Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 372 in total

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  1. Krauss SE, Collura J, Zeldin S, Ortega A, Abdullah H, Sulaiman AH
    J Youth Adolesc, 2014 Sep;43(9):1550-62.
    PMID: 24122395
    Youth–adult partnership (Y–AP) has emerged as a key practice for enacting two features of effective developmental settings: supportive adult relationships and support for efficacy and mattering. Previous studies have shown that when youth, supported by adults, actively participate in organizational and community decision making they are likely to show greater confidence and agency, empowerment and critical consciousness, and community connections. Most of the extant research on Y–AP is limited to qualitative studies and the identification of organizational best practices. Almost all research focuses on Western sociocultural settings. To address these gaps, 299 youth, age 15 to 24, were sampled from established afterschool and community programs in Malaysia to explore the contribution of Y–AP (operationalized as having two components: youth voice in decision-making and supportive adult relationships) to empowerment, agency and community connections. As hypothesized, hierarchical regressions indicated that program quality (Y–AP, safe environment and program engagement) contributed to agency, empowerment and community connections beyond the contribution of family, school and religion. Additionally, the Y–AP measures contributed substantially more variance than the other measures of program quality on each outcome. Interaction effects indicated differences by age for empowerment and agency but not for community connections. The primary findings in this inquiry replicate those found in previous interview and observational-oriented studies. The data suggests fertile ground for future research while demonstrating that Y–AP may be an effective practice for positive youth development outside of Western settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  2. Ili NN, Omar Z, Ahmad A
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2014;olume 28:39-62.
    Employee deviance has received increasing attention in the past decade. Past research have reported that work environment related factors such as organizational support, supervisory support, role conflict, and job demand were associated with deviant behavior The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job demand (psychological job demand), and job resources (social support), and employee workplace deviant behavior. This study adopts a cross-sectional correlation study design. A total of 315 employees were selected using cluster sampling technique participated in this study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire using the drop and collect method. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis (mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution) to describe the demographic profile and study variables. Correlation and regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between psychological job demand, and social support, and employee workplace deviant behaviors. The result revealed that lack of social support has significant positive influence on employee workplace deviant behavior. The findings suggest that lack of job resources such as social support may drive employees to engage in deviant work behavior. However, high job demand experienced by employees does not drive them towards engaging in deviant work behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  3. Lee K, Ng SF, Ng EL, Lim ZY
    J Exp Child Psychol, 2004 Oct;89(2):140-58.
    PMID: 15388303 DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2004.07.001
    Previous studies on individual differences in mathematical abilities have shown that working memory contributes to early arithmetic performance. In this study, we extended the investigation to algebraic word problem solving. A total of 151 10-year-olds were administered algebraic word problems and measures of working memory, intelligence quotient (IQ), and reading ability. Regression results were consistent with findings from the arithmetic literature showing that a literacy composite measure provided greater contribution than did executive function capacity. However, a series of path analyses showed that the overall contribution of executive function was comparable to that of literacy; the effect of executive function was mediated by that of literacy. Both the phonological loop and the visual spatial sketchpad failed to contribute directly; they contributed only indirectly by way of literacy and performance IQ, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  4. Noor NM
    J Relig Health, 2008 Dec;47(4):476-90.
    PMID: 19093675
    Religion has been found to moderate the stress-strain relationship. This moderator role, however, may be dependent on age. The present study tested for the three-way interaction between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of women's well-being, and predicted that work experience and religiosity will combine additively in older women, while in younger women religiosity is predicted to moderate the relationship between work experience and well-being. In a sample of 389 married Malay Muslim women, results of the regression analyses showed significant three-way interactions between work experience, age, and religiosity in the prediction of well-being (measured by distress symptoms and life satisfaction). While in younger women the results were in line with the predictions made, in the older women, both additive and moderator effects of religiosity were observed, depending on the well-being measures used. These results are discussed in relation to the literature on work and family, with specific reference to women's age, religion, as well as the issue of stress-strain specificity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  5. Kaewboonchoo O, Isahak M, Susilowati I, Phuong TN, Morioka I, Harncharoen K, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016 Jul;28(5):438-49.
    PMID: 27273897 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516651957
    Work ability is related to many factors that might influence one's capacity to work. This study aimed to examine the work ability and its related factors among small and medium enterprises (SME) workers in 4 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The participants in this study included 2098 workers from food and textile industries in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of anonymous self-administrated questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, musculoskeletal disorders, and work ability. Bivariate correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses were used to predict the work ability. Results of this study confirm that work ability in 4 ASEAN countries was similar to that in European countries, and that the sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) were associated with work ability. These factors are important for considering occupational health and safety policy to promote work ability in food, textile, and other SME workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  6. Jan Mohamed HJ, Mitra AK, Zainuddin LR, Leng SK, Wan Muda WM
    Women Health, 2013;53(4):335-48.
    PMID: 23751089 DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2013.788120
    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  7. Schutze MK, Jessup A, Clarke AR
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2012 Feb;102(1):103-11.
    PMID: 21867577 DOI: 10.1017/S0007485311000423
    Four morphologically cryptic species of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly complex (B. dorsalis s.s., B. papayae, B. carambolae and B. philippinensis) are serious agricultural pests. As they are difficult to diagnose using traditional taxonomic techniques, we examined the potential for geometric morphometric analysis of wing size and shape to discriminate between them. Fifteen wing landmarks generated size and shape data for 245 specimens for subsequent comparisons among three geographically distinct samples of each species. Intraspecific wing size was significantly different within samples of B. carambolae and B. dorsalis s.s. but not within samples of B. papayae or B. philippinensis. Although B. papayae had the smallest wings (average centroid size=6.002 mm±0.061 SE) and B. dorsalis s.s. the largest (6.349 mm±0.066 SE), interspecific wing size comparisons were generally non-informative and incapable of discriminating species. Contrary to the wing size data, canonical variate analysis based on wing shape data discriminated all species with a relatively high degree of accuracy; individuals were correctly reassigned to their respective species on average 93.27% of the time. A single sample group of B. carambolae from locality 'TN Malaysia' was the only sample to be considerably different from its conspecific groups with regards to both wing size and wing shape. This sample was subsequently deemed to have been originally misidentified and likely represents an undescribed species. We demonstrate that geometric morphometric techniques analysing wing shape represent a promising approach for discriminating between morphologically cryptic taxa of the B. dorsalis species complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  8. Mak J, Abramsky T, Sijapati B, Kiss L, Zimmerman C
    BMJ Open, 2017 Aug 11;7(8):e015835.
    PMID: 28801409 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-015835
    OBJECTIVES: Growing numbers of people are migrating outside their country for work, and many experience precarious conditions, which have been linked to poor physical and mental health. While international dialogue on human trafficking, forced labour and slavery increases, prevalence data of such experiences remain limited.

    METHODS: Men from Dolakha, Nepal, who had ever migrated outside of Nepal for work were interviewed on their experiences, from predeparture to return (n=194). Forced labour was assessed among those who returned within the past 10 years (n=140) using the International Labour Organization's forced labour dimensions: (1) unfree recruitment; (2) work and life under duress; and (3) impossibility to leave employer. Forced labour is positive if any one of the dimensions is positive.

    RESULTS: Participants had worked in India (34%), Malaysia (34%) and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (29%), working in factories (29%), as labourers/porters (15%) or in skilled employment (12%). Among more recent returnees (n=140), 44% experienced unfree recruitment, 71% work and life under duress and 14% impossibility to leave employer. Overall, 73% experienced forced labour during their most recent labour migration.Forced labour was more prevalent among those who had taken loans for their migration (PR 1.23) and slightly less prevalent among those who had migrated more than once (PR 0.87); however the proportion of those who experienced forced labour was still high (67%). Age, destination and duration of stay were associated with only certain dimensions of forced labour.

    CONCLUSION: Forced labour experiences were common during recruitment and at destination. Migrant workers need better advice on assessing agencies and brokers, and on accessing services at destinations. As labour migration from Nepal is not likely to reduce in the near future, interventions and policies at both source and destinations need to better address the challenges migrants face so they can achieve safer outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  9. Hooi LN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):506-15.
    PMID: 15190625
    A study was conducted to determine the clinical factors that affect the quality of life in adult asthmatics. As part of their routine follow-up visit, 399 patients completed the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire, had peak expiratory flow rate readings (PEFR) taken and were interviewed to determine current symptom severity. The grade of severity of asthma was verified by the consultant physician in-charge. The mean age of the patients was 41.8 years and 31.8% of the patients were men. Most of the patients were Malay (64.7%), 89% had at least secondary level education and the mean duration of asthma was 17.6 years. The majority of patients had moderate or severe disease (43.6% and 55.9% respectively). For asthmatics with moderate or severe symptoms of chest tightness and/or shortness of breath, all domains of SF-36 scored significantly lower than those with mild symptoms, with the exception of the domain bodily pain. Patients with moderate/severe cough recorded significantly lower scores than those with mild cough for all domains except for bodily pain and social functioning. Only the physical functioning, role physical, general health and role emotional scores were significantly worse in those with a consultant grade of severe asthma compared to those with mild/moderate asthma. Patients with PEFR < 80% predicted had lower scores for the domains physical functioning, role physical and general health than those with PEFR > or = 80% predicted, but the scores for the other domains were similar in both groups. Quality of life is significantly impaired in adult asthmatics with current respiratory symptoms. However, consultant grade of severity of asthma and PEFR readings do not affect quality of life scores as much.
    Study site: Asthma clinics, hospitals, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  10. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S, Wan Ngah WZ
    Aging Male, 2015;18(3):175-9.
    PMID: 26004987 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2015.1034686
    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies in the Caucasian population have shown a significant relationship between vitamin D and testosterone levels, but data in the Asian population are limited. This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels in Malaysian men.

    METHODS: Chinese and Malay men (n = 382) aged 20 years or above residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Their fasting blood was collected for serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assays. Relationship between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Testosterone and SHBG levels among subjects with different vitamin D status were compared using univariate analysis. Confounders such as age, ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted.

    RESULTS: 25(OH)D was significantly and positively associated with total testosterone and SHBG levels before and after adjustment for age and ethnicity (p  0.05).

    CONCLUSION: 25(OH)D is significantly associated with total testosterone and SHBG in Malaysian men but this association is BMI-dependent.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  11. Suriawati AA, Majid HA, Al-Sadat N, Mohamed MN, Jalaludin MY
    Nutrients, 2016 Oct 24;8(10).
    PMID: 27783041
    BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs).

    METHODS: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake.

    RESULTS: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (-2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  12. Hazura, H., Wan Norhaida, W.A., Zahiruddin, O., Ruzita, J.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: A number of researches suggest smoking serves as a form of self-medication to reduce the side effects of antipsychotic medications, to alleviate negative symptoms, and/or to ameliorate a number of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of cigarette smoking with verbal working memory and psychopathology of patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Fifty-three patients with schizophrenia were assessed by a single rater using the Malay Version of Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MVAVLT) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Smokers (n=30) were compared with nonsmokers (n=23) on socio-demographic, clinical, psychopathology and verbal memory variables. Single linear and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine factors associated with verbal memory performance.
    Results: Verbal working memory performance is associated with lower number of admission to ward, lesser severity of the negative symptoms or general psychopathology of schizophrenia and use of atypical antipsychotics in all schizophrenic subjects. Smokers with schizophrenia scored higher than non- smoker in measures that reflect immediate memory, delayed recall and recognition memory. However, the association between verbal working
    memory performance and smoking status was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Verbal working memory performance is associated with negative symptoms but not positive symptoms. This study failed to detect association of smoking on verbal working memory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  13. Liu A, Byrne NM, Ma G, Nasreddine L, Trinidad TP, Kijboonchoo K, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Dec;65(12):1321-7.
    PMID: 21731041 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.122
    To develop and cross-validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equations of total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM) for Asian pre-pubertal children from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  14. Ghani KA, Sudik S, Omar AF, Mail MH, Seeni A
    PMID: 31216502 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2019.117241
    Cancer is increasing in incidence and the leading cause of death worldwide. Controlling and reducing cancer requires early detection and technique to accurately detect and quantify predictive biomarkers. Optical spectroscopy has shown promising non-destructive ability to display distinctive spectral characteristics between cancerous and normal tissues from different part of human organ. Nonetheless, not many information is available on spectroscopic properties of cancer cell lines. In this research, the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) absorbance spectroscopy measurement of cultured cervical cancer (HeLa) and prostate cancer cells (DU145) lines has been performed to develop spectral signature of cancer cells and to generate algorithm to quantify cancer cells. Spectroscopic measurement on mouse skin fibroblast (L929) was also taken for comparative purposes. In visible region, the raw cells' spectra do not produce any noticeable peak absorbance that provides information on color because the medium used for cells is colorless and transparent. NIR wavelength between 950 and 975 nm exhibit significant peak due to water absorbance by the medium. Development of spectral signature for the cells through the application of regression technique significantly enhances the diverse characteristics between L929, HeLa and DU145. The application of multiple linear regression allows high measurement accuracy of the cells with coefficient of determination above 0.94.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  15. Ohn Mar S, Malhi F, Syed Rahim SH, Chua CT, Sidhu SS, Sandheep S
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):19S-25S.
    PMID: 25972428 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515586457
    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654).
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  16. Ali HS, Abdul-Rahim AS, Ribadu MB
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jan;24(2):1967-1974.
    PMID: 27798805 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7935-z
    The main aim of this article is to examine empirically the impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore from 1970 to 2015. The autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach is applied within the analysis. The main finding reveals a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Singapore, which means that urban development in Singapore is not a barrier to the improvement of environmental quality. Thus, urbanization enhances environmental quality by reducing carbon emissions in the sample country. The result also highlighted that economic growth has a positive and significant impact on carbon emissions, which suggests that economic growth reduces environmental quality through its direct effect of increasing carbon emissions in the country. Despite the high level of urbanization in Singapore, which shows that 100 % of the populace is living in the urban center, it does not lead to more environmental degradation. Hence, urbanization will not be considered an obstacle when initiating policies that will be used to reduce environmental degradation in the country. Policy makers should consider the country's level of economic growth instead of urbanization when formulating policies to reduce environmental degradation, due to its direct impact on increasing carbon dioxide emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  17. Al-Darraji HA, Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Aug;21(8):1049-1058.
    PMID: 27197601 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12726
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed active tuberculosis (TB) cases among prisoners in Malaysia's largest prison using an intensified TB case-finding strategy.

    METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  18. Aris A, Md MZ, Yahaya H, Yoong LO, Ying NQ
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2019 Jul 12.
    PMID: 31433762 DOI: 10.2174/1573399815666190712192527
    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a preventable condition. Targeting those who are at risk of getting this disease is essential.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine T2D risk among university students in Malaysia and determine its relationship with socio-demographic characteristics and physical activity.

    METHODS: The study was conducted cross-sectionally on 390 students selected using quota sampling method from 13 faculties in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score were used to measure the physical activity and T2D risk.

    RESULTS: The T2D risk was found to be low (M = 5.23, SD = 3.32) with more than two-third of the student population was at the low risk level while a significant proportion of 23.8%, 5.6% and 0.3% having slightly elevated, moderate and high risk respectively. The T2D risk was significantly related to their age (rho = 0.197, p < 0.000), gender (U = 12641, p = 0.011), ethnic group (χ2 = 18.86, p < 0.000), marital status (χ2 = 6.597, p = 0.037), residence (U = 10345, p = 0.008), academic year (χ2 = 14.24, p = 0.007) and physical activity (rho = -0.205, p < 0.000 and χ2 = 13.515, p = 0.001). Of these, only age (β=0.130) and physical activity (β=-0.159) remained significant in the regression analysis.

    CONCLUSION: The findings call for a radical change in the nursing practice to target on the amendable factors that are significant in order to prevent the progression of the risk towards type 2 diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
  19. Rubayah Yakob, Zulkornain Yusop, Alias Radam, Noriszura Ismail
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1439-1450.
    The objective of this study was to identify the exogenous variables of risk and investment management efficiency by using a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. The first stage involves obtaining the efficiency scores of risk and investment management via DEA that requires only the traditional inputs and outputs. In the second stage, the Tobit regression analysis is conducted in which the efficiency score obtained from the first stage is treated as a dependent variable, while the exogenous factors are considered to be independent variables. The exogenous factors consist of operating systems, organizational form, consumer preference and size. The results showed that the mutual company as well as the takaful system demonstrate better risk management performance than their stock and conventional system counterparts. In addition, size is also a significant indicator for risk management efficiency in which the larger insurer/takaful operator exhibits better risk management performance than the smaller one. However, consumer preference is found to be insignificantly correlated with the efficiency of risk management. In contrast, with risk management, organizational form, operating system and size are not indicators of the investment management efficiency, but consumer preference is significantly and positively associated with investment management efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Regression Analysis
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