This paper investigates the structure of the relationship between female education and fertility. It is based on data published in First Country Reports of the World Fertility Surveys for eleven countries--Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Panama, Fiji, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Indonesia. The cumulative marital fertility of educated women is shown to be similar in different settings. A lack of uniformity in the education and fertility relationship including the curvilinear nature of this relationship observed across countries is shown to be attributable to marked differences between countries in the average fertility of women with no education rather than to the presumed differences in the average fertility of the educated women. The structure of the relationship is shown to be similar across several developing countries. This analysis suggests that advancement in female education can be expected to influence fertility behavior even without simultaneous changes in other factors such as increasing opportunity for participation in the paid labor force in the modern sector.
Child mortality may affect spacing through biological and behavioral channels. The death of a child may elicit a desire to have another one soon; further, it may interrupt breastfeeding and shorten the sterile period following childbirth. The hypothesis that the child mortality-spacing linkage varies across parities, being strongest in the middle parities, is examined using microdata from Malaysia and the Cox-regression technique. The empirical results lend support to the hypothesis.
Analysis of mothers' recall data collected in 1976-1977 by a probability survey in Peninsular Malaysia shows an association between breastfeeding up to six months of age and improved survival of infants throughout the first year of life. Inappropriate sample selection and inadequate control of confounding can introduce large biases in these analyses. The magnitude and direction of these biases are presented. Even when these biases are dealt with, unsupplemented breastfeeding appears more beneficial than supplemented breastfeeding. The younger the infant and the longer the breastfeeding, the greater the estimated benefits in terms of deaths averted. The use of powdered infant formula did not appear to offset the detrimental effects of early weaning and supplementation. The positive relationships found in these analyses between breastfeeding and survival are not due to death precluding or terminating breastfeeding. Nor are they likely to be due to a shift away from breastfeeding because of recent illness, which was also controlled in the analyses. Nor are they likely to be due to other factors that both increase mortality risk and shorten breastfeeding; when such factors are taken into account, the beneficial effects of breastfeeding become stronger and imply that, if there had been no breastfeeding in this sample, twice as many babies would have died after the first week of life.
Data on 1800 term babies, 600 from each of the Chinese, Malay and Indian racial groups, were used to identify the factors affecting birthweight in Singapore. After adjustment for gestation, maternal height and other variables, the mean Indian birthweight was 100 g less than for the Chinese (P less than 0.001), 0.001), while the Malays averaged 33 g less than the Chinese. The shortfall in Indian birthweight is thought to be due, at least partly, to environmental factors.
The objective of the study was to determine whether discriminant analysis of characteristics of dyspepsia can differentiate peptic ulcer from non-ulcer dyspepsia in a Malaysian population. Two hundred and twenty six patients with dyspepsia were interviewed using a standard history questionnaire before undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Forty seven patients had peptic ulcer while 149 others were classified as having non-ulcer dyspepsia. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was done on 25 variables. The study showed that only five of these variables could differentiate peptic ulcer from non-ulcer dyspepsia, namely, nocturnal pain, pain before meals or when hungry, absence of nausea, age and sex. A scoring system was devised based on these discriminant symptoms. At a sensitivity of 51%, the specificity for peptic ulcer was 83%, but only prospective studies will determine if this scoring system is of actual clinical value.
Lung capacity and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured directly in 167 healthy males, from all the main races in Malaysia. Their ages ranged from 13 to 59 years. They were divided into five age groups (A to E), ranging from the second to the sixth decade. Lung capacities were determined using a dry spirometer and VO2max was taken as the maximum rate of oxygen consumption during exhaustive exercise on a cycle ergometer. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 3.3 +/- 0.5 l and it correlated negatively with age. Mean VO2max was 3.2 +/- 0.2 l.min-1 (56.8 +/- 3.5 ml.kg-1.min-1) in Group A (13-19 years) compared to 1.7 +/- 0.2 l.min-1 (28.9 +/- 2.9 ml.kg-1.min-1) in Group E (50-59 years). Regression analysis revealed an age-related decline in VO2max of 0.77 ml.kg-1.min-1.year-1. Multiple regression of the data gave the following equations for the prediction of an individual's VO2max: VO2max (l.min-1) = 1.99 + 0.035 (weight)-0.04 (age), VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) = 67.7-0.77 (age), where age is in years, weight in kg. In terms of VO2max as an index of cardiopulmonary performance. Malaysians have a relatively lower capacity when related to the Swedish norms or even to those of some Chilean workers. Malaysians were, however, within the average norms of the American Heart Association's recommendations. Age-related decline in VO2max was also somewhat higher in the Malaysians.
Anthropometric and parasitological data from cross-sectional studies of two groups of primary school children (Group I of Indian origin, 325 boys and 259 girls, age = 7 years; Group II of Malay origin, 284 boys and 335 girls, age = 7-9 years) from two different ecological settings in Peninsular Malaysia were examined for epidemiological evidence of an association between hookworm infection and protein-energy malnutrition. In both ecological groups, significant weight, height and haemoglobin deficits were observed in children with hookworm infection after adjustment for covariables including Ascaris and Trichuris infection intensities and other child and family characteristics. The deficits were related to the intensity of infection based on egg counts. These findings suggest that hookworm may be an important determinant of chronic protein-energy malnutrition, as well as anaemia, in areas where diets are generally inadequate in protein, energy, and iron. Well-controlled intervention studies are needed to confirm these observations.
State planning plays a central role in Malaysia's social and economic development. The government's rural development policies are designed to promote agricultural incomes and help counterbalance ethnic inequalities. The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) implements one of the internationally most successful land development and resettlement programs. In this article, we quantify the impact of FELDA settlements on local out-migration rates, linking macro and micro approaches and using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, national censuses, and other sources. A model of instantaneous migration rates specifies an individual's migration rate as a function of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, the level of urbanization of the origin and destination, and the extent of rural development at the district of current residence. Our results show that in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the existence of rural development centers in a district reduced the levels of out-migration to pre-1965 levels.
We reviewed our data from 122 records of patients taking phenytoin for the treatment of various types of epilepsy and selected 15 (age range 10-43 years old) who were on phenytoin alone to calculate Michaelis-Menten pharmacokinetic parameters. The average Vm and Km for this age group was found to be 8.45 mg/kg/day and 6.72 mg/litre, respectively. Km was independent of age and weight. Vm correlated well with weight but there was no relationship with age.
In this study 24 patients who had conventional erect lateral X-ray pelvimetry had a CT pelvimetry done after delivery to complete the pelvimetry views. The erect lateral pelvimetry was read independently by a Consultant Radiologist, Consultant Obstetrician and a Medical Officer training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Using CT pelvimetry as the 'gold standard' (as the error of measurement was known with the machine used) the 3 readings were compared. There was no statistical difference in the values suggesting that X-ray pelvimetry is comparable to CT pelvimetry. However CT pelvimetry is preferred, if available, because of the lower dose of radiation involved, more comfort for the patient and shorter time in performing the procedure. Measurements done are easily read directly from the CT console.
In response to a recorded increasing incidence of diarrhoea in Tumpat District, Malaysia, a case-control study was performed to identify modifiable risk factors for the transmission of diarrhoea, in children aged 4-59 months. Ninety-eight pairs of children, matched on age and sex, were recruited prospectively from health centres. Exposure status was determined during a home visit. Interviewers were 'blinded' as to the disease status of each child. Odds ratios were measured through matched pair analysis and conditional logistic regression. Risk factors for diarrhoea identified were: reported--drinking of unboiled water, storage of cooked food before consumption and bottle feeding; and observations--animals inside the house and absence of washing water in latrines. Water quality, source of drinking water, reported hand washing behaviour, indiscriminate defecation by children, cup use and the absence of a functional latrine were not associated with diarrhoea. Nonsignificant associations were found for: accessibility of washing water source, type of water storage container and use of fly covers for food.
The malaria parasite rates and densities were compared in 79 ovalocytic-normocytic pairs of Malayan Aborigines matched for age, sex, proximity of residence to each other, and use of bed nets when sleeping in their jungle settlement in central Peninsular Malaysia. Malaria infection was determined from thick and thin Giemsa-stained blood films collected monthly for a period of six months. Blood films from ovalocytic individuals were found to be positive for malaria less often than in persons with normal red blood cells (P less than 0.05). Malaria infections per 100 person-months at risk were 9.7 in the ovalocytic group compared with 15.19 in the normocytic group. Among individuals parasitemic at any time, heavy infections (greater than or equal to 10,000 parasites/mm3 of blood) with Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were encountered only in normocytic subjects, which comprised approximately 12.5% of the malaria-positive individuals in this group. In an earlier survey of 629 settlers that identified subjects for the above study, the prevalence of ovalocytosis was found to increase significantly with age. The above field observations support the view that ovalocytic individuals might have a survival advantage in the face of malaria. Consideration of the ovalocytic factor is indicated in future evaluations of malaria control measures in areas where ovalocytosis is prevalent.
Eighty-nine patients who had hydatidiform moles evacuated at the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were followed with serum beta hCG determinations from October 1988 to June 1991. A regression curve for serum beta hCG, as measured by RIA, was derived from the results of 47 of the patients who demonstrated spontaneous regression of serum beta hCG titres. All 47 patients had normal serum titres at 135 days after evacuation. The mean time taken to reach normal level was 82.6 days, while the range was 39 to 135 days (5 to 19 weeks).
Spirometry was performed on 1,999 subjects (1,385 males and 614 females) ranging in age from 13 to 69 years and comprising of all the main races in Malaysia. They were divided into 6 age groups. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) in the males and females was 3.49 +/- 0.02 L and 2.51 +/- 0.02 L respectively. Both FVC and FEV1 correlated negatively with age. Regression analysis on data between the ages of 20 to 69 years revealed an age-related decline in FVC of about 30 ml per year of life in the males and 22 ml per year in the females. Multiple stepwise regression of the data for the prediction of an individual's FVC above the age of 20 years gave an equation for the males: FVC = 0.0407 (height)-0.0296 (age)-2.343 L and for the females: FVC = 0.031 (height)-0.022 (age)-1.64 L. Predicted FVC values derived from equations based on other populations were considerably higher than the observed mean in this study, re-emphasizing the need to be cautious when applying formulae derived from one population to another. Grossly erroneous conclusions may be reached unless predicted equations for lung-function tests for a given population group are derived from studies based upon the same population group.
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic information regarding warfarin is used to produce a predictive model based on the idea that pharmacodynamic variability is more important than pharmacokinetic variability in the overall dose-response variability to warfarin. A modification of the maximum effect model is tested on a group of patients initiating oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Results indicate that the model can account for at least half of the total variation in maintenance doses observed (sample coefficient of determination, 0.53) and offer the physician a framework for dose requirements at the onset of therapy. The basic prediction equation is as follows: Maintenance dose = (11/international normalized ratio)-1, with a coefficient of correlation of 0.73 (95% confidence limits, 0.46-0.88). Application of this model may improve on the traditional empiric approach to warfarin dose adjustment.
A study of 128 jaundiced term neonates showed that 28 (22 per cent) had hearing loss based on brain stem-evoked response. There was no significant difference in the percentage of neonates with hearing loss between those with peak serum bilirubin levels of less than 340 mumol/l (16 per cent) and those with hyperbilirubinaemia > 339 mumol/l (33 per cent) (P = 0.11). Logistic regression analysis showed that severe jaundice which required exchange transfusion and earlier age of onset of hyperbilirubinaemia were statistically significant risk factors associated with hearing loss (P = 0.038 and P = 0.012, respectively).