Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 372 in total

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  1. Jan Mohamed HJ, Mitra AK, Zainuddin LR, Leng SK, Wan Muda WM
    Women Health, 2013;53(4):335-48.
    PMID: 23751089 DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2013.788120
    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  2. Darabi H, McCue K, Beesley J, Michailidou K, Nord S, Kar S, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jul 02;97(1):22-34.
    PMID: 26073781 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.002
    Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  3. Wu DB, Lee EH, Chung WS, Chow DP, Lee VW, Wong MC, et al.
    Psychiatry Res, 2013 Dec 30;210(3):745-50.
    PMID: 24012164 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.012
    Schizophrenia is one of the most expensive psychiatric illnesses. This study compared retrospectively health-care resources consumed 12 months before and 24 months after risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) treatment in Hong Kong. A mirror-image analysis was conducted using data (N=191) from three public hospitals in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2007. The main outcome measure was hospitalisation cost. Other secondary outcomes such as hospitalisation episodes, outpatient visits and adverse events were also compared. A predictive model was established using linear regression based on generalised estimating equations. Analysis showed that RLAI was associated with a reduction in hospitalisation cost by HK$10,001,390 (24.7%) (HK$40,418,694 vs. HK$30,417,303; P-value <0.05). Days of hospitalisation were reduced by 1538 days (10.1%) (15,271 vs. 13,733; P-value <0.05). The predictive model estimated that the hospitalisation cost of patients using RLAI was only 11.1% (3.1-3.93%, 95% confidence interval (CI)) compared to those receiving conventional antipsychotics combined with oral risperidone. Cost of hospitalisation was significantly reduced after RLAI therapy. However, results should be considered as indicative or suggestive only, due to potential channelling bias where certain drug regimens are preferentially prescribed to patients with particular conditions. The findings from our study may be useful in health-care decision making considering treatment options for schizophrenia in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  4. Chun S, Choi Y, Chang Y, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al.
    Am. Heart J., 2016 07;177:17-24.
    PMID: 27297845 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.018
    BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and clinically manifest coronary heart disease, but its association with subclinical coronary heart disease remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large study of asymptomatic men and women.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 22,210 adult men and women who underwent a comprehensive health screening examination between 2011 and 2013 (median age 40 years). Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and CAC was measured by cardiac computed tomography. Multivariable-adjusted CAC score ratios and 95% CIs were estimated from robust Tobit regression models for the natural logarithm (CAC score +1).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 11.7% (n = 2,604). After adjustment for age; sex; center; year of screening examination; education level; physical activity; smoking; alcohol intake; family history of cardiovascular disease; history of hypertension; history of hypercholesterolemia; and intake of total energy, fruits, vegetables, and red and processed meats, only the highest category of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption was associated with an increased CAC score compared with the lowest consumption category. The multivariable-adjusted CAC ratio comparing participants who consumed ≥5 sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages per week with nondrinkers was 1.70 (95% CI, 1.03-2.81). This association did not differ by clinical subgroup, including participants at low cardiovascular risk.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption are associated with a higher prevalence and degree of CAC in asymptomatic adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  5. Shrestha R, Weikum D, Copenhaver M, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2017 Apr;21(4):1070-1081.
    PMID: 27544515 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1526-3
    Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  6. Chew BH, Mohd-Sidik S, Shariff-Ghazali S
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2015 Nov 24;13:187.
    PMID: 26596372 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-015-0384-4
    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often experienced change in life, altered self-esteem and increased feelings of uncertainty about the future that challenge their present existence and their perception of quality of life (QoL). There was a dearth of data on the association between diabetes-related distress (DRD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study examined the determinants of HRQoL, in particular the association between DRD and HRQoL by taking into account the socio-demographic-clinical variables, including depressive symptoms (DS) in adult patients with T2D.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2013 in three public health clinics in Malaysia. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF), 17-items Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS-17), and 9-items Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to measure HRQoL, DRD and DS, respectively. The aim of this research was to examine the association between the socio-demographic-clinical variables and HRQoL as well as each of the WHOQOL-BREF domain score using multivariable regression analyses.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The mean (SD) for age was 56.9 (10.18). The majority of the patients were female (52.8%), Malay (53.1%) and married (79.1%). About 60% of the patients had good overall HRQoL. The mean (SD) for Overall QoL, Physical QoL, Psychological QoL, Social Relationship QoL and Environmental QoL were 61.7 (9.86), 56.7 (10.64), 57.9 (11.73), 66.8 (15.01) and 65.3 (13.02), respectively. The mean (SD) for the total DDS-17 score was 37.1 (15.98), with 19.6% (136/694) had moderate distress. DDS-17 had a negative association with HRQoL but religiosity had a positive influence on HRQoL (B ranged between 3.07 and 4.76). Women, especially younger Malays, who had diabetes for a shorter period of time experienced better HRQoL. However, patients who were not married, had dyslipidaemia, higher levels of total cholesterol and higher PHQ-9 scores had lower HRQoL. Macrovascular complications showed the largest negative effect on the overall HRQoL (adjusted B = -4.98, 95% CI -8.56 to -1.40).
    CONCLUSION: The majority of primary care adult with T2D had good overall HRQoL. Furthermore, the independent determinants for HRQoL had also concurred with many past studies. In addition, the researchers found that DRD had negative effects on HRQoL, but religiosity had positive influence on HRQoL. Appropriate support such as primary care is needed for adult patients with T2D to improve their life and their HRQoL.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: NMRR-12-1167-14158.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  7. Ibrahim S, Karim NA, Oon NL, Ngah WZ
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:275.
    PMID: 23530696 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-275
    Physical inactivity has been acknowledged as a public health issue and has received increasing attention in recent years. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the barriers to physical activity among Malaysian men. These barriers were analyzed with regards to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level, BMI and waist circumference.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  8. Mohd Sidik S, Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Ahmad R
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Jul;53(7):468-73.
    PMID: 22815016
    Depression affects more women than men in Malaysia. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women attending a government primary care clinic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  9. Othman GQ, Ibrahim MI, Raja'a YA
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2012 Apr;18(4):393-8.
    PMID: 22768704
    This study determined the costs associated with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for the public health services and patients in Sana'a, Yemen. Data were collected prospectively from 320 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients (160 each) who were followed until completion of treatment. Direct medical and nonmedical costs and indirect costs were calculated. The proportionate cost to the patients for pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB was 76.1% arid 89.4% respectively of the total for treatment. The mean cost to patients for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 108.4 and US$ 328.0 respectively. The mean cost per patient to the health services for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 34.0 and US$ 38.8 respectively. For pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, drug treatment represented 59.3% and 77.9% respectively of the total cost to the health services. The greatest proportionate cost to patients for pulmonary TB treatment was time away from work (67.5% of the total cost), and for extrapulmonary TB was laboratory and X-ray costs (55.5%) followed by transportation (28.6%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  10. Khor CS, Sam IC, Hooi PS, Quek KF, Chan YF
    BMC Pediatr, 2012;12:32.
    PMID: 22429933 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-32
    Viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) are relatively understudied in Southeast Asian tropical countries. In temperate countries, seasonal activity of respiratory viruses has been reported, particularly in association with temperature, while inconsistent correlation of respiratory viral activity with humidity and rain is found in tropical countries. A retrospective study was performed from 1982-2008 to investigate the viral etiology of children (≤ 5 years old) admitted with RTI in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  11. Mallhi TH, Khan AH, Adnan AS, Sarriff A, Khan YH, Jummaat F
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2015 Sep 30;15:399.
    PMID: 26423145 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-1141-3
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of dengue is rising steadily in Malaysia since the first major outbreak in 1973. Despite aggressive measures taken by the relevant authorities, Malaysia is still facing worsening dengue crisis over the past few years. There is an urgent need to evaluate dengue cases for better understanding of clinic-laboratory spectrum in order to combat this disease.

    METHODS: A retrospective analysis of dengue patients admitted to a tertiary care teaching hospital during the period of six years (2008 - 2013) was performed. Patient's demographics, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded via structured data collection form. Patients were categorized into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Appropriate statistical methods were used to compare these two groups in order to determine difference in clinico-laboratory characteristics and to identify independent risk factors of DHF.

    RESULTS: A total 667 dengue patients (30.69 ± 16.13 years; Male: 56.7 %) were reviewed. Typical manifestations of dengue like fever, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, vomiting, abdominal pain and skin rash were observed in more than 40 % patients. DHF was observed in 79 (11.8 %) cases. Skin rash, dehydration, shortness of breath, pleural effusion and thick gall bladder were more significantly (P  40 years (OR: 4.1, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  12. Dunn RA, Tan AK, Nayga RM
    Ethn Health, 2012;17(5):493-511.
    PMID: 22360320 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2012.661407
    OBJECTIVE: Obesity prevalence is unequally distributed across gender and ethnic group in Malaysia. In this paper, we examine the role of socioeconomic inequality in explaining these disparities.
    DESIGN: The body mass index (BMI) distributions of Malays and Chinese, the two largest ethnic groups in Malaysia, are estimated through the use of quantile regression. The differences in the BMI distributions are then decomposed into two parts: attributable to differences in socioeconomic endowments and attributable to differences in responses to endowments.
    RESULTS: For both males and females, the BMI distribution of Malays is shifted toward the right of the distribution of Chinese, i.e., Malays exhibit higher obesity rates. In the lower 75% of the distribution, differences in socioeconomic endowments explain none of this difference. At the 90th percentile, differences in socioeconomic endowments account for no more than 30% of the difference in BMI between ethnic groups.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the higher levels of income and education that accrue with economic development will likely not eliminate obesity inequality. This leads us to conclude that reduction of obesity inequality, as well the overall level of obesity, requires increased efforts to alter the lifestyle behaviors of Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  13. Isa ZM, Tawfiq OF, Noor NM, Shamsudheen MI, Rijal OM
    J Prosthet Dent, 2010 Mar;103(3):182-8.
    PMID: 20188241 DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60028-5
    In rehabilitating edentulous patients, selecting appropriately sized teeth in the absence of preextraction records is problematic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  14. Din MO, Noor NM
    Women Health, 2009 Dec;49(8):573-91.
    PMID: 20183102 DOI: 10.1080/03630240903495897
    Due to a dearth of research on depressive symptoms in Malaysia, particularly in Malay women, a community study was conducted to examine the prevalence and factors associated with current depressive symptoms in rural and urban Malay women with low socioeconomic status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  15. Ahmad N, Oranye NO
    J Nurs Manag, 2010 Jul;18(5):582-91.
    PMID: 20636507 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01093.x
    AIMS: To examine the relationships between nurses' empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in culturally and developmentally different societies.
    BACKGROUND: Employment and retention of sufficient and well-committed nursing staff are essential for providing safe and effective health care. In light of this, nursing leaders have been searching for ways to re-engineer the healthcare system particularly by providing an environment that is conducive to staff empowerment, job satisfaction and commitment.
    METHODS: This is a descriptive correlational survey of 556 registered nurses (RNs) in two teaching hospitals in England and Malaysia.
    RESULTS: Although the Malaysian nurses felt more empowered and committed to their organization, the English nurses were more satisfied with their job.
    CONCLUSION: The differences between these two groups of nurses show that empowerment does not generate the same results in all countries, and reflects empirical evidence from most cross cultural studies on empowerment.
    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nursing management should always take into consideration cultural differences in empowerment, job satisfaction and commitment of nursing staff while formulating staff policies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  16. Haflah NH, Jaarin K, Abdullah S, Omar M
    Saudi Med J, 2009 Nov;30(11):1432-8.
    PMID: 19882056
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral palm vitamin E in reducing symptoms of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee compared to oral glucosamine sulphate.
    METHODS: This open study was carried out at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between March 2006 and November 2007. Seventy-nine patients were recruited to receive either 1.5 g oral glucosamine sulphate or 400 mg oral palm vitamin E for 6 months. Symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index and visual analogue scale (VAS).
    RESULTS: Sixty-four patients completed the trial (vitamin E n=33, glucosamine sulfate n=31). After 6 months of treatment, both groups showed a significant improvement in WOMAC scale and significant reduction in the VAS score during standing and walking. There was no significant difference in WOMAC scale and VAS score between the 2 groups. Except for mild allergic reaction and abdominal discomfort in one patient, there were no other serious adverse effects reported. Serum malondialdehyde was significantly higher in the glucosamine group compared to palm vitamin E treated group at the end of the study. Serum of vitamin E was significantly higher in the palm vitamin E group compared to glucosamine.
    CONCLUSION: The finding of this study suggests that oral palm vitamin E in a dose of 400 mg taken daily has a potential role in reducing symptoms of patients with OA of the knee. It may be just as effective as glucosamine sulphate in reducing the symptoms and free from serious side effects. Further study is required to ascertain the mechanism of action beside its antioxidant effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  17. Salman JM, Hameed BH
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2010 Mar 15;175(1-3):133-7.
    PMID: 19879687 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.09.139
    Oil palm fronds (OPF) were used to prepare activated carbon (PFAC) using physiochemical activation method, which consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment and carbon dioxide gasification. The effects of the preparation variables, which were activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratios (KOH: char by weight), on the carbon yield and bentazon removal were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD), two factor interaction (2FI) and quadratic models were, respectively, employed to correlate the PFAC preparation variables to the bentazon removal and carbon yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from OPF were found as follows: activation temperature of 850 degrees C, activation time of 1h and KOH:char ratio of 3.75:1. The predicted and experimental results for removal of bentazon and yield of PFAC were 99.85%, 20.5 and 98.1%, 21.6%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  18. Johnson DW, Dent H, Yao Q, Tranaeus A, Huang CC, Han DS, et al.
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2009 May;24(5):1598-603.
    PMID: 19096083 DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn684
    The impact of dialysis modality on the rates and types of infectious complications has not been well studied. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) patients in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  19. Bulgiba AM, Razaz M
    Int. J. Cardiol., 2005 Jun 22;102(1):87-93.
    PMID: 15939103
    The aim of the study was to use data from an electronic medical record system (EMR) to look for factors that would help us diagnose acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the ultimate aim of using these factors in a decision support system for chest pain. We extracted 887 records from the electronic medical record system (EMR) in Selayang Hospital, Malaysia. We cleaned the data, extracted 69 possible variables and performed univariate and multivariate analysis. From the univariate analysis we find that 22 variables are significantly associated with a diagnosis of AMI. However, multiple logistic regression reveals that only 9 of these 22 variables are significantly related to a diagnosis of AMI. Race (Indian), male sex, sudden onset of persistent crushing pain, associated sweating and a history of diabetes mellitus are significant predictors of AMI. Pain that is relieved by other means and history of heart disease on treatment are important predictors of a diagnosis other than AMI. The degree of accuracy is high at 80.5%. There are 13 factors that are significant in the univariate analysis but are not among the nine significant factors in the multivariate analysis. These are location of pain, associated palpitations, nausea and vomiting; pain relieved by rest, pain aggravated by posture, cough, inspiration and exertion; age more than 40, being a smoker and abnormal chest wall and face examination. We believe that these findings can have important applications in the design of an intelligent decision support system for use in medical care as the predictive capability can be further refined with the use of intelligent computational techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  20. Xie F, Thumboo J, Fong KY, Lo NN, Yeo SJ, Yang KY, et al.
    J. Rheumatol., 2007 Jan;34(1):165-71.
    PMID: 17216684
    OBJECTIVE:
    To estimate and compare the direct and indirect costs of osteoarthritis (OA) in multiethnic Asian patients with OA in Singapore.

    METHODS:
    The study was a retrospective and cross-sectional design. Patients were stratified according to ethnicity and presence or absence of joint surgery. Direct costs were estimated from both a societal and a patient perspective using the Singapore General Hospital database; indirect costs were estimated using the human capital approach. All costs were expressed as mean costs per patient per annum in 2003 Singapore dollars.

    RESULTS:
    A total of 1179 patients (83.6% Chinese, 7.2% Malay, 3.5% Indian, 5.7% others) were included in estimating direct costs, of which 513 (43.5%) had total knee replacement (TKR) and 92 (7.8%) total hip replacement (THR), while 105 patients (71.4% Chinese, 14.3% Malay, 14.3% Indian) were included in estimating indirect costs. Direct costs to patients ranged from 1460 dollars to 7477 dollars for Chinese, 1362 dollars-7211 dollars for Malays, 1688 dollars-6226 dollars for Indians, and 1437 dollars-12,140 dollars for other ethnic patients; direct costs to society ranged from 3351 dollars to 15,799 dollars for Chinese, 2939 dollars-15,436 dollars for Malays, 3150 dollars-10,990 dollars for Indians, and 2597 dollars-17,879 dollars for other ethnic patients. In contrast, the indirect costs ranged from 1215 dollars to 3834 dollars for Chinese, 1138 dollars-6116 dollars for Malays, and 1371 dollars-5292 dollars for Indians. However, most ethnic variations were not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSION:
    The economic burden of OA to society and patients increased by 3-fold or more in the patients with TKR/THR compared to those without. The ethnic differences in health resources consumed were more apparent when the disease progressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
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