Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 372 in total

  1. ul Haq N, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Saleem F, Aljadhey H
    PMID: 22866752 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-91
    The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  2. Zyroul R, Hossain MG, Azura M, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Knee, 2014 Mar;21(2):557-62.
    PMID: 23473894 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2012.12.013
    BACKGROUND: Knee laxity measurements have been shown to be associated with some medical conditions such as chronic joint pain and collagen tissue diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of demographic factors and anthropometric measures on knee laxity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 521 visitors, staffs and students from the University Malaya Medical Centre and University of Malaya between December 2009 and May 2010. Knee laxity was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to find the association of knee laxity with age and anthropometric measures.
    RESULTS: Using ANOVA, knee laxity did not show significant differences among ethnic groups for both genders. The average knee laxity in men was 3.47 mm (right) and 3.49 mm (left); while in women were 3.90 mm (right) and 3.67 mm (left). Knee laxity in women was significantly higher (right knee p<0.01 and left knee p<0.05) than men. Right knee laxity of men was negatively associated with height (p<0.05) and BMI (p<0.05); also a negative association was observed between left knee laxity and BMI (p<0.05). Overweight and obese men had less knee laxity than normal weight and underweight individuals. Elderly men and women (age 55 and above) had lower knee laxity (p<0.01) than young adults (ages 21-39).
    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that age and body size are important factors in predicting knee laxity.
    KEYWORDS: Age; Anthropometric measures; Joint mobility; KT 1000; Knee laxity
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  3. Zhao S, Zhang J, Liu Y, Ji H, Lew B
    J Affect Disord, 2020 Jan 01;260:105-110.
    PMID: 31494361 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.006
    BACKGROUND: Previous research on the relationship between life satisfaction and its influencing factors has mainly focused on the work domain. Psychological strains, which result from these stress-related outcomes, have not been paid enough attention to explain how it correlates negatively with life satisfaction.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using questionnaires sent to selected medical staff in a public hospital in Shandong, China (N = 1012). Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate how psychological strains influencing life satisfactions among medical staff.

    RESULTS: The findings indicate that aspiration strain and deprivation strain have significantly negative impact on medical staff's life satisfaction even with other variables controlled for. Weekly working hour was a significant predictor for life satisfaction. Family factors, such as marital status and kids in the family as well as social support were important factors in influencing individuals' life satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: The current study highlights the negative associations between aspiration strain, deprivation strain and life satisfaction. The result underlines the importance of actions taken to prevent and combat psychological strains. It also provides some evidence for policy makers to improve the work environment for medical staff, such as reduce weekly working hours and enhance social support in order to increase medical staff's life satisfaction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  4. Zamri EN, Moy FM, Hoe VC
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(2):e0172195.
    PMID: 28234933 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172195
    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce musculoskeletal pain among school teachers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  5. Zainudin NM, Aziz BA, Haifa AL, Deng CT, Omar AH
    Respirology, 2001 Jun;6(2):151-5.
    PMID: 11422895
    OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may be demonstrated in 60-70% of asthmatic children in temperate climates. In areas of high humidity it is postulated to be low. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of EIB in a population of schoolchildren with wheezing, living in the humid tropical climate of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    METHOD: We performed a cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire to identify 7-12-year-old Malay children with asthma symptoms from a primary school in central Kuala Lumpur. Sixty-five of 76 children with 'ever wheeze' performed an exercise challenge test successfully in an uncontrolled environment. A random sample of 80 schoolchildren with no history of wheeze were similarly tested as controls. The relative humidity and temperature were recorded. A fall of > 15% was considered as clinically important.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of EIB in schoolchildren with 'ever wheeze' was 47.7%. The prevalence of EIB in children with 'current wheeze' was 51.6%. The prevalence of EIB in controls was 7.5%. The relative humidity during the study ranged from 41 to 90%. There was no significant relationship between different humidity levels and EIB (P = 0.58, regression analysis).

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that EIB is present in asthmatic children despite the highly humid tropical environment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  6. Zainah SH, Ong LC, Sofiah A, Poh BK, Hussain IH
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2001 Aug;37(4):376-81.
    PMID: 11532058
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the linear growth and nutritional parameters of a group of Malaysian children with cerebral palsy (CP) against a group of controls, and to determine the nutritional, medical and sociodemographic factors associated with poor growth in children with CP.

    METHODOLOGY: The linear growth of 101 children with CP and of their healthy controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity was measured using upper-arm length (UAL). Nutritional parameters of weight, triceps skin-fold thickness and mid-arm circumference were also measured. Total caloric intake was assessed using a 24-h recall of a 3-day food intake and calculated as a percentage of the Recommended Daily Allowance. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine nutritional, medical and sociodemographic factors associated with poor growth (using z-scores of UAL) in children with CP.

    RESULTS: Compared with the controls, children with CP had significantly lower mean UAL measurements (difference between means -1.1, 95% confidence interval -1.65 to - 0.59), weight (difference between means -6.0, 95% CI -7.66 to -4.34), mid-arm circumference (difference between means -1.3, 95% CI -2.06 to -0.56) and triceps skin-fold thickness (difference between means -2.5, 95% CI -3.5 to -1.43). Factors associated with low z-scores of UAL were a lower percentage of median weight (P < 0.001), tube feeding (P < 0.001) and increasing age (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: A large proportion of Malaysian children with CP have poor nutritional status and linear growth. Nutritional assessment and management at an early age might help this group of children achieve adequate growth.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  7. Zaharuddin ND, Noordin MI, Kadivar A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:735891.
    PMID: 24678512 DOI: 10.1155/2014/735891
    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  8. Yusuff AS, Tang L, Binns CW, Lee AH
    Breastfeed Med, 2015 Jul-Aug;10(6):300-4.
    PMID: 26090921 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2015.0069
    INTRODUCTION: Globally many women suffer from depression during pregnancy. This study investigated the impact of antenatal depressive symptoms on the duration of breastfeeding up to 6 months among women in Sabah, Malaysia.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 2,072 women was conducted in Sabah during 2009-2010. Participants were recruited at 36-38 weeks of gestation and followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between antenatal EPDS scores and cessation of breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum.
    RESULTS: In total, 1,078 (52%) women with complete information on breastfeeding duration were included in the final sample. Approximately 99% of mothers were breastfeeding at discharge, and 87% of them continued to breastfeed at 6 months postpartum. Women with an antenatal EPDS score of 8 or above were twice more likely to stop breastfeeding before 6 months (adjusted hazards ratio=1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.26, 3.01) than those who scored less than 4 on the EPDS.
    CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms during pregnancy appeared to be associated with early breastfeeding cessation for mothers residing in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  9. Yusof NA, Zin FM, Idris NS, Mohammad R
    Korean J Fam Med, 2019 Jul;40(4):254-260.
    PMID: 31109161 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.18.0016
    BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of alternative tobacco and nicotine products (ATNPs) use among adolescents is a global concern that has been attributed to the reemergence of preexisting alternative tobacco products and emergence of new ones in the market. This study examined ATNP use among late adolescents. The association between ATNP use and reasons for using them was explored.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study conducted in 2016 involving 388 late adolescents from six government colleges in Kelantan, Malaysia, aged 18 to 19 years. They were requested to answer self-directed questionnaires with items on sociodemographic information and types of ATNP used. Other variables obtained include the environmental influence and reasons for using the products. Regression analyses between the dependent and independent variables were conducted using IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of ATNP use among late adolescents was 14.4%. The male sex, cigarette smoking status, and peer use were significantly associated with ATNP use. Several reasons for use were not significantly associated with ATNP use: perception of ATNP being less harmful and less addictive compared with cigarettes, curiosity, less expensive than cigarettes, to aid smoking cessation, and pleasurable flavors and taste.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ATNP use among late adolescents studying in government colleges in Kelantan is significant. There is higher perception on ATNP being less harmful and addictive than the conventional cigarette among the users compared with non-users. Significant associations are seen for the male sex, peer use, and concurrent cigarette smoking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  10. Yusof MI, Hassan MN, Abdullah MS
    Malays Orthop J, 2018 Mar;12(1):21-25.
    PMID: 29725508 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1803.004
    Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD), foraminal vertical diameter (FVD), foraminal transverse diameter (FTD) and nerve root diameter (NRD) of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  11. Yus Azila Y, Mashitah MD, Bhatia S
    Bioresour. Technol., 2008 Dec;99(18):8549-52.
    PMID: 18599293 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.03.056
    A central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the biosorption of Pb(II) ions onto immobilized cells of Pycnoporus sanguineus. The independent variables were initial Pb(II) concentration, pH and biomass loading. The combined effects of these variables were analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM) using quadratic model for predicting the optimum point. Under these conditions the model predicted a maximum of 97.7% of Pb(II) ions removal at pH 4, 200mg/L of initial Pb(II) concentration with 10g/L of biosorbent. The experimental values are in good agreement with predicted values within +0.10 to +0.81% error.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  12. Yu L, Tang TLS, Cassim N, Livingstone A, Cassidy D, Kairn T, et al.
    J Appl Clin Med Phys, 2019 Nov;20(11):189-198.
    PMID: 31613053 DOI: 10.1002/acm2.12726
    PURPOSE: Gamma evaluation is the most commonly used technique for comparison of dose distributions for patient-specific pretreatment quality assurance in radiation therapy. Alternative dose comparison techniques have been developed but not widely implemented. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of several previously published alternatives to the gamma evaluation technique, by systematically evaluating a large number of patient-specific quality assurance results.

    METHODS: The agreement indices (or pass rates) for global and local gamma evaluation, maximum allowed dose difference (MADD) and divide and conquer (D&C) techniques were calculated using a selection of acceptance criteria for 429 patient-specific pretreatment quality assurance measurements. Regression analysis was used to quantify the similarity of behavior of each technique, to determine whether possible variations in sensitivity might be present.

    RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the behavior of D&C gamma analysis and MADD box analysis differs from any other dose comparison techniques, whereas MADD gamma analysis exhibits similar performance to the standard global gamma analysis. Local gamma analysis had the least variation in behavior with criteria selection. Agreement indices calculated for 2%/2 mm and 2%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm were correlated for most comparison techniques.

    CONCLUSION: Radiation oncology treatment centers looking to compare between different dose comparison techniques, criteria or lower dose thresholds may apply the results of this study to estimate the expected change in calculated agreement indices and possible variation in sensitivity to delivery dose errors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  13. Young D, Yong HH, Borland R, Ross H, Sirirassamee B, Kin F, et al.
    Nicotine Tob. Res., 2008 May;10(5):907-15.
    PMID: 18569766 DOI: 10.1080/14622200802027172
    Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette use has been subject to relatively limited research, particularly in developing countries. This paper seeks to describe RYO use in Thailand and Malaysia and relate RYO use to smokers' knowledge of the harmfulness of tobacco. Data come from face-to-face surveys with 4,004 adult smokers from Malaysia (N = 2,004) and Thailand (N = 2000), collected between January and March 2005. The prevalence of any use of RYO cigarettes varied greatly between Malaysia (17%) and Thailand (58%). In both countries, any RYO use was associated with living in rural areas, older average age, lower level of education, male gender, not being in paid work, slightly lower consumption of cigarettes, higher social acceptability of smoking, and positive attitudes toward tobacco regulation. Among RYO users, exclusive use of RYO cigarettes (compared with mixed use) was associated with older age, female gender (relatively), thinking about the enjoyment of smoking, and not making a special effort to buy cheaper cigarettes if the price goes up. Finally, exclusive RYO smokers were less aware of health warnings (RYO tobacco carries no health warnings), but even so, knowledge of the health effects of tobacco was equivalent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  14. Yii, Mei Wo, Zaharudin Ahmad
    Gamma Spectrometry Counting System requires similar counting geometries for the calibration source, reference material and samples. The objectives of this study were to find out the effects of the sample density on 137 Cs activities measurement and propose reasonable corrections. Studies found that the activity of the samples is decreasing when the density of samples increased. Therefore, in order to have a more accurate estimation of samples activities; density corrections should be done either by performs mathematical corrections using equation or by increasing the expanded uncertainty when sample densities deviated from calibration source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  15. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Loke YH, Sander I, Sulong SH, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2004 Sep;114(3):593-8.
    PMID: 15356563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.039
    Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.

    This investigation was aimed at developing 2-site immunoenzymetric assays and identifying appropriate protein markers to assess the allergenic potential of latex gloves.

    The presence of 6 latex allergens--Hev b 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13--was measured in a cross-section of commercial latex medical gloves by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based 2-site immunoenzymetric assays. The overall allergenic potential of these gloves was assessed by IgE-inhibition assay. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify marker allergens that best explained the variation in latex glove allergenicity.

    All 6 latex allergens were detected in at least some of the glove samples. Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 were identified as the marker allergens that combined best to explain the variation in the glove allergenicity. The significant multiple correlation (R=0.855) between these 2 markers and glove allergenic potency forms the basis of an assay to gauge latex glove allergenicity.

    The overall allergenic potential of latex gloves can be estimated by using Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 as indicator allergens. The correlation between glove allergenicity and the level of these allergens was maintained for low-protein gloves (<200 microg/g). This estimation of glove allergenicity was superior to that obtained by using total protein readings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  16. Yap C, Noorhaidah A
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1075-1085.
    In this paper we investigated the concentrations of Pb in seven different soft tissues (foot, cephalic tentacles, mantle muscle, gill, digestive caecum and remaining soft tissues) of 17 geographical populations of Telescopium telescopium collected from the intertidal area of Peninsular Malaysia. Two points can be presented based on the present study. First, as expected, different concentrations of Pb were found in the different soft tissues, indicating different mechanisms of bioaccumulation and regulations of Pb in these different tissues. By comparing the Pb concentrations in the similar tissues, spatial variation of Pb was found in the different sampling sites although there is no consistent pattern of Pb contamination in these sampling sites. Second, based on the correlation coefficients and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis between Pb concentrations in the different soft tissues and Pb concentrations in geochemical factions in the surface sediments, it is found that gill and digestive caecum can truly reflect Pb contamination and Pb bioavailabilities in the tropical intertidal mudflats. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study on Pb in the different soft tissues of T. telescopium, in relation to the habitat sediments of the snails.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  17. Yadav H
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):224-8.
    PMID: 3241580
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  18. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Acta Trop., 2016 Jan;153:57-63.
    PMID: 26476394 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.10.007
    To investigate the breeding habitat preference of black flies, a comprehensive black fly survey was conducted for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia. Preimaginal black flies (pupae and larvae) were collected manually from 180 stream points encompassing northern, southern, central and east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 47 black fly species were recorded in this study. The predominant species were Simulium trangense (36.7%) and Simulium angulistylum (33.3%). Relatively common species were Simulium cheongi (29.4%), Simulium tani (25.6%), Simulium nobile (16.2%), Simulium sheilae (14.5%) and Simulium bishopi (10.6%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all stream variables revealed four PCs that accounted for 69.3% of the total intersite variance. Regression analysis revealed that high species richness is associated with larger, deeper, faster and higher discharge streams with larger streambed particles, more riparian vegetation and low pH (F=22.7, d.f.=1, 173; P<0.001). Relationship between species occurrence of seven common species (present in >10% of the sampling sites) was assessed. Forward logistic regression analysis indicated that four species were significantly related to the stream variables. S. nobile and S. tani prefer large, fast flowing streams with higher pH, large streambed particles and riparian trees. S. bishopi was commonly found at high elevation with cooler stream, low conductivity, higher conductivity and more riparian trees. In contrast, S. sheilae was negatively correlated with PC-2, thus, this species commonly found at low elevation, warmer stream with low conductivity and less riparian trees. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies from other geographic regions, which indicated that both physical and chemical stream conditions are the key factors for black fly ecology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  19. Xie F, Thumboo J, Fong KY, Lo NN, Yeo SJ, Yang KY, et al.
    J. Rheumatol., 2007 Jan;34(1):165-71.
    PMID: 17216684
    To estimate and compare the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in multiethnic Asian patients with OA in Singapore.

    The study was a retrospective and cross-sectional design. Patients were stratified according to ethnicity and presence or absence of joint surgery. Direct costs were estimated from both a societal and a patient perspective using the Singapore General Hospital database; indirect costs were estimated using the human capital approach. All costs were expressed as mean costs per patient per annum in 2003 Singapore dollars.

    A total of 1179 patients (83.6% Chinese, 7.2% Malay, 3.5% Indian, 5.7% others) were included in estimating direct costs, of which 513 (43.5%) had total knee replacement (TKR) and 92 (7.8%) total hip replacement (THR), while 105 patients (71.4% Chinese, 14.3% Malay, 14.3% Indian) were included in estimating indirect costs. Direct costs to patients ranged from 1460 dollars to 7477 dollars for Chinese, 1362 dollars-7211 dollars for Malays, 1688 dollars-6226 dollars for Indians, and 1437 dollars-12,140 dollars for other ethnic patients; direct costs to society ranged from 3351 dollars to 15,799 dollars for Chinese, 2939 dollars-15,436 dollars for Malays, 3150 dollars-10,990 dollars for Indians, and 2597 dollars-17,879 dollars for other ethnic patients. In contrast, the indirect costs ranged from 1215 dollars to 3834 dollars for Chinese, 1138 dollars-6116 dollars for Malays, and 1371 dollars-5292 dollars for Indians. However, most ethnic variations were not statistically significant.

    The economic burden of OA to society and patients increased by 3-fold or more in the patients with TKR/THR compared to those without. The ethnic differences in health resources consumed were more apparent when the disease progressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  20. Wu DB, Lee EH, Chung WS, Chow DP, Lee VW, Wong MC, et al.
    Psychiatry Res, 2013 Dec 30;210(3):745-50.
    PMID: 24012164 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.012
    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric illnesses. This study compared retrospectively health-care resources consumed 12 months before and 24 months after risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment in Hong Kong. A mirror-image analysis was conducted using data (N=191) from three public hospitals in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2007. The main outcome measure was hospitalisation cost. Other secondary outcomes such as hospitalisation episodes, outpatient visits and adverse events were also compared. A predictive model was established using linear regression based on generalised estimating equations. Analysis showed that RLAI was associated with a reduction in hospitalisation cost by HK$10,001,390 (24.7%) (HK$40,418,694 vs. HK$30,417,303; P-value <0.05). Days of hospitalisation were reduced by 1538 days (10.1%) (15,271 vs. 13,733; P-value <0.05). The predictive model estimated that the hospitalisation cost of patients using RLAI was only 11.1% (3.1-3.93%, 95% confidence interval (CI)) compared to those receiving conventional antipsychotics combined with oral risperidone. Cost of hospitalisation was significantly reduced after RLAI therapy. However, results should be considered as indicative or suggestive only, due to potential channelling bias where certain drug regimens are preferentially prescribed to patients with particular conditions. The findings from our study may be useful in health-care decision making considering treatment options for schizophrenia in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
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