Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 372 in total

  1. Shrestha R, Weikum D, Copenhaver M, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2017 Apr;21(4):1070-1081.
    PMID: 27544515 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1526-3
    Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  2. Shrestha R, Copenhaver M, Bazazi AR, Huedo-Medina TB, Krishnan A, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2017 Apr;21(4):1059-1069.
    PMID: 28108877 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1693-x
    Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support. Incarcerated HIV-infected men with opioid dependence (N = 301) were recruited from the HIV units in Kajang prison in Malaysia. Participants completed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, HIV-related stigma, depression, social support, and HRQoL. Results showed that the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL was mediated via depression (a1:β = 0.1463, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  3. Chang, Teo Yong, Nasir Yusoff, Begum, Tahamina
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2015;16(1):75-83.
    Objective: Literatures on factors influencing performance of the Stroop interference have been elusive on coping styles. Past investigations of coping influence on Stroop test have been indirect and inconclusive due to variability of multidimensional coping models and application of different Stroop test. The concept of constricted versus flexible or broad cognitive style have linked personality and coping styles to Stroop performance. The objective of this study was to determine the associations of coping styles with Stroop resistance towards interference (Stroop RI) and subsequently determine the predictors of Stroop performance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community research design study with purposive sampling. In this study, the self-administered Brief COPE inventory questionnaires and Stroop Test were performed among 205 undergraduate medical students. Results: Findings revealed that behavioural disengagement (r=-0.361), dysfunctional coping (r=-0.355), self-blame (r = 0.222), and substance abuse (r = -0.173) showed negative correlation and proven strong association with Stroop RI. Further multiple regression analyses identified behavioural disengagement (R2 = 0.13), and dysfunctional coping (R2 = 0.024) as significant predictors for interference. Conclusion: Coping styles have implication on Stroop test exhibited in varied cognitive styles. Integrating coping styles factor on Stroop test has glimpsed the future direction of other neuropsychological assessment batteries on the importance of profiling individualistic baseline norms. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 16 (1): January – June 2015: XX XX.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  4. Talwar P, Abd Rahman MF
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2015;16(2):232-240.
    This study aims to assess the factor structure and reliability of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Additionally, the study also attempts to evaluate the psychological well-being among university students using the GHQ-12 scale and thereby determine a relationship between select demographic variables and well-being. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire consisting of the demographic aspects and the GHQ 12 scale were utilized to assess the well-being of students, who were selected by convenience sampling technique. Results: Factorability of the GHQ-12 was examined and a three-factor model explaining 55% total variance was found to be the best fit. Internal consistency of the scale was 0.78, which is within the acceptable range. The results also suggest that considerable proportion (57%) of students had psychological distress. Participants who were susceptible to psychological distress in the present study were identified as students from low income families, with poor social support, in a relationship with partner as well as the student with Hindu’s religion and male students. By multiple regression analysis, variables that significantly predicted psychological distress were gender; income; area of residence; relationship with parents; negative life events; smoking; drinking and event with the overall model fit were 34%. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it may be foreseen that if prompt intervention is not provided to students in distress, they may be susceptible to depression, anxiety and stress. The findings have implications for teachers and counsellors, who are in a position to influence a wide range of students and provide support to improve the psychological well-being of students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  5. Rosli, Y., Maddess, T.L., James, A.C., Goh, X.L.
    ASM Science Journal, 2009;3(1):31-37.
    Responses were recorded from normal healthy subjects and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients and evaluated, using a new variant of mfVEP. Subjects information was recorded using 64 EEG channels with a computer-based acquisition system. The stimulus layout was a 84 region corticallyscaled dartboard comprising 12 sectors and seven concentric rings subtending a diameter of 23º, presented dichoptically at 60 Hz. Data from the control and AMD patients were statistically compared when fitted concurrently into the multiple regression analysis. The Pattern-pulse mfVEP technique could distinguish between normal eyes and those with a definite diagnosis of dry and wet AMD when responses from the macula were considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  6. Low, C.Y., Hii, S.L., Leong, L.K., Yim, Y.Y., Tan, H.W.
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(1):61-66.
    Cassava starch was used as feedstock for production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cassava starch was hydrolyzed using commercial α-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes followed by a batch ethanol fermentation process using saccharified starch slurry. By using 110 g/L of reducing sugar from saccharified starch slurry, the ethanol yield was promising with maximum ethanol concentration of 20.6 g/L recorded after 55 hours of cultivation process. Three different models - the Logistic model, Luedeking-Piret-like equation and Gompertz equation - were used to characterize and explain the cell growth, reducing sugar consumption and production formation, respectively. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the experimental data to the proposed models using non-linear regression analysis. The correlation coefficient r2 values for the Logistic model, Luedeking-Piret-like equation and the Gompertz equation were 0.994, 0.996 and 0.990, respectively. The high correlation coefficient values indicate that the proposed models were able to describe the ethanol fermentation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  7. Tey LS, Zhu S, Ferreira L, Wallis G
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Oct;71:177-82.
    PMID: 24929822 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.05.014
    Level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety issues, due to the addition of rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. The differences in the operational characteristics of different warning devices together with varying crossing, traffic or/and train characteristics, cause different driver behaviour at crossings. This paper compares driver behaviour towards two novel warning devices (rumble strips and in-vehicle audio warning) with two conventional warning devices (flashing light and stop sign) at railway level crossings using microsimulation modelling. Two safety performance indicators directly related to collision risks, violation and time-to-collision, were adopted. Results indicated the active systems were more effective at reducing likely collisions compared to passive devices. With the combined application of driving simulation and traffic microsimulation modelling, traffic safety performance indicators for a level crossing can be estimated. From these, relative safety comparisons for the different traffic devices are derived, or even for absolute safety evaluation with proper calibration from field investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  8. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Acta Trop., 2016 Jan;153:57-63.
    PMID: 26476394 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.10.007
    To investigate the breeding habitat preference of black flies, a comprehensive black fly survey was conducted for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia. Preimaginal black flies (pupae and larvae) were collected manually from 180 stream points encompassing northern, southern, central and east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 47 black fly species were recorded in this study. The predominant species were Simulium trangense (36.7%) and Simulium angulistylum (33.3%). Relatively common species were Simulium cheongi (29.4%), Simulium tani (25.6%), Simulium nobile (16.2%), Simulium sheilae (14.5%) and Simulium bishopi (10.6%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all stream variables revealed four PCs that accounted for 69.3% of the total intersite variance. Regression analysis revealed that high species richness is associated with larger, deeper, faster and higher discharge streams with larger streambed particles, more riparian vegetation and low pH (F=22.7, d.f.=1, 173; P<0.001). Relationship between species occurrence of seven common species (present in >10% of the sampling sites) was assessed. Forward logistic regression analysis indicated that four species were significantly related to the stream variables. S. nobile and S. tani prefer large, fast flowing streams with higher pH, large streambed particles and riparian trees. S. bishopi was commonly found at high elevation with cooler stream, low conductivity, higher conductivity and more riparian trees. In contrast, S. sheilae was negatively correlated with PC-2, thus, this species commonly found at low elevation, warmer stream with low conductivity and less riparian trees. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies from other geographic regions, which indicated that both physical and chemical stream conditions are the key factors for black fly ecology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  9. Low GK, Ogston SA, Yong MH, Gan SC, Chee HY
    Acta Trop., 2018 Jun;182:237-245.
    PMID: 29545158 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.014
    BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of 2009 WHO dengue case classification, no literature was found regarding its effect on dengue death. This study was to evaluate the effect of 2009 WHO dengue case classification towards dengue case fatality rate.

    METHODS: Various databases were used to search relevant articles since 1995. Studies included were cohort and cross-sectional studies, all patients with dengue infection and must report the number of death or case fatality rate. The Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the risk of bias of the full-texts. The studies were grouped according to the classification adopted: WHO 1997 and WHO 2009. Meta-regression was employed using a logistic transformation (log-odds) of the case fatality rate. The result of the meta-regression was the adjusted case fatality rate and odds ratio on the explanatory variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 77 studies were included in the meta-regression analysis. The case fatality rate for all studies combined was 1.14% with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.82-1.58%. The combined (unadjusted) case fatality rate for 69 studies which adopted WHO 1997 dengue case classification was 1.09% with 95% CI of 0.77-1.55%; and for eight studies with WHO 2009 was 1.62% with 95% CI of 0.64-4.02%. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio of case fatality using WHO 2009 dengue case classification was 1.49 (95% CI: 0.52, 4.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.26, 2.63) respectively, compared to WHO 1997 dengue case classification. There was an apparent increase in trend of case fatality rate from the year 1992-2016. Neither was statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The WHO 2009 dengue case classification might have no effect towards the case fatality rate although the adjusted results indicated a lower case fatality rate. Future studies are required for an update in the meta-regression analysis to confirm the findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  10. Momtaz YA, Ibrahim R, Hamid TA, Yahaya N
    Aging Ment Health, 2011 May;15(4):437-45.
    PMID: 21500010 DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2010.536141
    Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  11. Mahadeva S, Raman MC, Ford AC, Follows M, Axon AT, Goh KL, et al.
    Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005 Jun 15;21(12):1483-90.
    PMID: 15948816
    There is a paucity of data directly comparing dyspepsia in Western and Eastern populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  12. Chun S, Choi Y, Chang Y, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 07;177:17-24.
    PMID: 27297845 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.018
    BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  13. Habicht JP, DaVanzo J, Butz WP
    Am. J. Epidemiol., 1986 Feb;123(2):279-90.
    PMID: 3946377
    Analysis of mothers' recall data collected in 1976-1977 by a probability survey in Peninsular Malaysia shows an association between breastfeeding up to six months of age and improved survival of infants throughout the first year of life. Inappropriate sample selection and inadequate control of confounding can introduce large biases in these analyses. The magnitude and direction of these biases are presented. Even when these biases are dealt with, unsupplemented breastfeeding appears more beneficial than supplemented breastfeeding. The younger the infant and the longer the breastfeeding, the greater the estimated benefits in terms of deaths averted. The use of powdered infant formula did not appear to offset the detrimental effects of early weaning and supplementation. The positive relationships found in these analyses between breastfeeding and survival are not due to death precluding or terminating breastfeeding. Nor are they likely to be due to a shift away from breastfeeding because of recent illness, which was also controlled in the analyses. Nor are they likely to be due to other factors that both increase mortality risk and shorten breastfeeding; when such factors are taken into account, the beneficial effects of breastfeeding become stronger and imply that, if there had been no breastfeeding in this sample, twice as many babies would have died after the first week of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  14. Seo DC, Torabi MR, Kim N, Lee CG, Choe S
    Am J Health Behav, 2013 Mar;37(2):199-207.
    PMID: 23026101 DOI: 10.5993/AJHB.37.2.7
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among East Asian college students.
    METHODS: Data were collected from college students (N=16,558) in China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan (response rate: 78%).
    RESULTS: Religion was independently associated with college students' smoking in China (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.82) and South Korea (AOR = 0.80). Being a heavy drinker and having a higher exposure to secondhand smoke were associated with higher smoking rates (Ps < .001).
    CONCLUSIONS: The East Asian economies show a varied prevalence of college smoking but a similar pattern of relationship with its correlates.
    Study site: 21 institutions in 6 East Asian economies: 3 colleges each from Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Korea; 4 colleges from Taiwan; and 5 colleges from China.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  15. Darabi H, McCue K, Beesley J, Michailidou K, Nord S, Kar S, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jul 02;97(1):22-34.
    PMID: 26073781 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.002
    Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  16. Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Higashi S
    Am. J. Primatol., 2009 Jun;71(6):478-92.
    PMID: 19288553 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20677
    A group of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consisting of an alpha-male, six adult females, and several immatures was observed from May 2005-2006. We collected over 1,968 hr of focal data on the adult male and 1,539 hr of focal data on the six females in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. Availability and seasonal changes in plant species consumed by the focal monkeys were determined by vegetation surveys carried out across an area of 2.15 ha along 200-500 m trails in riverine forest. A total of 188 plant species were consumed by the focal monkeys. The activity budget of members of our study group was 76.5% resting, 19.5% feeding, and 3.5% moving. Young leaves (65.9%) and fruits (25.9%) accounted for the majority of feeding time. Over 90% of fruit feeding involved the consumption of unripe fruits and in the majority of case both the fruit flesh and seeds were eaten. Although fruit eating was rare in some months, during other times of the year time fruit feeding exceeded the time devoted to young leaves. We found that monthly fruit availability was positively related to monthly fruit eating and feeding activity, and seasonal fluctuations in dietary diversity were significantly affected by fruit eating. These results suggest that fruit availability and fruit-eating behaviors are key factors that influence the activity budget of proboscis monkeys. Earlier assumptions that colobine monkeys are obligate folivores do not apply well to proboscis monkeys and certain other colobines. Our findings may help contribute to a better understanding of the dietary adaptations and feeding ecology of Asian colobines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  17. Chaudery H, MacDonald N, Ahmad T, Chandra S, Tantri A, Sivasakthi V, et al.
    Anesth. Analg., 2019 05;128(5):1022-1029.
    PMID: 30418232 DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003923
    BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a high mortality rate. However, the relationship among AKI, its associations, and mortality is not well understood.

    METHODS: Planned analysis of data was collected during an international 7-day cohort study of adults undergoing elective in-patient surgery. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Patients missing preoperative creatinine data were excluded. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationships among preoperative creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), postoperative AKI, and hospital mortality, accounting for the effects of age, major comorbid diseases, and nature and severity of surgical intervention on outcomes. We similarly modeled preoperative associations of AKI. Data are presented as n (%) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals.

    RESULTS: A total of 36,357 patients were included, 743 (2.0%) of whom developed AKI with 73 (9.8%) deaths in hospital. AKI affected 73 of 196 (37.2%) of all patients who died. Mortality was strongly associated with the severity of AKI (stage 1: OR, 2.57 [1.3-5.0]; stage 2: OR, 8.6 [5.0-15.1]; stage 3: OR, 30.1 [18.5-49.0]). Low preoperative eGFR was strongly associated with AKI. However, in our model, lower eGFR was not associated with increasing mortality in patients who did not develop AKI. Conversely, in older patients, high preoperative eGFR (>90 mL·minute·1.73 m) was associated with an increasing risk of death, potentially reflecting poor muscle mass.

    CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence and severity of AKI are strongly associated with risk of death after surgery. However, the relationship between preoperative renal function as assessed by serum creatinine-based eGFR and risk of death dependent on patient age and whether AKI develops postoperatively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  18. Rajesh, S.M., Muirhead, V., Mohd Dom, T.N., Ismail, N.M., Jamaludin, M., Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(1):1-7.
    To explore the association between social
    support and stress levels in preclinical and clinical dental
    students in Malaysia. Method: A cross sectional survey
    of dental undergraduate students was conducted at the
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    Stress was measured using the Dental Environment Stress
    (DES) questionnaire. A DES-32 item was used to measure
    stress for the clinical students and DES-16 item for the
    preclinical students. Four questions were used to measure
    social support. The total stress scores were standardized
    for comparison purposes. Results: A total of 357 (79.7%)
    preclinical and 417 (71.8%) clinical undergraduate dental
    students responded to the questionnaires. The clinical
    students experienced higher stress [mean standardized
    DES score = 72.63, SD = 10.64] than preclinical students
    [mean standardized DES score = 70.19, SD=12.01]. The
    two most stressful items reported by preclinical students
    were “fear of failing” and “examination and grades”.
    Among clinical students, the two most stressful items related
    to academic were “completing course requirement” and
    “fear of failing course” and items related to clinical session
    were “fear of being barred due to the clinical schedule”
    and “patients late or absent”. Multiple regression analyses
    revealed that low stress levels among preclinical students
    were significantly associated to a lot of contact with
    students of the same course. Conclusion: To some extent,
    social support does play a role in explaining differences in
    perceived stress, in particular among preclinical students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  19. Ali O, Tan TT, Sakinah O, Khalid BA, Wu LL, Wan Nazaimoon WM, et al.
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1994 Nov;23(6):852-5.
    PMID: 7741498
    Thyroid function and pubertal development of aborigines (Orang Asli) and Malays at different socioeconomic strata were assessed among 1136 subjects aged 7 years and above. Anthropometric measurements, goitre and pubertal staging were done. Serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and growth hormone were measured using radioimmunoassays (RIA) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by immunoradiometric assays (IRMA). It was found that serum T3 in children was significantly higher in Malays from rural areas, girls and children aged less than 13 years. However, in adults, T3 was significantly associated with anthropometric indices. On the contrary, serum T4 levels were higher among children from urban areas. In adults, serum T4 levels were significantly related to nutritional status and they increased according to the levels of social development, being lowest in remote areas and highest in urban areas. However, serum TSH levels were significantly higher in Orang Asli at all ages and among malnourished children. By using multiple regression, apart from age, gender and ethnicity, nutritional status was a significant predictor for T3 levels in children and adults. Presence of goitre was an important factor which determined the T4 levels in children and adults after controlling for other factors. It was also a predictor for TSH levels in children but not in adults. Fasting serum growth hormone (GH) levels were significantly higher among less privileged groups and decreased according to social development. Serum growth hormone was negatively correlated with anthropometric indices and had a significant association with malnutrition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  20. Hussin, A.S., Mokhtar, N., Naing, L., Taylor, J.A., Mahmood, Z.
    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing and sequence of emergence of the first 28 permanent teeth in a cross-section of Malay children in the district of Kota Bharu, in northeastern Peninsula Malaysia. The sample consists of 478 boys and 908 girls of Malay descent aged between 5-19 years. The criterion for tooth emergence was the appearance of the tooth through the gingivae. Descriptive statistics were calculated and probit regression analysis performed to determine the mean age of emergence of the permanent dentition. The mean age at emergence was found to conform to general trends, with emergence seen earlier in girls than in boys. Comparisons were made with the Chinese (Hong Kong) and the Punjabi (Chandigarh) profiles, which showed earlier emergence timings in those ethnic groups. The emergence timing in Malays, however, was earlier than in Thais (Central Thailand). The sequence of emergence was determined by referring to the mean age of tooth emergence of individual teeth and conforms to the general trend seen in other studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
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