziz ZA, Sidek NN, Musa KI
    J Neurol Sci, 2019 Jun 15;401:130-135.
    PMID: 31000206 DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2019.04.015
    BACKGROUND: Stroke outcomes could be a quality indicator across the continuum of care and inform stroke management policymaking. However, this topic has rarely to date been studied directly.

    AIMS: We sought to investigate recent trends in stroke outcomes at hospital discharge among first-ever stroke patients.

    METHODS: This was an analysis of data from the Malaysia National Stroke Registry. Patients aged 18 years or older documented as having a first episode of stroke in the registry were recruited. Subsequently, the comparison of proportions for overall and sex-specific stroke outcomes between years (from 2009 to 2017) was conducted. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale score, which was assessed at hospital discharge, and each patient was categorized as follows: 1) functional independence, 2) functional dependence, or 3) death for analysis.

    RESULTS: This study included 9361 first-ever stroke patients. Approximately 36.2% (3369) were discharged in an independence state, 53.1% (4945) experienced functional dependence, and 10.8% (1006) patients died at the time of hospital discharge. The percentage of patients who were discharged independently increased from 23.3% in 2009 to 46.5% in 2017, while that of patients discharged in a disabled state fell from 56.0% in 2009 to 45.6% in 2017. The percentage of death at discharge was reduced from 20.7% in 2009 to 7.8% in 2017. These findings suggest that the proportions of stroke outcomes at hospital discharge have changed significantly over time (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  14. Venkatason P, Zaharan NL, Ismail MD, Wan Ahmad WA, Mahmood Zuhdi AS
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 2018 Jul;74(7):953-960.
    PMID: 29582106 DOI: 10.1007/s00228-018-2451-3
    PURPOSE: Information is lacking on prescribing of preventative cardiovascular pharmacotherapies for patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in the Asian region. This study examined the prescribing rate of these pharmacotherapies, comparing NSTEMI to STEMI, and variations across demographics and clinical factors within the NSTEMI group in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database-Acute Coronary Syndrome registry from year 2006 to 2013 (n = 30,873). On-discharge pharmacotherapies examined were aspirin, ADP-antagonists, statins, ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin-II-receptor blockers, and beta-blockers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio of receiving individual pharmacotherapies according to patients' characteristics in NSTEMI patients (n = 11,390).

    RESULTS: Prescribing rates for cardiovascular pharmacotherapies had significantly increased especially for ADP-antagonists (76%) in NSTEMI patients. More than 85% were prescribed statins and antiplatelets but rates remained significantly lower compared to STEMI. Women and those over 65 years old were less likely to be prescribed these pharmacotherapies compared to men and younger NSTEMI patients. Chinese and Indians were more likely to receive selected pharmacotherapies compared to Malays (main ethnicity). Geographical variations were observed; East Malaysian (Malaysian Borneo) patients were less likely to receive these compared to Western region of Malaysian Peninsular. Underprescribing in patients with risk factors such as diabetes were observed with other co-morbidities influencing prescribing selectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study uncovers demographic and clinical variations in cardiovascular pharmacotherapies prescribing for NSTEMI. Concerted efforts by policy makers, specialty societies, and physicians are required focusing on elderly, women, Malays, East Malaysians, and high-risk patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  15. Lai JML, Yang SL, Avoi R
    J Glob Infect Dis, 2019 3 1;11(1):2-6.
    PMID: 30814828 DOI: 10.4103/jgid.jgid_50_18
    Introduction: Conventionally, a combination of four separate drugs (ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide [EHRZ]) is the first-line pharmacotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In recent years, fixed-dose combination (FDC) formulation, where a single tablet contains the active ingredients of four aforementioned drugs, is gaining popularity due to its ease of administration.

    Objective: To compare the real-world effectiveness of EHRZ and FDC treatment groups on a cohort registry by investigating the sputum conversion rate and treatment outcomes of both groups.

    Methods: A total of 11,489 patients' data were extracted from the Sabah TB registry between January 2012 and June 2016, including EHRZ (n = 4188) and FDC (n = 7301) patients. Then, 1:1 propensity score matching was adopted to reduce the baseline bias. Caliper matching was conducted with maximum tolerance score set at 0.001. Confounders included in the propensity score matching were gender, nationality, diabetes, HIV status, smoking status, and chest X-ray status. Successful matching provided 4188 matched pairs (n = 8376) for final analysis.

    Results: In this matched cohort of 4188 pairs, the 2-month sputum conversion rate of FDC group was significantly higher than the EHRZ group (96.3% vs. 94.3%; P < 0.001) whereas 6-month sputum conversion of both groups showed no significant difference. Treatment outcomes such as noncompliance rate, failure rate, and success rate have no significant difference (P > 0.05) in both the treatment groups. There was an incidental finding of reduced death rate among FDC group compared to the EHRZ group (0.2% vs. 0.5%; P = 0.034).

    Conclusion: The FDC formulation has better sputum conversion rate at 2 months compared to conventional EHRZ regime as separate-drug formulation. It was also observed that FDC has a slight protective effect against all-cause death among TB patients. This protective effect of FDC, however, still needs to be proven further.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  16. Leong BD, Zainal AA, Hanif H, Tajri HM, Govindarajantran N, Pillay K, et al.
    Ann Vasc Dis, 2018 Jun 25;11(2):223-227.
    PMID: 30116415 DOI: 10.3400/avd.oa.18-00018
    Objective: Native fistula creation for hemodialysis in patients who have exhausted all their superficial veins presents a challenge to vascular practice. We review our experience in transposed basilic vein fistula (BVT) creation and its usage for hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the hospital operative registry from January 2009 till June 2012 to identify the total number of BVT created in our center. Medical records of all patients were traced, and patients were interviewed using a standard proforma. In our center, BVT is performed as a two-stage procedure. All patients were routinely assessed with duplex scan preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: Two hundred thirty-nine patients were recruited in the study. Of these patients, 50.6% were male and 49.4% were female. Mean age was 53.4 years. Of these patients, 81.2% had history of other previous fistula creation. Risk factors profile includes diabetes mellitus in 59.8%, hypertension in 86.2%, and smoking in 13.0%. Of these patients, 84.5% had no operative complication. Commonest complication was wound infection, 6.3%, followed by hemorrhage or hemotoma required surgical intervention, 5.9%, and pseudoaneurysm, 1.3%. Primary and secondary patencies were at 84.2% and 86.1% at 1 year and 67.7% and 70.5% at 3 years, respectively. Conclusion: BVT is a credible option for challenging patients with absence of superficial veins for native fistula creation with good patency and low operative complication rate. Preoperative ultrasound assessment improves patient selection and outcome of BVT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  17. Saleh RM, Zefarina Z, Che Mat NF, Chambers GK, Edinur HA
    Int J Prev Med, 2018;9:45.
    PMID: 29899883 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_232_16
    Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for finding suitable donors for transfusion patients. The ABO blood group and HLA markers are also the determinants of transplant compatibility, and mismatched antigens will cause graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Thus, a single and comprehensive registry covering all of the significant transfusion and transplantation antigens is expected to become an important tool in providing an efficient service capable of delivering safe blood and quickly locating matching organs/stem cells. This review article is intended as an accessible guide for physicians who care for transfusion-dependent patients. In particular, it serves to introduce the new molecular screening methods together with the biology of these systems, which underlies the tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  18. Nalliah S, Fong JSH, Yi Thor AY, Lim OH
    Indian J Urol, 2019 4 20;35(2):147-155.
    PMID: 31000921 DOI: 10.4103/iju.IJU_378_18
    Introduction: The aim of this systematic review is to compare chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in treating recurrent urinary infection in nonpregnant women by their efficacy, tolerability, adverse effects, and cost employing network meta-analysis.

    Materials and Methods: We used three online databases, i.e., PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Central Registry of Clinical Trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of prophylactic chemotherapeutic agents used in treating nonpregnant women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) published between 2002 and 2016 were selected. Only published papers in English were assessed for study quality, and meta-analyses were performed using fixed-effects model with NetMetaXL.

    Results: Six RCTs fulfilled the criteria. When all three variables, i.e., efficacy, adverse effects and cost were considered, nitrofurantoin 50 mg once daily for 6 months appears to rank high for prophylaxis against RUTI. When efficacy was the only factor, fosfomycin had the highest superiority compared to D-mannose, nitrofurantoin, estriol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and cranberry juice, respectively. However, fosfomycin was also ranked highest by adverse events. When cost alone is considered, nitrofurantoin appeared the most cost-effective agent while placed third for efficacy alone.

    Conclusion: Selecting appropriate chemotherapeutic agents for RUTI will need to factor in effectiveness, adverse effects, and cost. While it is difficult to select an ideal drug, evaluation using network analysis may guide choice of medication for best practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
  19. Chang KM, Patel DK, Tajunisah I, Subrayan V
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):217-24.
    PMID: 22887807 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512455047
    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the most important causes of childhood blindness worldwide. The trend of ROP in Malaysia was unclear because there was no national registry before 2002. The purpose of this study is to analyze ROP students of different ages in the schools for the blind in Malaysia in order to evaluate the trend of ROP from 1992 to 2001. Data were obtained from a previous survey of 24 blind schools. It was found that 78 students or 17.4% were blind/severely visual impaired as a result of ROP. There was a significant surge in the number of ROP students who were born in 1994 when the use of synthetic surfactants was first introduced in Malaysia; otherwise there was no increasing trend in the number of students with ROP. However, the percentage of ROP in total was increasing, which indicates that ROP is becoming a more important cause of childhood blindness in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries/statistics & numerical data
  20. Citation: The third report of the National Eye Database 2009. Goh PP, Salowi MA, editors. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2011
    Matched MeSH terms: Registries
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