METHODS: Men from Dolakha, Nepal, who had ever migrated outside of Nepal for work were interviewed on their experiences, from predeparture to return (n=194). Forced labour was assessed among those who returned within the past 10 years (n=140) using the International Labour Organization's forced labour dimensions: (1) unfree recruitment; (2) work and life under duress; and (3) impossibility to leave employer. Forced labour is positive if any one of the dimensions is positive.
RESULTS: Participants had worked in India (34%), Malaysia (34%) and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (29%), working in factories (29%), as labourers/porters (15%) or in skilled employment (12%). Among more recent returnees (n=140), 44% experienced unfree recruitment, 71% work and life under duress and 14% impossibility to leave employer. Overall, 73% experienced forced labour during their most recent labour migration.Forced labour was more prevalent among those who had taken loans for their migration (PR 1.23) and slightly less prevalent among those who had migrated more than once (PR 0.87); however the proportion of those who experienced forced labour was still high (67%). Age, destination and duration of stay were associated with only certain dimensions of forced labour.
CONCLUSION: Forced labour experiences were common during recruitment and at destination. Migrant workers need better advice on assessing agencies and brokers, and on accessing services at destinations. As labour migration from Nepal is not likely to reduce in the near future, interventions and policies at both source and destinations need to better address the challenges migrants face so they can achieve safer outcomes.
METHODS: We investigated the potential association between the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and risk of developing bladder cancer by pooling 13 prospective cohort studies included in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study and applying a Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: Dietary data from 646,222 study participants, including 3639 incident bladder cancer cases, were analysed. We observed an inverse association between Mediterranean diet and bladder cancer risk (HRhigh 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.93]). When stratifying the results on non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive disease or sex the association remained similar and the HR estimate was consistently below 1.00 both for medium and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A consistent association was observed when disregarding fat or alcohol intake.
CONCLUSION: We found evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of developing bladder cancer, suggesting a positive effect of the diet as a whole and not just one component.
OBJECTIVE: To examine T2D risk among university students in Malaysia and determine its relationship with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity.
METHODS: The study was conducted cross-sectionally on 390 students selected using quota sampling method from 13 faculties in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score were used to measure the physical activity and T2D risk.
RESULTS: The T2D risk was found to be low (M = 5.23, SD = 3.32) with more than two-third of the student population was at the low risk level while a significant proportion of 23.8%, 5.6% and 0.3% having slightly elevated, moderate and high risk respectively. The T2D risk was significantly related to their age (rho = 0.197, p < 0.000), gender (U = 12641, p = 0.011), ethnic group (χ2 = 18.86, p < 0.000), marital status (χ2 = 6.597, p = 0.037), residence (U = 10345, p = 0.008), academic year (χ2 = 14.24, p = 0.007) and physical activity (rho = -0.205, p < 0.000 and χ2 = 13.515, p = 0.001). Of these, only age (β=0.130) and physical activity (β=-0.159) remained significant in the regression analysis.
CONCLUSION: The findings call for a radical change in the nursing practice to target on the amendable factors that are significant in order to prevent the progression of the risk towards type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 75 residents in the family medicine residency programs in Al Madina, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used that includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics and sources of stress and burnout. T test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, and multiple linear regression analysis were employed.
Results: Majority were female (54.7%) and aged 26 to 30 years (84.0%). The significant predictors of burnout in the final model were "tests/examinations" (P = 0.014), "large amount of content to be learnt" (P = 0.016), "unfair assessment from superiors" (P = 0.001), "work demands affect personal/home life" (P = 0.001), and "lack of support from superiors" (P = 0.006).
Conclusion: Burnout is present among family medicine residents at a relatively high percentage. This situation is strongly triggered by work-related stressors, organizational attributes, and system-related attributes, but not socio-demographics of the respondents. Systemic changes to relieve the workload of family medicine residents are recommended to promote effective management of burnout.
METHODS: Methadone-maintained therapy (MMT) users from three centers in Malaysia had their exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels recorded via the piCO+ and iCOTM Smokerlyzers®, their nicotine dependence assessed with the Malay version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M), and daily tobacco intake measured via the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) Tobacco Q-score. Pearson partial correlations were used to compare the eCO results of both devices, as well as the corresponding FTND-M scores.
RESULTS: Among the 146 participants (mean age 47.9 years, 92.5% male, and 73.3% Malay ethnic group) most (55.5%) were moderate smokers (6-19 cigarettes/day). Mean eCO categories were significantly correlated between both devices (r=0.861, p<0.001), and the first and second readings were significantly correlated for each device (r=0.94 for the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, p<0.001; r=0.91 for the iCOTM Smokerlyzer®, p<0.001). Exhaled CO correlated positively with FTND-M scores for both devices. The post hoc analysis revealed a significantly lower iCOTM Smokerlyzer® reading of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.94, p<0.001) compared to that of the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, and a significant intercept of -0.34 (95% CI: -0.61 - -0.07, p=0.016) on linear regression analysis, suggesting that there may be a calibration error in one or more of the iCOTM Smokerlyzer® devices.
CONCLUSIONS: The iCOTM Smokerlyzer® readings are highly reproducible compared to those of the piCO+ Smokerlyzer®, but calibration guidelines are required for the mobile-phone-based device. Further research is required to assess interchangeability.
METHOD: Cross-sectional study on 68 parents of Malaysian children aged 2-18 years with TSC. QOL was assessed using proxy-report Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) V.4.0, and scores compared with those from a previous cohort of healthy children. Parents also completed questionnaires on child behaviour (child behaviour checklist (CBCL)) and parenting stress (parenting stress index-short form). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine sociodemographic, medical, parenting stress and behavioural factors that impacted on QOL.
RESULTS: The mean proxy-report PedsQL V.4.0 total scale score, physical health summary score and psychosocial health summary score of the patients were 60.6 (SD 20.11), 65.9 (SD 28.05) and 57.8 (SD 19.48), respectively. Compared with healthy children, TSC patients had significantly lower mean PedsQL V.4.0 total scale, physical health and psychosocial health summary scores (mean difference (95% CI): 24 (18-29), 20 (12-27) and 26 (21-31) respectively). Lower total scale scores were associated with clinically significant CBCL internalising behaviour scores, age 8-18 years and Chinese ethnicity. Lower psychosocial health summary scale scores were associated with clinically significant CBCL internalising behaviour scores, Chinese ethnicity or >1 antiepileptic drug (AED).
CONCLUSION: Parents of children with TSC reported lower PedsQL V.4.0 QOL scores in all domains, with psychosocial health most affected. Older children, those with internalising behaviour problems, of Chinese ethnicity or on >1 AED was at higher risk of lower QOL. Clinicians need to be vigilant of QOL needs among children with TSC particularly with these additional risk factors.