METHODS: Various databases were used to search relevant articles since 1995. Studies included were cohort and cross-sectional studies, all patients with dengue infection and must report the number of death or case fatality rate. The Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the risk of bias of the full-texts. The studies were grouped according to the classification adopted: WHO 1997 and WHO 2009. Meta-regression was employed using a logistic transformation (log-odds) of the case fatality rate. The result of the meta-regression was the adjusted case fatality rate and odds ratio on the explanatory variables.
RESULTS: A total of 77 studies were included in the meta-regression analysis. The case fatality rate for all studies combined was 1.14% with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.82-1.58%. The combined (unadjusted) case fatality rate for 69 studies which adopted WHO 1997 dengue case classification was 1.09% with 95% CI of 0.77-1.55%; and for eight studies with WHO 2009 was 1.62% with 95% CI of 0.64-4.02%. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio of case fatality using WHO 2009 dengue case classification was 1.49 (95% CI: 0.52, 4.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.26, 2.63) respectively, compared to WHO 1997 dengue case classification. There was an apparent increase in trend of case fatality rate from the year 1992-2016. Neither was statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: The WHO 2009 dengue case classification might have no effect towards the case fatality rate although the adjusted results indicated a lower case fatality rate. Future studies are required for an update in the meta-regression analysis to confirm the findings.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).
RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.
METHODS: Planned analysis of data was collected during an international 7-day cohort study of adults undergoing elective in-patient surgery. AKI was defined using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Patients missing preoperative creatinine data were excluded. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationships among preoperative creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), postoperative AKI, and hospital mortality, accounting for the effects of age, major comorbid diseases, and nature and severity of surgical intervention on outcomes. We similarly modeled preoperative associations of AKI. Data are presented as n (%) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals.
RESULTS: A total of 36,357 patients were included, 743 (2.0%) of whom developed AKI with 73 (9.8%) deaths in hospital. AKI affected 73 of 196 (37.2%) of all patients who died. Mortality was strongly associated with the severity of AKI (stage 1: OR, 2.57 [1.3-5.0]; stage 2: OR, 8.6 [5.0-15.1]; stage 3: OR, 30.1 [18.5-49.0]). Low preoperative eGFR was strongly associated with AKI. However, in our model, lower eGFR was not associated with increasing mortality in patients who did not develop AKI. Conversely, in older patients, high preoperative eGFR (>90 mL·minute·1.73 m) was associated with an increasing risk of death, potentially reflecting poor muscle mass.
CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence and severity of AKI are strongly associated with risk of death after surgery. However, the relationship between preoperative renal function as assessed by serum creatinine-based eGFR and risk of death dependent on patient age and whether AKI develops postoperatively.